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Brazilian, 18th century, male.

Born c. 1738, in Vila Rica (now Ouro Prêto), Minas Gerais; died 18 November 1814, in Villa Rica.


Aleijadinho studied European style from engravings and prints in contemporary journals of architecture. He was fascinated by the elaborate Rococo style and southern German religious representations. He was given the nickname Aleijadinho (the little cripple) because of an illness that progressively destroyed his fingers and toes from ...


French, 19th century, male.

Born 1826, in Brioude (Haute-Loire).


Jean François Alluys's study for a Female Nude was presented to the St-Omer Museum in 1839. The catalogue editor correctly observes that, on the basis of the dates given, the bust in question is ostensibly the work of a thirteen-year-old. It seems possible, not to say probable, that an error has occurred and that it may be more properly attributed to Jean François Alluys, who was born in Brioude in ...


French, 19th century, male.

Born 13 December 1780, in Paris; died 3 August 1855.


Louis Arsenne tried his hand at various painting genres but enjoyed more success as an author and publisher. Among his books is his Painter and Sculptor's Handbook ( Manuel du peintre et du sculpteur...


British, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1898, in Liverpool; died 1978, in London.

Sculptor, painter, printer. Portraits, cityscapes, still-lifes.

Arnold Auerbach took art classes at the Liverpool Institute as a boy before going on to study at the Liverpool School of Art. He also studied in Paris and in Switzerland. He was enlisted during World War I, but was invalided out of the army in ...


Giancarlo Gentilini

(b Camerata, Florence, Sept 17, 1830; d Florence, June 29, 1868).

Italian sculptor. He began as a stonecutter in the quarries at Fiesole. He was sent by the learned printer Francesco Inghirami to study in Florence, first (1844–5) with Pio Fedi (1816–92) and then (1845–8) with Girolamo Torrini (d before 1858), with whom he collaborated on the statue of Donatello for the portico of the Uffizi. In line with the prominence of the Purismo movement in Florence in that period, Bastianini greatly admired Renaissance sculpture, which became his main source of inspiration. From 1848 to 1866 he was under contract to the antique dealer Giovanni Freppa (fl 1842–66), who supplied him with casts and models as well as a stipend in exchange for which he executed numerous neo-Renaissance works, especially busts and bas-reliefs, most of which were sold as authentic.

Among Bastianini’s first forgeries are two probably stone bas-reliefs: The Singer...


German, 16th century, male.

Active in Bamberg.

Painter, sculptor.

Albrecht Dürer mentions Lucas Benedikt in his journal.


Vanina Costa

(b Nantes, Sept 17, 1907; d Paris, May 8, 1977).

French painter, sculptor, draughtsman and poet. He moved in 1926 to Paris, where he became involved with Surrealism, soon afterwards publishing his first collection of poems, Opoponax (Paris, 1927). In 1934 he exhibited a series of automatic drawings, which were followed by images produced with the assistance of objets trouvés: in Street Object (1936; Paris, Pompidou), for instance, he placed a sheet of paper on the road and then drove a car over it so as to leave the imprint of the tyre tracks. Another work of this period consisted of a bus sign bearing the same letters as his initials, so that it could be read as his signature. He also produced assemblages in a Surrealist spirit, such as Morphology of Desire (wood, plaster, metal, candle and torch, 1934–7; Paris, Pompidou). After World War II Bryen turned increasingly towards painting, through which he became a leading exponent of ...


British, 19th century, male.

Born 1853, in Edinburgh; died 3 March 1888, in Edinburgh.


Thomas Stuart Burnett was the son of a lithographic printer. He studied under William Brodie and at the Trustees' Academy where he won a gold medal in 1875. He completed his studies at the Royal Scottish Academy (of which he later became an associate member) and then by travelling in Europe. He contributed sculptures to the Scott Monument in Edinburgh's Parliament Square, and statues of General Gordon and Rob Roy. He exhibited in London at the Royal Academy between ...


Françoise Jestaz

(b Verona or Parma, c. 1500–05; d ?Kraków, Aug 26, 1565).

Italian engraver, goldsmith and medallist, active also in Poland. He is first recorded in 1526 in the entourage of Marcantonio Raimondi in Rome. There the printer and publisher Baviera introduced him to Rosso Fiorentino, whose allegory Fury he engraved (b. 58). Caraglio continued to collaborate with Rosso and engraved several suites, such as the Labours of Hercules (b. 44–9), Pagan Divinities in Niches (b. 24–43) and Loves of the Gods (b.9–23; two after Rosso and eighteen after Perino del Vaga). After the Sack of Rome (1527), Caraglio took refuge in Venice, where he made engravings after Titian (b. 3, 64). His presence is recorded there until 1537.

By 1539 Caraglio was in Poland, probably at the recommendation of his friend Pietro Aretino, who had contacts in the court of Bona Sforza (1494–1557), wife of Sigismund I, King of Poland. By ...


Argentinian, 20th century, male.

Active in France.

Born 21 November 1914, in Buenos Aires. Died 1999.

Sculptor. Groups.

Alberto Carlisky began by studying journalism in Argentina, before militating against fascism in support of the Spanish Republicans. After World War II he went to Europe and stayed first in Italy, where he studied classical painting and completed several masks and small figurines. In ...


Belgian, 20th century, male.

Born 1939, in Liège.

Painter, sculptor, video artist, film producer. Comic strips.

Jacques Charlier lives and works in Liège. In 1982 he had La route de l'art published in comic strip form by the publishers Gewad and Moretti in Ghent. He draws together the activities of painting, sculpture, video, films and comic strips in order to deal with one common theme: art and the world of art, highlighting its contradictions and paradoxes. In an exhibition of photographs of reports by the Belgian organisation STP, ...


Chinese, 20th–21st century, male.

Born 1953.

Painter, sculptor. Portraits, still-lifes, landscapes.

or Zheng Zaidong

Cheng Tsai-tung trained in journalism before switching to painting. While technically fairly rudimentary, his work proceeds from a synthetic vision that he renders in large flat areas.

1984–1985, Taiwan New Painting...


French, 20th century, female.

Born in Paris.

Sculptor. Busts.

A pupil of Félix Fevola, Chonez exhibited at the Salon des Artistes Français and the Salon des Tuileries from 1929 to 1939 before embarking on a second career as a journalist.


French, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1952, in Paris.

Sculptor, painter.

Jean-Marc Debenedetti started out as a poet and, as such, was a co-founder of the literary review Soror (1972-1975) and, from 1979 to 1986, the founder-editor of a further review, Ellébore. He makes no real distinction between his activities as a poet and as a sculptor. His sculptures are essentially anthropomorphic, ranging in style from the figurative to the abstract. He has exhibited since ...


Stephen Bann

(b Nassau, Bahamas, Oct 28, 1925; d Dunsyre, Scotland, March 27, 2006).

Scottish sculptor, graphic artist and poet. Brought up in Scotland, he briefly attended Glasgow School of Art and first made his reputation as a writer, publishing short stories and plays in the 1950s. In 1961 he founded the Wild Hawthorn Press with Jessie McGuffie and within a few years had established himself internationally as Britain’s foremost concrete poet (see Concrete poetry). His publications also played an important role in the initial dissemination of his work as a visual artist. As a sculptor, he has worked collaboratively in a wide range of materials, having his designs executed as stone-carvings, as constructed objects and even in the form of neon lighting.

In 1966 Finlay and his wife, Sue, moved to the hillside farm of Stonypath, south-west of Edinburgh, and began to transform the surrounding acres into a unique garden, which he named Little Sparta. He revived the traditional notion of the poet’s garden, arranging ponds, trees and vegetation to provide a responsive environment for sundials, inscriptions, columns and garden temples. As the proponent of a rigorous classicism and as the defender of Little Sparta against the intrusions of local bureaucracy, he insisted on the role of the artist as a moralist who comments sharply on cultural affairs. The esteem won by Finlay’s artistic stance and style is attested by many important large-scale projects undertaken throughout the world. The ‘Sacred Grove’, created between ...


Cuban, 20th century, male.

Active in the USA.

Born 1914, in Cuba; died 2002.

Painter, sculptor, draughtsman.

Julio Girona travelled in France and studied sculpture with Maillol before moving to the USA. He is a painter, writer, journalist and sculptor. Girona incorporates into his vast canvases words which play an active role in the composition. Signs suggestive of graffiti and almost abstract, break through richly worked almost monochrome surfaces that have been painted over and over....


Spanish, 18th century, male.

Active in Palma (Majorca), Balearics.

Sculptor (wood), printer.

Antonio Guasp engraved images of saints and illustrations for works printed by him, including those in Life of Blessed Simon of Roxas, in 1767.


Dutch, 17th century, male.

Active in Amsterdam.

Born 1591.

Wood carver.

Along with Salomon Rogier, Hamersvelt undertook the carving of 36 geographic maps for the Amsterdam publisher H. Hondius. Probably belonging to this series is a map of the Holy Land, embellished with figures and ornaments, and signed by both artists....


Elisabeth Gurock

(b Strasbourg, 1573; d Brussels, 1645).

Flemish engraver, print publisher, sculptor and painter. His father, Jan van der Heyden (fl 1590; d before 1645), was a painter from Mechelen who left to settle in Strasbourg because of religious turmoil. Jacob trained in Brussels with Raphael Coxie (1540–1616), who was also from Mechelen; it seems probable, however, that Jacob continued to make his home in Strasbourg until 1635, subsequently moving to Brussels, where he worked until his death.

Van der Heyden’s extensive artistic activity extended over several genres. Among his documented paintings and sculptures were a painting of the Adoration of the Magi, listed in a Strasbourg catalogue of 1668, a Portrait of a Man with the Neck-chain of an Order (ex-Hollandt Col., Brunswick), and a gilt-bronze sculpture of Venus (all untraced). His principal work, however, lay in the domain of engraving and publishing. At the time when he founded his own publishing house, Strasbourg was a flourishing centre of graphic production. He published prints by numerous artists, including ...


Belgian, 19th century, male.


The Plantin-Moretus museum in Antwerp has a plaster copy of a bust of the printer Cornelis van Kiel, which was executed by Constant Jacobs for the meeting room at Duffel town hall. He exhibited in 1880 at the History of Belgian Art...