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(fl 1684; d ?Persia, May 12, 1699).

French sculptor. Cavalier is thought to have been a Huguenot trained in his native France. His career is obscure until 1684, by which time he was a carver of portraits in ivory of exceptional talent and probably already settled in England. In that year he made the relief of Charles II on Horseback, signed on the verso ‘i. cavalier. f. 1684’ (h. 150 mm; Leeds, C.A.G.). This is a magnificent and unusually ambitious work incorporating on the verso a delicately chiselled tree and flower as a test of the suitability of the material. The relief itself shows the King dressed in Classical armour and cloak, holding a baton in his outstretched hand, riding a noble horse caparisoned with an elaborately embroidered saddle-cloth in a landscape of rolling, grassy hills strewn with flowers. The curving grain of the ivory is used convincingly to suggest the glossy sweat of the beast’s hind quarters. The rather dry, linear treatment of this relief, which it shares with Cavalier’s other carvings of the same period, gave way to softer, more fluid modelling and an even more exquisite rendering of detail in such works as the portrait of ...


Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom

(b. Paris, 1926).

Turkish historian of Islamic architecture. He studied in the faculty of architecture at Istanbul Technical University under Emin Onat, receiving his degree in 1949 for a study of Turkish Baroque architecture. He spent 1954–5 in Italy investigating Renaissance architecture, and 1962–3 in the USA on a Fulbright Fellowship. The following year he was a fellow at Harvard University’s Center for Byzantine Studies at Dumbarton Oaks in Washington, DC, where he studied Byzantine architecture in Anatolia, and for the next decade he was involved in the study and restoration of the Byzantine church known as Kalenderhane Cami in Istanbul. He taught architectural history and restoration at Istanbul Technical University from 1958 until his retirement in 1993 and was dean of the architecture faculty from 1974 to 1977. From 1978 to 1983 he served on the first Aga Khan Award for Architecture, and in 1980–81 he was Aga Khan Professor of Islamic Architecture at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. His voluminous scholarship combines a thorough knowledge of European architectural history and theory with a close and intimate reading of Turkish and Islamic buildings and their structure....


(b Jaroslav, Galicia, Aug 12, 1926; d Tel Aviv, June 21, 2003).

Israeli painter of Polish birth. He first began to draw in 1947 after seeing the Renaissance and Baroque works in the Alte Pinakothek in Munich. He emigrated to Israel in 1948 and in 1953 and 1955 attended the summer art courses held at Kibbutz Na’an under Yossef Zaritsky and Avigdor Stematsky. Under the influence of the lyrical abstract style of these artists his work became increasingly abstract by the late 1950s, as in Painting (1959; see 1984 exh. cat., p. 16). In 1960 he had his first one-man show at the Chemerinsky Gallery in Tel Aviv, and the following year he travelled in Europe.

In 1963 Kupferman exhibited at the New Horizons show at the Museum of Art in Ein Harod, and the same year ‘basic forms’ appeared in his work. These were abstract, geometrical elements such as X and Y shapes and grids; the works of the 1960s, while including these forms, are very expressive and often created in an uncontrolled manner, as in ...


John Pinto

(b Rome, Aug 6, 1697; d Rome, Feb 9, 1751).

Italian architect. A contemporary of Luigi Vanvitelli, Ferdinando Fuga and Giovanni Battista Piranesi, he participated in the architectural embellishment of Rome that transformed its appearance in the early and middle decades of the 18th century. His reputation is largely tied to a single work, however: the Trevi Fountain.

Salvi showed an early interest in philosophy and mathematics, as well as studying medicine and anatomy and writing poetry. In 1717 he was admitted to the Accademia degli Arcadi, the prestigious literary society founded in Rome by Christina, Queen of Sweden. The influence of the Arcadians encouraged Salvi to value Renaissance models and to explore irregular, picturesque compositions in his designs; he also esteemed 17th-century Roman architecture, from which he learnt how to use the Classical orders to achieve bold sculptural effects. His biographer Niccolò Gabburri recorded that Salvi spent nine years deciding which career to pursue. During this time he attended classes at the Accademia di S Luca given by the painter ...


(b Augsburg, April 10, 1655; bur; Augsburg, June 25, 1734).

German goldsmith, draughtsman and engraver. He was the son of Israel Thelott (1616–96), a goldsmith and member of a French family of artists documented in Augsburg from 1585. As early as 1670 Thelott executed a relief of the Trinity (London, BM), a copy of a work by Paulus van Vianen. His years in Italy as a journeyman are attested by his relief panel Majestas and Amor (1687; Vienna, Ksthist. Mus.), inscribed ‘Roma’. Also from that period are a panel entitled Triumph of Two Roman Generals (1684; London, V&A), resembling antique reliefs, and a panel depicting the Baptism of Christ (1685; London, V&A). Notable among his various vessels and containers are those with embossed work, often serving as a casing, such as the Deckel-Portal goblet (1689; Augsburg, Städt. Kstsamml.), its decoration including the stories of Oedipus and Jason and the feats of Hercules. He also worked on clocks (Moscow, Hist. Mus.; example dated ...