Benedictine abbey on the River Enns in Styria, Austria. It was founded in the mid-11th century by Bishop Gebhard from Salzburg, endowed by St Henna von Gurk, Gräfin von Friessach (d 1045), and settled by Benedictine monks from St Peter’s, Salzburg under Abbot Isingrin. The Romanesque minster (consecrated 1074), which was dedicated to St Blaise, was famous for its marble columns and was rebuilt after a fire in 1152; a Gothic choir was added in 1276–86. The present church incorporates Romanesque side doors as well as other fragments. The abbey became an important cultural centre with a renowned scriptorium. Amongst the many famous scholars there was Abbot Engelbert of Admont (reg 1297–1327). From 1121 to the 16th century a convent was attached to the abbey. Under the abbots Mathias Preininger (reg 1615–28) and Urban Weber (reg 1628–59) the whole establishment was transformed in the Baroque style, and the church was rebuilt (...
Lucília Verdelho da Costa
Cistercian abbey in Portugal. The abbey, dedicated to S Maria, was founded as part of the policy of repopulation and territorial improvement of the first king of Portugal, Alfonso I (reg 1139–85), who in 1152 granted a large area of land to St Bernard of Clairvaux by a charter known as the Carta dos Coutos (Lisbon, Arquiv. N.). Work on the monastery started in 1158 and adhered to the rigid precepts of the Order. Although the exterior was extended and altered in the 17th and 18th centuries, especially the Baroque façade of the church, the interior essentially preserves its original Early Gothic appearance.W. Beckford: Recollections of an Excursion to the Monasteries of Alcobaça and Batalha (London, 1835/R 1972) M. V. Natividade: Ignez de Castro e Pedro o Cru perante a iconografia dos seus túmulos (Lisbon, 1910) E. Korrodi: Alcobaça: Estudo histórico, arqueológico e artístico da Real Abadia de Alcobaça...
Andrew John Martin
(b Bologna, 1627; d after 1687).
Italian architect. His first known work is in connection with the church of S Bartolomeo (consecrated 1664) in Bologna; he completed this for the Theatines to the designs, which he modified, of Giovanni Battista Falcetti (1580–1629). His masterpiece is the church of St Kajetan in Munich, which was commissioned by Adelaide Henrietta of Savoy (1636–76), wife of Ferdinand, Elector of Bavaria, in thanksgiving for the long-awaited birth in 1662 of the heir to the throne, Maximilian II Emmanuel. When her initial attempt to employ Guarino Guarini failed, Adelaide Henrietta approached Barelli, who submitted his first scheme in Munich in October 1662 and was awarded the commission. Six months later he presented a second set of designs; in April 1663 the foundation stone was laid. The building, which faces the Residenz, was designed to fulfil several functions: it served as a church for the Theatines and as a sacred ceremonial assembly hall for the court, and it housed the Wittelsbach family sepulchre. One of the terms of the commission was that Barelli should observe the proportions of the mother church of the Theatines, S Andrea della Valle (...
Alfonso Rodríguez Ceballos
(b Murcia, 1594; d Madrid, May 20, 1679).
Spanish architect. He entered the Jesuit Order at 16 as a lay brother and began his career as a carpenter and assembler of retables. His earliest work included the Mannerist retable in the church of the Jesuit college of Alcalá de Henares and the tabernacle in Juan Gómez de Mora’s Bernadine church (c. 1624–30) in the same city. The latter is an empty, free-standing feature, placed on the altar, quite distinct from the traditional Spanish retable, which rests against the rear wall of the sanctuary. In 1633 he replaced the lay brother Pedro Sánchez (1568–?1633) as master of the works at the church of the Colegio Imperial in Madrid, now the cathedral of S Isidoro. There he built the vaults and the dome over the crossing, the latter being the first instance of the ‘cúpula encamonada’, a dome constructed using a timber frame (‘camón’), roofed in slate and plastered inside, with a brick drum. The ease of construction of this type of dome, its low cost and its structural stability made it the prototype of Madrid domes in the Baroque period. Bautista reduced the height and width of the nave arcades in S Isidoro and replaced the capitals and entablatures of the façade columns and paired pilasters of the nave with others of his own particular invention. The capitals featured Corinthian foliage surmounted by an egg-and-dart moulding, while the entablatures displayed paired triglyph consoles....
(b Pfarrkirchen, Upper Bavaria, c. 1660; d Augsburg, Jan 31, 1738).
German sculptor. He was the son of the sculptor Johann Christian Bendl, with whom he trained. Having become a journeyman, he travelled for six years, probably to Bohemia and Venice. On his return he entered in 1684 the workshop in Augsburg of Johann Jakob Rill (fl c. 1686–99); on 26 November 1687 he was made a master and also became a citizen of Augsburg. He was the city’s leading sculptor during the late Baroque period; many important churches in and outside of Augsburg had sculptures by him. He worked mostly in wood, but also in stone, terracotta and stucco, and probably in ivory and metal as well. For jewellers and goldsmiths he produced models, such as a figure of St Sebastian (1714–15) and a crucifix (1716). His major work included two series of life-size statues: one, of the Apostles, for St Moritz and the other, of the ...
[Manuel de Sousa]
(b Braga, c. 1650; d Tibães, 1716).
Portuguese sculptor. He was born to a family of craftsmen and later entered one of the many workshops of wood-carvers in Braga. In 1676, however, he entered the Benedictine order at its Portuguese mother house of Tibães, near Braga. Here he made statues and reliefs for the church of S Martinho. From this period date his St Benedict and St Gregory the Great and the relief of the Visitation, now in the Benedictine church, S Romão do Neiva. Between 1680 and 1683, during the abbotship of Frei João Osório, he made terracotta sculptures of the eight Virtues and the four Benedictine kings (Tibães, Sacristy), images that appear rather rigid and stereotyped.
Frei Cipriano da Cruz moved to Coimbra before July 1691, when it is recorded that he made the St Catherine in the chapel of the University of Coimbra. This contact with the main centre for sculpture in Portugal had a broadening effect on his art. His most important work outside Tibães is the group of serene and dignified sculptures (dispersed) that he made for the Colégio de S Bento (Benedict), Coimbra. This group includes his gilt and polychromed wooden ...
(b Lisbon, 1598; d Cotovia, May 11, 1644).
Portuguese painter and Jesuit priest. He was apprenticed in Madrid to Eugenio Cajés, in whose studio he became familiar with the tenebrist style characterized by sharply contrasting figures, strong gradations of chiaroscuro and naturalistically rendered background and drapery. He returned to Lisbon around 1625. In 1632 he became a Jesuit, and in 1644 he died in the Noviciado da Cotovia, renowned for his saintliness. The naturalism of his works quickly gained him fame, and he was nicknamed cabrinha (little goat) by his contemporaries because of his ‘oriental features’. An early work is the beautiful Visitation (c. 1630; Lisbon, S Mamede, Sacristy). Among his patrons and collectors were the Inquisitor General, Dom Francisco de Castro, and the Capelão-mor (royal chaplain) and future Bishop of Elvas, Dom Manuel da Cunha.
Like the work of André Reinoso, that of Domingos da Cunha clearly reflects the innovative spirit of the Portuguese painters trained at the school of Madrid. Félix da Costa Meesen noted that ‘he is a good colourist’ and a ‘great imitator of the natural’, although ‘narrative was not his strong point’. These qualities are seen in the series of scenes from the ...
(b Vic-sur-Seille, Moselle, 1588 or 1591; d Agde, Hérault, Oct 29, 1644).
French Jesuit priest and architect. Entering the novitiate of the Society of Jesus in 1611, he studied in Rouen and La Flèche, was ordained a priest in 1621 and studied theology in Paris (1621–2). He had also taught grammar at Rennes (1615–18) and mathematics at La Flèche (1618–21). He worked first as an architect at the Jesuit college in Rouen, where from 1622 to 1629 he was praefectus fabricae; then as architectus at the college in Rennes, where he supervised the building works; at the college of Orléans, for which he provided plans in 1632; and, above all, at the Jesuit church in Paris, St Louis (now St Paul–St Louis). In plans for the latter he found himself in competition with Etienne Martellange. Both sets of plans were submitted to Rome; those by Martellange were preferred, and he began work on the church in ...
P. Gabriel Kleeb
Benedictine abbey and Marian pilgrimage site c. 35 km south-east of Zurich, in the canton of Schwyz, Switzerland. The original abbey, on the site of the martyrdom of St Meinrad (
Plans for reconstructing the upper minster, then the rest of the church and finally the whole abbey were commissioned in 1702 from Caspar Moosbrugger, a lay brother of the abbey who had worked as a mason under Kuen. The work was carried out between ...
António Filipe Pimentel
Family of builders and masons of Italian origin, active in Portugal. Giovanni Battista Garbo (b ?Milan,fl 1670; d ?Lisbon) went to work in Lisbon c. 1670 for the Jesuits at São Antão (now the chapel of the hospital of São José) and perhaps also for the church of Nossa Senhora de Loreto. His son Carlos Baptista Garbo (d Mafra, 1725) was trained in the same skills of masonry at São Antão, and he also became a designer of altarpieces. The high altar with marble mosaic for the old Jesuit church, now the seminary, Santarém, was designed by Carlos Baptista along 17th-century lines and made in 1713 in the workshops of São Antão. It was here that his son António Baptista Garbo (b Lisbon, 1692; d ?Lisbon) was trained and also worked in the service of the Jesuits.
The ability of the Garbo family is most visible at Mafra, where Carlos Baptista superintended the construction of the vast palace, church and convent, following the plans of ...
The construction of a worthy seat for the emerging Society of Jesus (see Jesuit Order, §1) was delayed by the opposition of the families (especially the Altieri) who owned the land on which the church was to be built. The first plan for Il Gesù (SS Nome di Gesù), produced in 1549–50 by Nanni di Baccio Bigio, was for a longitudinal scheme with six chapels flanking the nave and a short transept. The work was soon interrupted, however, and the efforts of Cardinal della Cueva to have it resumed had little effect, although he had obtained a new plan free of charge in 1554 from Michelangelo.
In 1568 building began in earnest thanks to the lavish patronage of Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, who put Jacopo Vignola in charge along with the Jesuit Giovanni Tristano (d 1575). Vignola adopted the longitudinal scheme with stubby transepts and three interconnected chapels at each side of the nave, respecting the wishes of Farnese, who considered the plan most suitable for the devotional requirements of the Counter-Reformation liturgy. Two additional chapels were set into the sides of the apse. The strong spatial unity of the interior (...
(b Savona, May 1, 1583; d Rome, July 23, 1654).
Italian priest, architect and mathematician. He was born into an established Savonese noble family but joined the Jesuit Order in Rome at the age of 17, taking his vows in 1618. As early as 1616 he was appointed professor of mathematics at the Collegio Romano, a position he held with interruptions until 1627. Although he soon earned the highest respect and engaged in discussions with Galileo Galilei on his theories about the nature of comets, he is best known for his achievements in the field of architecture. He may be considered the most important Jesuit architect of the first half of the 17th century.
Grassi seems to have come to the profession by way of architectural theory: in 1612 he was instructed by his Order to establish an academy to train Jesuit architects. This institution seems to have been short-lived, if it existed at all. From 1617 to 1624 and again from ...
(b Oppido Lucano, Calabria, 1543; d Naples, Aug 1, 1613).
Italian architect. He joined the Theatine Order in Naples in 1574. His first major building was the church of S Paolo Maggiore, Naples (1581–1603). Its nave arcades give a strong sense of movement, with arches of alternating height opening into domed or vaulted bays. In 1588, as presumably the most eminent Theatine architect, he was summoned to Rome to design the Order’s new church of S Andrea della Valle. Because of the influence of Cardinal Alfonso Gesualdo (d 1603), he was obliged to submit his designs to Giacomo della Porta for approval; this leaves the evolution of the design uncertain, especially as della Porta left soon after the foundation stone was laid, while Grimaldi remained in Rome until 1598. During this time he also visited Lecce, where he worked on the church of S Irene (1588–1639). Grimaldi’s first major commission on his return to Naples was to build S Maria degli Angeli (begun ...
(b Prague, bapt Dec 4, 1717; d Prague, June 17, 1767).
Bohemian painter. He was the son of the painter Kristián Grund (c. 1686–1751) and brother to the painters František Karel Grund (1721–43), Petr Pavel Christian Grund (1722–84)—also a violin virtuoso—and the harpist Jan Eustach Grund. He learnt painting with his father, who released him from his apprenticeship in 1737. Subsequently he lived in Vienna and then perhaps in Germany; he probably knew his great models, Watteau, Nicolas Lancret and Francesco Guardi, only from engravings.
Grund’s work consists of a rather confused range of small pictures, embodying almost all genres in which landscapes or dwellings include figures. He painted scenes from myths, the Bible, legends and battles; he depicted love scenes, the theatre, storms at sea, visits to ruins, studios etc. Although the human figures always endow his pictures with a light touch, often there is an implicitly deeper allegorical meaning. His paintings from the 1740s are marked by a heavy Late Baroque colour scheme, in the 1750s by fragile Rococo shades; later he accomplished a smooth transition to a classicist realism. The popularity of his works in aristocratic and bourgeois circles is underlined by reproductions by ...
(b Modena, Jan 17, 1624; d Milan, March 6, 1683).
Italian architect, mathematician, astronomer, theorist, writer and priest. Together with Francesco Borromini, he is the most renowned exponent of the anti-classical, anti-Vitruvian trend that dominated Italian architecture after Michelangelo but increasingly lost ground from the late 17th century. His subtly designed buildings, crowned with daring and complex domes, were ignored in Italy outside Piedmont, but illustrations published in 1686 and again in Guarini’s treatise Architettura civile (1737) proved a fruitful source of inspiration in the development of south German and Austrian late Baroque and Rococo architecture.
Guarini came from a deeply religious family; he and his four brothers all joined the Theatine Order. At the age of 15 he became a novice and was sent to Rome (1639–48), where he was able to study High Baroque architecture, in particular the work of Borromini, Gianlorenzo Bernini and Pietro da Cortona. The details of Guarini’s architectural training are not known, but in the excellently equipped libraries of his Order he presumably studied such well-known treatises as those of Serlio and Jacopo Vignola. In ...
Cistercian abbey in the Vienna Woods, Lower Austria. Heiligenkreuz, the oldest Cistercian abbey in the region once ruled by the house of Babenberg, was founded in 1135 by Margrave Leopold III of Austria (reg 1096–1136). It was settled with monks from Morimond Abbey in France, and a temporary building was consecrated in 1136. From the time of Leopold IV (reg 1136–41) Heiligenkreuz was the preferred burial place of the Babenbergs.
The nave of the church, begun before 1147 and consecrated in 1187, is an ashlar building, which at first had a flat ceiling. Excavations have shown that the original east end consisted of three apses without a transept. In 1147 Henry II (reg 1141–77) donated the village of Münchendorf and its revenues to the abbey, making it possible to vault the church, and a further endowment in 1156 enabled the monastic buildings to be rebuilt in stone. The five-bay aisled nave, the proportions of which are based on a module derived from the crossing square, has alternating supports. The aisles are groin-vaulted, but the main vessel has domical vaults with ribs of a plain, rectangular profile, the transverse arches resting on short pilasters corbelled above the arcade (...
(b Antwerp, June 1601; d Brussels, March 4, 1690).
Flemish architect. He joined the Jesuits in 1617 and went to school in Antwerp from 1619 to 1621, at which time the church of St Carolus Borromeus was being built after the design of Franciscus Aguilonius and Peter Huyssens. Initially, Hesius came to prominence as a preacher and an important figure in religious politics, and he did not become active as an architect until he was nearly 50. During the third quarter of the 17th century he was his order’s most important architectural adviser. The plans for St Michielskerk, Leuven, one of the most important examples of Flemish Baroque architecture, have been attributed to him and date from 1650. They show the influence of Vitruvius (known in the Netherlands through the translations of Pieter Coecke van Aelst and Sebastiano Serlio), as well as the influence of illustrations by Jean Maggius. The design is characterized principally by a high lantern tower with a dome above the junction of transept and nave. The church, completed in ...
(b Bruges, June 6, 1577; d Bruges, June 6, 1637).
Flemish architect. The son of a master mason in Bruges, he learnt the same profession there. He joined the Jesuits as a friar in 1597. From 1606 to 1613 he made designs for the church and other buildings of the Jesuit College in Maastricht; he also supervised the construction of the church (converted into a theatre in the 18th century), which was conceived in a wholly traditional Flemish Renaissance style. In 1613 he was sent to Antwerp, where he became assistant to the rector, Franciscus Aguilonius, who had already made the first designs for the city’s Jesuit church (now St Carolus Borromeus). Huyssens took over from Aguilonius after the latter’s death in 1617; apart from the two side-chapels, added after 1622, the church was finished in 1621. From the beginning Rubens had taken part in its conception, and his close collaboration with Huyssens produced a church in which Baroque forms were used with an opulence unprecedented in the Netherlands. Even before this church was completed, Huyssens was asked by his superiors to design two others, the first being in Bruges in ...
D. O. Shvidkovsky
Monastery at Teryayevo in Russia, some 110 km north-west of Moscow. It was founded in 1479 by Iosif Volotsky (1439–1515), who successfully resisted the 15th-century movement to secularize monastic properties, and was partially paid for by the Grand Princes of Moscow, who helped to establish it as a centre for icon painting and manuscript illumination and who established its collection of ancient reliquaries. Between 1484 and 1500 Dionisy painted an extensive series of icons for the monastery.
The monastery’s first stone church was built between 1484 and 1486 and was surrounded by brick walls c. 1543–66. The whole complex, which is enclosed on two sides by a lake, was completely rebuilt between the 1670s and 1690s and is a fine example of 17th-century Russian architecture, with its numerous white walls and towers and well-proportioned stone-stepped roofs. A two-storey building pierced by two asymmetrically placed gates, the Holy Gates, serves as the main entrance to the monastery. The five-domed church of the Dormition (...
Helen M. Hills
(b Licata, May 8, 1628; d Palermo, May 5, 1700).
Italian architect. Described as an ‘architectus et sculptor’, he joined the Jesuit novitiate in Palermo in November 1671. He then worked as an architect for the Jesuits at Sciacca and Marsala (c. 1674) and the Jesuit colleges at Termini Imerese (c. 1679) and Mazara del Vallo (c. 1682). His church of S Francesco Saverio (1684–1709), Palermo, has four hexagonal chapels inserted between the arms of a Greek cross. The plan probably reflects the church designs of Guarino Guarini (ii), which Italia must have seen when he was in Messina in 1672. The chapels, with Doric columns in the style of Jacopo Vignola, rise through two storeys and open on to the central space through an arcade. The triglyphs of the frieze bulge forward under the projecting curve of the cornice and become consoles, as if supporting a balcony. The upper parts of the campanile’s exterior recall the bell-towers of the Chiesa Madre (begun ...