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Article

Carlos Cid Priego

(b Tarragona, 1832; d Barcelona, 1901).

Spanish sculptor. He entered the Escuela de Bellas Artes de la Lonja, Barcelona, when still very young and was a student of the Neo-classical artist Damián Campeny y Estrany, who was also influenced by Romanticism and naturalism. In 1855 Aleu y Teixidor applied for the Chair in Modelling at the Escuela, a position to which he was eventually appointed after the committee had been involved in intrigues and disputes. He taught Catalan sculptors for half a century and wielded an enormous, though not entirely positive, influence. He became Deputy Director of the Escuela de Bellas Artes, belonged to the Academia de Ciencias y Artes of Barcelona and won first prize at the Exposición Nacional de Madrid in 1871.

Almost all the work of Aleu y Teixidor is in Barcelona. The best is the over life-size stone sculpture of St George (1871) for the façade of the Palau de la ...

Article

Glenn F. Benge

(b Paris, Sept 24, 1796; d Paris, June 25, 1875).

French sculptor, painter and printmaker. Barye was a realist who dared to present romantically humanized animals as the protagonists of his sculpture. Although he was a successful monumental sculptor, he also created a considerable body of small-scale works and often made multiple casts of his small bronze designs, marketing them for a middle-class public through a partnership, Barye & Cie. His interest in animal subjects is also reflected in his many watercolours. He thus challenged several fundamental values of the Parisian art world: the entrenched notion of a hierarchy of subject-matter in art, wherein animals ranked very low; the view that small-scale sculpture was intrinsically inferior to life-size or monumental work; and the idea that only a unique example of a sculptor’s design could embody the highest level of his vision and craft. As a result of his Romantic notion of sculpture, he won few monumental commissions and endured near poverty for many years....

Article

Lucília Verdelho da Costa

(b Lisbon, Jan 15, 1829; d Lisbon, June 17, 1894).

Portuguese sculptor. Between 1846 and 1852 he studied drawing and history painting under António Manuel da Fonseca at the Academia de Belas-Artes in Lisbon. In 1854 he became a drawing teacher at the Universidade de Coimbra, and in 1860 he taught sculpture at the Academia de Belas-Artes.

In 1856 Bastos modelled his most significant work, the figurative terracotta bas-relief Colera Morbus (Lisbon, Mus. N. A. Contemp.), and in 1861 he exhibited at the Academia a version carved in marble (Sintra, Pal. N. Pena) that was bought by King Luís. It was an innovative work that first expressed the romantic style in Portuguese sculpture: the treatment is both dynamic and expressive, and because of its sense of movement the subject seems almost alive. Bastos, however, did not continue with this trend, and his Monument to Camóẽs (1860; Lisbon, Praça de Camóẽs) conforms to a more conventional academic treatment. His other sculptures of this type include the statue of ...

Article

(b Bordeaux, Jan 30, 1782; d Paris, Feb 21, 1863).

French painter, printmaker and designer. He first trained with Pierre Lacour the elder (1745–1814) in Bordeaux and on going to Paris studied with François André Vincent and then Jacques-Louis David. While a pupil of David, he became friendly with both François-Marius Granet and Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres. Bergeret played a major role in introducing lithography into France, with prints after Poussin and Raphael: his lithograph Mercury (1804), after Raphael’s fresco in the Villa Farnesina, Rome, was one of the earliest examples of the technique. He also contributed greatly to Napoleonic propaganda by designing medals, extravagant pieces of Sèvres porcelain and, most important, the decoration of the Vendôme Column (1806–11; Paris, Place Vendôme) to satisfy Napoleon’s desire for a copy in Paris of Trajan’s Column in Rome. Bergeret was responsible for designing the bas-reliefs on the Vendôme Column, which record the campaigns of 1805 and 1806 (Austerlitz) in the way that those on Trajan’s Column record the Dacian Wars. It was destroyed in ...

Article

Italian, 19th century, male.

Born 1837, in Milan.

Sculptor.

Studied under Cacciatori at the Accademia di Belle Arti di Brera in Milan, then in Florence and Rome; exhibited in Italy and abroad. In addition to sculpting classical and romantic motifs, Bianchi provided decorative sculptures for the tombs of the Lombardi brothers in Rome's Campo Verano and the tombs of his own mother and of the Puricellu family in Milan cemetery. Not least, he sculpted decorations for an altar table in the church of S. Maria delle Grazie in Brescia....

Article

British, 19th century, female.

Painter, watercolourist, sculptor.

Marianne Birch was the wife of the poet Alphonse de Lamartine. In 2003 she was represented at the exhibition Lamartine and the Romantic Landscape Around Paul Huet at the Museé des Ursulines and the Museé Lamartine at Mâcon....

Article

German, 19th century, male.

Born 1831, in Dresden; died 1893, in Kassel.

Sculptor. Figures, portraits.

A son of Emil Cauer the Elder, he worked in Bad Kreuznach. His work reflects a number of themes popular in classical poetry and romanticism: Sleeping Beauty, Snow White, Puss in Boots...

Article

Clodion  

Glenn F. Benge

[Michel, Claude]

(b Nancy, Dec 20, 1738; d Paris, Mar 28, 1814).

French sculptor. He was the greatest master of lyrical small-scale sculpture active in France in the later 18th century, an age that witnessed the decline of the Rococo, the rise of Romanticism and the cataclysms of revolution. Clodion’s works in terracotta embody a host of fascinating and still unresolved problems, questions of autograph and attribution, the chronology of his many undated designs, the artistic sources of his works, and the position of his lyric art in the radically changing society of his time. Little is known of the sculptural activity of Clodion’s brothers (see 1992 exh. cat., nos 90–93): Sigisbert-Martial Michel (b13 Jan 1727); Sigisbert-François Michel (b Nancy, 24 Sep 1728; d Paris, 21 May 1811; see 1992 exh. cat., p. 29, nos 11 and 12); Nicholas Michel (b17 Nov 1733); and Pierre-Joseph Michel (b2 Nov 1737).

Clodion trained in Paris with his uncle ...

Article

Philip Ward-Jackson

[David, Pierre-Jean]

(b Angers, March 12, 1788; d Paris, Jan 6, 1856).

French sculptor. A remarkably comprehensive view of this most prolific of 19th-century sculptors is provided by the collection of his work in the Musée des Beaux-Arts et Galerie David d’Angers in Angers. Begun in 1839 from models for the sculptor’s public statues that he had consistently sent to his home town, the collection was enriched after his death by numerous donations; in 1983 it was rehoused in the 13th-century abbey of Toussaints adjacent to the Musée des Beaux-Arts. Unless otherwise stated, plaster or marble versions of specific works mentioned in this article can be found in this collection.

Son of the ornamental wood-carver Jean-Louis David (1760–1821), who enrolled in 1793 in the Republican force that opposed the anti-revolutionary uprising, Pierre-Jean worked with his father and was further encouraged in his artistic ambitions by Jacques Delusse (1757–1833), painter and curator of the Musée des Beaux-Arts in Angers. In ...

Article

Linda Whiteley

(Hippolyte)

(b Paris, July 17, 1797; d Paris, Nov 4, 1856).

French painter and sculptor, son of Gregoire-Hippolyte Delaroche. Though he was offered a post in the Bibliothèque Nationale by his uncle, Adrien-Jacques Joly, he was determined to become an artist. As his brother Jules-Hippolyte was then studying history painting with David, his father decided that Paul should take up landscape painting, and in 1816 he entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts to study under Louis-Etienne Watelet (1780–1866). Having competed unsuccessfully for the Prix de Rome for landscape painting, he left Watelet’s studio in 1817 and worked for a time with Constant-Joseph Desbordes (1761–1827). In 1818 he entered the studio of Antoine-Jean Gros, where his fellow pupils included Richard Parkes Bonington, Eugène Lami and Camille Roqueplan.

Delaroche made his début at the Salon in 1822 with Christ Descended from the Cross (1822; Paris, Pal. Royale, Chapelle) and Jehosheba Saving Joash (1822; Troyes, Mus. B.-A. & Archéol.). The latter work clearly showed the influence of Gros, and it was greatly praised by Géricault. At the same Salon, Delacroix exhibited ...

Article

Gilles Chazal

(b Strasbourg, Jan 6, 1832; d Paris, Jan 23, 1883).

French illustrator, painter and sculptor. He was born into a cultivated and well-to-do family. By the age of five he was drawing on every piece of paper that came within his reach. He was particularly fond of caricaturing his parents, friends and teachers. In 1838 he was already capable of producing entire series of illustrations such as Mr Fox’s Meeting (1839; priv. col.) and Scenes from the Public and Private Life of Grandville’s Animals (1845; Strasbourg, Mus. B.-A.). By 1843, while studying at the Lycée in Bourg-en-Bresse, he was making brilliant attempts at lithography such as La Martinoire du Bastion (1845; Bourg-en-Bresse, Mus. Ain). In 1847 Charles Philippon, founder of Caricature and Charivari, saw drawings by Doré, who was passing through Paris. He took Doré on, published his Labours of Hercules and urged his parents to set him up in the capital. From then on, while still a pupil at the Lycée Charlemagne, Doré found himself contractually bound to produce a drawing a week for Philippon’s ...

Article

Antoinette Le Normand-Romain

[Francisque]

(b Paris, Oct 19, 1804; d Paris, May 26, 1865).

French sculptor. Son of a sculptor of the same name (1729–1816) and a pupil of F.-J. Bosio, he entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in 1818 and won the Prix de Rome in 1823. Among his works executed at the Académie de France in Rome is Orestes Mad (marble, c. 1825; Avignon, Mus. Calvet), a colossal head modelled after the Antique that is at the same time a self-portrait, and Mercury Inventing the Lyre (marble; destr.), an elegant statue much praised at the 1831 Salon. Journeys from Rome to Naples resulted in Neapolitan Fisherboy Dancing the Tarantella (bronze, exh. Salon 1833; Paris, Louvre), which was executed on his return to Paris and was one of the earliest Neapolitan genre subjects in French 19th-century art. In this work Duret reconciled classical form with modern subject-matter and the freedom of modelling allowed by working in bronze. Its popularity led to reduced-scale bronze editions by the founder ...

Article

Antoinette Le Normand-Romain

(b Paris, March 20, 1808; d Chaville, Seine-et-Oise, July 14, 1888).

French sculptor, painter, etcher, architect and writer. The son of a decorative sculptor, he entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, in 1824 as a pupil of Charles Dupaty (1771–1825), moving in 1825 to the studio of James Pradier. Ingres also took an interest in his education, and Etex’s gratitude towards him and Pradier was later expressed in projects for monuments to them (that to Pradier not executed, that in bronze to Ingres erected Montauban, Promenade des Carmes, 1868–71).

Etex failed three times to win the Prix de Rome, but in the aftermath of the Revolution of 1830 his Republican sympathies gained him a government scholarship that enabled him to spend two years in Rome. There he sculpted the intensely tragic group Cain and his Children Cursed by God, the plaster version of which (Paris, Hôp. Salpêtrière) was one of the great successes of the 1833 Paris Salon. During this period Etex asserted the Republican views that were to earn him the distrust of many of his fellow artists and of the establishment but also gain him the support of the influential critic and politician Adolphe Thiers. He behaved in Romantic fashion as a misunderstood artist, but nevertheless displayed a remarkable tenacity in forwarding his pet projects, including, for instance, schemes for sculptures representing ...

Article

Philip Ward-Jackson

(b Florence, 1799; d Florence, ?1886).

French sculptor. Daughter of a Breton banker, she studied drawing with the painters Louis Hersent and Claude Guillot (fl 1841–66). In her Salon début in 1827, her dramatic historical relief of Queen Christina and Monaldeschi (plaster; Louviers, Mus. Mun.) indicated a debt to her painter friends Paul Delaroche and Ary Scheffer. Passionately loyal to the elder Bourbons, she played a part in the Vendée uprising of 1830 and joined the forces supporting the Duchesse de Berry in 1832. These activities earned her imprisonment first and then proscription. She fled to Brussels but in 1834 settled in Florence, where she and her studio became an attraction for cultured tourists because of the romantic medieval manner she affected. In her magnum opus, a marble monument to Dante Alighieri (1830–36; fragments survive, priv. col.), she enshrined the adulterous lovers Paolo and Francesca in a polychrome Gothic tabernacle adorned with symbolic figures and inscriptions. A similar plethora of decorative elements surrounds the ascending soul of the deceased in the marble monument to ...

Article

Philip Ward-Jackson

(b Paris, 1796; d Paris, Dec 11, 1844).

French sculptor. Like Antoine-Louis Barye, Gechter was a pupil of François-Joseph Bosio and Baron Gros. His first Salon exhibits in 1824 had heroic Classical and mythological subjects. After 1830 he followed the example of Barye in turning to small-scale sculpture, usually including animals, but without Barye’s zoological bias. After being shown at the Salon in 1833, his Combat of Charles Martel and Abderame, King of the Saracens (Meaux, Mus. Bossuet) was commissioned in bronze by the Ministry of Commerce and Industry. Although occasionally—as in The Engagement (Egyptian Expedition, 1798) (exh. Salon, 1834; untraced)—Gechter treated recent history, his predilection was for elaborately costumed battle or hunting scenes from the medieval or Renaissance period. Usually such pieces, with their frozen groupings, their emphasis on costume and their intricacy, belong to the genre known as Troubadour. Exceptionally Gechter could strike a more emotive note in his statuettes, as in Death of Tancred...

Article

(b Rouen, Sept 26, 1791; d Paris, Jan 26, 1824).

French painter, draughtsman, lithographer, and sculptor. He experienced the exaltation of Napoleon’s triumphs in his boyhood, reached maturity at the time of the empire’s agony, and ended his career of little more than 12 working years in the troubled early period of the Restoration. When he died, he was known to the public only by the three paintings he had exhibited at the Salon in Paris, the Charging Chasseur (1812; Paris, Louvre; see fig.), the Wounded Cuirassier Leaving the Field of Battle (1814; Paris, Louvre), and the Raft of the Medusa (1819; Paris, Louvre), and by a handful of lithographs.

The work that Gericault left behind is a fragment, difficult to comprehend or fit into the conventional framework of art history. Primarily he sought a pictorial form with which to represent contemporary experience with dramatic emphasis and visual truth. The dangers that beset him on this search were, on the one side, the stylelessness and banality of ‘picturesque’ realism and, on the other, the stilted artifice of over stylization. Between these two temptations, the Romantic and the Neo-classical, he sought for a middle way: a grand style capable of expressing modern subjects....

Article

Belgian, 20th century, male.

Born 1959, in Merksem; died 1984.

Sculptor.

Van Hoeydonck attended the art academy in Mechelen. He produced classical work which is not without a certain romanticism.

Article

M. Puls

(b Wiesbaden, March 23, 1815; d Frascati, nr Rome, July 8, 1886).

German sculptor. From 1833 to 1837 he studied in Munich under Ludwig von Schwanthaler and then lived in Paris until 1839. That year he returned to Wiesbaden and in 1842 went to Rome. There he met Friedrich Overbeck and was influenced by his designs for sculptures. Hoffmann lived in Cologne from 1845 to 1850, executing a few secular sculptures (e.g. the monument to Maximilian Weyhe, 1848–50; Düsseldorf, Hofgarten), which had a quality of narrative introversion despite their classical contours, gestures and glances. Religious works became his main subject-matter and were often treated with sentimental pathos, such as the stone Crucifixion (1850; Cologne, Melaten Cemetery). After being unsuccessful in his bid for the sculptural decoration of the cathedral, in 1850 Hoffmann returned to Rome, where from 1853 he shared a studio with Overbeck. He was influenced by late medieval and Quattrocento art as early as the 1840s, and the classically generous structure, accentuated gestural language and idealized facial expressions of his sculpture are in keeping with the piety and formal simplicity of Nazarene painting, particularly the work of Overbeck. Such sculptures as the marble ...

Article

Marica Magni

(b Milan, Oct 21, 1817; d Milan, Jan 20, 1877).

Italian sculptor. He studied briefly at the Accademia di Belle Arti di Brera in Milan and subsequently attended the studio of the Neo-classical sculptor Abbondio Sangiorgio (1798–1879). In his later artistic activity he was deeply influenced by the purity of the work of the Tuscan sculptor Lorenzo Bartolini, whose Trust in God (1834–6; Milan, Mus. Poldi Pezzoli) he saw at the annual exhibition at the Brera in 1837. He made the traditional study trip to Rome, where, in 1849, during the unrest of the Risorgimento, he joined Giuseppe Garibaldi’s ranks. Later returning to Rome, he achieved public prominence with his statue of David Launching his Slingstone (Milan, Gal. A. Mod.), which won the Premio Canonica at the Brera in 1850 and was exhibited there in 1851 and at the Exposition Universelle in Paris in 1855. At the Brera exhibition of 1853 he received great acclaim for his sober representation of ...

Article

Philip Ward-Jackson

(b Turin, Jan 14, 1805; d Passy, Paris, Dec 29, 1867).

Italian sculptor. His father, Vincenzo Marochetti, was a prominent advocate and functionary. The family moved to Paris shortly after Carlo’s birth. Marochetti trained with François-Joseph Bosio and, after failing to win the Prix de Rome, travelled to Italy in 1822 at his own expense. On his return he showed Young Girl with a Dog (Turin, Castello d’Agliè) at the Salon of 1827. His exhibit at the Salon of 1831, Rebel Angel (plaster; untraced), established his allegiance to the Romantic cause. Marochetti succeeded in projecting this Romanticism in public monuments: in his marble relief of the Battle of Jemmapes (1833–4) on the Arc de Triomphe and, in a more original form, in the group of the Assumption of the Magdalene (marble, 1834–44) for the church of the Madeleine, Paris, the latter an apotheosis deriving from the Baroque, but strongly symmetrical and denuded of scenic apparatus. Marochetti’s monumental Romanticism received wider exposure in a gift he made to his native city, the equestrian statue of ...