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Lewis Kachur

(b Argenteuil-sur-Seine, Seine-et-Oise, May 13, 1882; d Paris, Aug 31, 1963).

French painter, collagist, draughtsman, printmaker and sculptor. His most important contribution to the history of art was his role in the development of what became known as Cubism. In this Braque’s work is intertwined with that of his collaborator Pablo Picasso, especially from 1908 to 1912. For a long time it was impossible to distinguish their respective contributions to Cubism, for example in the development of Collage, while Picasso’s fame and notoriety overshadowed the quiet life of Braque.

His family moved in 1890 to Le Havre, where his father had a painting and decorating business. In 1897 Braque entered the municipal art school, where he met and became friendly with Othon Friesz and Raoul Dufy. He joined them in Paris at the turn of the century and, after a year of army service, settled in Montmartre in 1902. He began to visit the Musée du Louvre, where he encountered van Gogh’s work, and that October he began to study at the Académie Humbert, where his fellow students included Francis Picabia and Marie Laurencin. The following year he studied briefly with ...

Article

Jane Lee

(b Chatou, nr Paris, June 17, 1880; d Garches, Sept 8, 1954).

French painter, sculptor, illustrator, stage designer and collector. He was a leading exponent of Fauvism. In early 1908 he destroyed most of his work to concentrate on tightly constructed landscape paintings, which were a subtle investigation of the work of Cézanne. After World War I his work became more classical, influenced by the work of such artists as Camille Corot. In his sculpture he drew upon his knowledge and collection of non-Western art.

Derain abandoned his engineering studies in 1898 to become a painter and attended the Académie Carrière. He also sketched in the Musée du Louvre and painted on the banks of the Seine. On a visit to the Louvre in 1899 he met the painter Georges Florentin Linaret (1878–1905), who had been his companion at school, and who was copying Uccello in an extraordinary manner; he was studying under Gustave Moreau and later introduced Derain to a fellow pupil, Henri Matisse. Derain’s painting was already influenced by the work of Cézanne, and in ...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Born 1942, in Augsburg.

Painter (mixed media), draughtsman, sculptor, photographer. Figures, nudes, landscapes. Stage costumes and sets.

New Fauves.

Hacker attended the art academy in Munich before settling in Berlin. In 1974, he was guest professor at the school of fine art in Hamburg. After producing works ascribable to kinetic art, Hacker became interested in the problems of creative activity, and displayed them in exhibitions alongside objects based on popular art. In ...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Born 1938, in Nuremberg.

Painter, draughtsman, sculptor.

New Fauves.

Karl Heinz Hödicke studied with Fred Thieler at the Berlin academy in 1959, and has been teaching there since 1974. His students have included Helmut Middendorf and Rainer Fetting. He spent a year in New York in ...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Born 14 June 1945, in Blekede; died 28 May 2007.

Painter, sculptor, installation artist. Scenes with figures.

Fluxus, New Fauves.

Jörg Immendorf studied at the Kunstakademie in Düsseldorf, at first on the theatre design course under the direction of Teo Otto and then in the studio of Joseph Beuys. He taught at the art academies in Stockholm in ...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Active in France.

Born 1945, in Donaueschingen, Germany.

Painter (mixed media), sculptor. History painting, interiors with figures, architectural views, landscapes, animals, flowers.

New Fauves.

Anselm Kiefer began studying literature, law, and art at the University of Freiburg in Germany, then travelled in Italy, Switzerland, and France. He was a pupil of Joseph Beuys at the Staatliche Kunstakademie in Düsseldorf at the beginning of the 1970s. He lived and worked at Hornbach/Odenwald, then, in the 1980s, he settled in France at Barjac in the Ardèche. Kiefer made his debut with conceptual performances, then created environments characterised by a taste for the splendours of antiquity, casting a slightly disillusioned glance in the direction of western culture as, for instance, when he fills a container with peas and slabs of lead to suggest a population census. What is memorable about these installations is the spectacular element: lead books weighing 675 pounds (300 kilos) collected together in a library of a hundred or so books, a cataclysmic atmosphere, which cannot leave the spectator unmoved; a rocket pointing skywards, broken glass, and lumps of earth containing teeth brought together in ...

Article

Danish, 20th century, male.

Active also in Germany.

Born 1 September 1938, in Copenhagen.

Painter (oils, watercolours), sculptor, draughtsman, engraver, performance artist, environmental artist. Landscapes.

Neo-Impressionism.

Fluxus, Nouveaux Fauves.

Per Kirkeby received a doctorate in geology and has participated in several scientific expeditions to Greenland, Central America, Central Asia, and Ireland. In the 1960s, he was a member of the experimental art school in Copenhagen, which was close to the Fluxus group, and, in 1978, was made professor at the fine arts academy in Karlsruhe. He has lived and worked in Copenhagen, on Læsø island (north Jutland), and in Karlsruhe.

Kirkeby’s modes of expression are eclectic: he is a painter, sculptor, and draughtsman, but also a poet and maker of prints, environments, models, films, and documentaries. At the beginning of his career, he was inspired by Surrealism and Pop Art, calling himself a ‘superrealist’. He subsequently produced collages based on a spontaneous form of associationism, which incorporated dried vegetable elements and were sometimes arranged in letter shapes. Later, he became involved in the Fluxus group and took part in performances with Joseph Beuys in Copenhagen, with Immendorf in Aachen, and with Nam June Paik in New York. He also mounted exhibitions that brought together various objects he had gathered during his travels. Nothing remains of his work from this period....

Article

Czech, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active in Germany, naturalised German.

Born 1941, in Liberec (Bohemia), Czech Republic.

Painter, sculptor, engraver, draughtsman, watercolourist.

New Fauves.

Markus Lüpertz’s family left what was then Czechoslovakia and went to live in the Rhineland of Germany while he was still a child. He was the pupil of Laurens Goossens at the school of applied arts in Krefeld from 1956. Having worked for a year as part of a road-building gang, he returned to his education by enrolling at the national academy of fine arts in Düsseldorf in 1961. From 1962, the year in which he settled in Berlin, and perhaps in reaction to American artistic expansionism, he began to take a close interest in the history of European art, from Greek and Roman times up to, and in particular, the work of Picasso, in whose work he discerned a Dionysiac celebration. By 1964, he was in Berlin and, with K. H. Hödicke, Bernd Kökerling, and Lampertz Maria Wintersberger, he helped to establish the self-managed gallery ...

Article

French, 19th–20th century, male.

Born 31 December 1869, in Le Cateau-Cambrésis (Nord); died 3 November 1954, in Nice.

Painter, draughtsman, engraver, lithographer, sculptor, illustrator, theorist. Artists’ books.

Fauvism.

Henri Matisse was born to parents who owned a grocery shop in Bohain, a small town in northern France. After his schooling in St Quentin, he began his law studies in Paris in 1887–1888. In 1889, he returned to St Quentin, where he worked as a clerk in a law firm but was soon taken ill. It was during his lengthy convalescence that he decided to turn to painting. In 1891, he returned to Paris and enrolled at the Académie Julian, where he studied under the painter William Bouguereau. In 1893, Matisse left the Académie and joined Albert Marquet, Georges Rouault, Charles Camoin, and Henri Manguin at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, where he studied with Gustave Moreau. From 1895, he lived at 19 Quai St Michel in Paris, an address that he kept for the rest of his life....

Article

Nicholas Watkins

(Emile Benoît)

(b Le Cateau-Cambrésis [now Le Cateau], nr Cambrai, Picardy, Dec 31, 1869; d Nice, Nov 3, 1954).

French painter, draughtsman, sculptor, printmaker, designer and writer. He came to art comparatively late in life and made his reputation as the principal protagonist of Fauvism, the first avant-garde movement at the turn of the century. He went on to develop a monumental decorative art, which was innovative both in its treatment of the human figure and in the constructive and expressive role accorded to colour. His long career culminated in a highly original series of works made of paper cut-outs, which confirmed his reputation, with Picasso, as one of the major artists of the 20th century.

Matisse was born in his grandparents’ home and grew up in the neighbouring village of Bohain-en-Vermandois, where his father’s general store had developed into a grain business. He worked first as a solicitor’s clerk in the local town of Saint-Quentin before taking a degree in law in Paris from October 1887 to August 1889, without apparently showing the slightest interest in art; on returning home he resumed work as a solicitor’s clerk. Bored by the routine of office life, he attended drawing classes at the Ecole Quentin Latour before going to work....

Article

Nianhua  

James Flath

[Chin.: “New Year pictures”]

Genre of popular woodblock prints known for their bold colors and folkloric content. Prior to the mid-20th century these prints were widely used throughout China to decorate the home, as calendars, and to conduct domestic rituals in advance of the lunar New Year festival.

The most common production method for nianhua uses three to five relief printing blocks. In this technique an outline block is used to print an image in monochrome, and additional blocks are then used to apply individual colors. Finally the prints may be touched up by hand. In some examples all colors are applied using brushes. The subject matter of nianhua is diverse. Although the variety of gods appearing in nianhua is virtually unlimited, domestic deities such as the Stove God, Door God, and the God of Wealth are common. The image of the Stove God in particular was believed to embody the deity and protect the household. The act of burning the print at the end of the year was traditionally intended to send the deity to Heaven, and its subsequent replacement was to welcome him back to the home. Themes of wealth, good fortune, and scholarly success leading to official promotion are popular, as are images relating to fertility and the birth of male children. Narratives scenes drawn from historical classics and the theater are among the most widely produced items in the genre. More rarely, ...

Article

pseudonym of Winckler Ralf

German, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 5 October 1939, in Dresden, Germany.

Painter (including gouache), sculptor, engraver, performance artist, filmmaker, writer, musician.

New Fauves.

A. R. Penck produced his first paintings (landscapes and portraits) at the age of ten and subsequently studied commercial art in 1955. He was self-taught, practised different professions, and pursued many activities, such as music, poetry, and editing scientific, political, and aesthetic texts. He was a pupil of the painter Jürgen Böttcher-Strawalde and collaborated with him on joint works. He worked with a great many other artists from the West, such as Jörg Immendorf and Georg Baselitz, whom he met in 1961 in the former West Berlin. In 1980, he decided to live in the West, near Cologne; then he settled first in England and then in Ireland. In 1987, he became a teacher at the school of fine art in Düsseldorf. He recorded records with the painters Martin Kippenberger and Immendorf. During his career as an artist, he changed his identity several times: in 1969 to ‘Penck’, in 1973 to ‘Mike Hammer’, in 1974 to ‘TM’, and in 1976 to ‘Y’. He lives and works in Dublin....

Article

Belgian, 20th century, male.

Born 1887, in St Joost-ten-Node; died 1947, in Brussels.

Painter, sculptor, engraver, lithographer, illustrator. Figures, portraits, landscapes.

Brabant Fauvism.

Ramah was a student at the school of fine art in St Joost-ten-Node, and then at the academy in Brussels. He was a member of ...

Article

Belgian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 8 November 1872, in Antwerp; died 1944, in Molenbeek-St-Jean.

Painter, watercolourist, sculptor. Figures, portraits, landscapes, still-lifes.

Brabant Fauvism.

Ferdinand Schirren was a pupil of J.-B. de Keyser and Joseph Stallaert at the academy of fine arts in Brussels, where he trained mainly as a sculptor, and of the studio of Jef Lambeaux. In 1898 he founded the group ...

Article

(b Antwerp, Nov 8, 1872; d Brussels, Feb 1944).

Belgian painter and sculptor. Born of Russian parents, he trained as a sculptor at the Académie des Beaux-Arts in Brussels. In 1898 he was a co-founder of the group Labeur together with Auguste Oleffe, the Belgian painter Willem Paerels (1878–1962) and Louis Thévenet. One of his earliest sculptures is a mask of the Theosophist Madame Blavatsky (1898; see exh. cat., pl. 37). Around 1900 he suffered a nervous breakdown, after which he devoted himself largely to painting. His few sculptures are monumental and static, as in Eve with Apple (1910; see exh. cat., pl. 55).

In his painting Schirren was initially influenced by the Impressionism of Emile Claus and Théo Van Rysselberghe but he soon turned to Fauvism, producing such works as The Chestnut Trees (1915–16; see exh. cat., pl. 16). After about 1925 his style became more austere, as in The Study (1933...

Article

Belgian, 20th century, male.

Born 2 August 1882, in Mechelen; died 11 July 1916, in Amsterdam.

Painter, pastellist, sculptor, engraver, draughtsman. Portraits, figures, landscapes, still-lifes.

Brabant Fauvism.

Rik Wouters started working wood from a very early age, following the example of his artisan father. He studied initially at the academy in Mechelen before enrolling at the academy in Brussels and studying sculpture until the age of 28 under Charles van der Stappen and J. Dillens. He settled in Boitsfort, a suburb of Greater Brussels, from 1905 to 1908. In 1909 he met the French painter Simon Lévy, who briefed him on what was happening in the art world generally. He was put under contract to the art dealer and couturier Georges Giroux. Wouters was conscripted for military service at the outbreak of World War I and his unit was assigned to Zeist. While there, he was diagnosed with a serious brain condition. He did not survive the ensuing operation and died at the age of 34. As a sculptor he had had little time to develop; as a painter, he had had effectively no more than two years....

Article

Sandy Ng

(b Yangzhou, 1895; d Paris, 1977).

Chinese painter and sculptor. Pan graduated from the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris and undertook further studies at the Accademia in Rome before bringing back her artistic training to China. She came from a poor family and was sold to a brothel in Anhui by her uncle following her parents’ death. Some sources suggest that she was a servant in the brothel, while others claim that she was forced into prostitution and attempted suicide more than once. Life improved when she met Pan Zanhua (?1885–1960), an open-minded government official. She eventually married him, adopting his surname, and moved to Shanghai. He recognized his wife’s artistic talent and encouraged her to study painting.

Pan acquired painting skills at the Shanghai Art Academy under the tutelage of the pioneering modernist Liu Haisu. Like many of her contemporaries, she in time found the domestic resources inadequate and went abroad to Europe to solidify her oil painting training and learn to sculpt. Nevertheless, she was not impressed with the academic methods taught at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and preferred styles outside the formal system, especially Fauvism whose leading exponent was Henri Matisse. Her works from this early period already displayed a penchant for bright colors, bold brushworks, acute observations, and female figures, including women of different races and classes....