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Natalia Marinho Ferreira Alves

Portuguese family of wood-carvers. Manuel Abreu do Ó and his brother Sebastião Abreu do Ó (both fl Évora c. 1728–c. 1770) worked in collaboration, carving some of the finest and most influential Joanine and Rococo altarpieces in southern Portugal. They carved in delicate flat relief using patterns similar to those found in Spain, a style contrasting with the dramatic plastic effects seen in contemporary wood-carving in northern Portugal.

An example of the Abreu do Ó brothers’ early work is the main retable of the Cartuxa, the Charterhouse, Évora, gilded in 1729. It is composed on one level, and a sense of movement is suggested by the projection of the outer columns. They created one of the finest ensembles of 18th-century carving in southern Portugal in the chancel and transept of the Carmelite church of Nossa Senhora dos Remédios, Évora (c. 1760–70). On the main retable the areas between the column shafts are decorated with leaves and roses scattered asymmetrically, creating the impression of a lace covering. The votive tablet crowning the arch of the retable is carved with great delicacy. The lateral retables have curving double pediments whose undulating movement is echoed by large canopies above. The design of the pulpit was important in southern Portugal, because although it was in the Joanine style and inspired by developments in Lisbon it was also Rococo in spirit. The interior of the church emphasizes the importance of the role that gilt wood-carving played in the decoration of Portuguese churches during the 18th century....



Rudolf Preimesberger

(b Bologna, July 31, 1598; d Rome, June 10, 1654).

Italian sculptor, architect and draughtsman. He was, with Gianlorenzo Bernini, the most important sculptor active in Rome in the middle years of the 17th century. After the early death of François Duquesnoy in 1643, Algardi’s work came to represent the classicizing stylistic antithesis to the High Baroque sculpture of Bernini, and the two artists were perceived by their contemporaries as equals and rivals. During Algardi’s first years in Rome, Bernini was the principal sculptor in demand at the court of Urban VIII, and Algardi had to be content with relatively modest commissions given to him by patrons with connections to his native Bologna. It was only during the papacy of Innocent X (1644–55) that he came to true artistic prominence, revealing himself to be one of his century’s greatest relief and portrait sculptors. At a time when few sculptors drew with any skill, Algardi was an accomplished draughtsman, making drawings for his sculptural projects and also original works for engravers. In addition he worked as an architect, though the exact extent of his involvement with the design of many of the buildings with which his name has been associated is unclear....


Natália Marinho Ferreira Alves

(b Braga, c. 1690; d Braga, March 10, 1769).

Portuguese sculptor and carver. He was one of the most gifted of the wood-carvers who created Portuguese Baroque church interiors in the 18th century, lined with carved, gilt wood and glittering with gold. He used vigorous and imaginative ornament, in which plume-like displays of acanthus foliage, shells, dolphins and tritons mingle with angels, nude children, vases of flowers, bearded faces and masks with exotic coiffures, all framed and supported by distinctive carved brackets. Many of these motifs are enlarged versions of those in the engravings by Jean Berain I, known to have been in circulation at this time in Portugal.

This type of decoration is seen in Araújo’s first important work (1716–19) in the Benedictine monastery of S Bento da Vitória, Oporto, where the towering frames of the choir-stalls contain sculptured panels made of gilt chestnut wood representing scenes from the Life of St Benedict. Between 1719 and ...


Juan Nicolau

[Arche, Jozef de]

(b ?Flanders; d Seville, 1666).

Flemish sculptor, active in Spain. He arrived in Seville sometime before 1637, having had experience of both the Flemish and the Italian Baroque traditions. He introduced important changes to Andalusian sculpture, which departed from the naturalism characteristic of early national Baroque to convey figures in movement, clothed in flowing robes, with wind-blown hair. Arce’s work in Seville led to a movement away from the imitative style of the pupils of Juan Martínez Montañés.

In 1637 Arce received an important commission for the principal altarpiece of the Carthusian monastery of Jerez de la Frontera, a retable composed of sculpture and paintings (1638–9) by Francisco de Zurbarán. The completed scheme must have been one of the most beautiful in 17th-century Spain. It was dismantled in the 19th century, when the paintings were dispersed to various museums and the large, richly polychromed figures by Arce, including the fine Twelve Apostles, were retained in the monastery....


Françoise de la Moureyre

(b Cunq, Tarn, 1655; d Toulouse, Oct 26, 1739).

French sculptor. He trained in Toulouse, where he received his first official commission in 1677. This was for 30 terracotta busts representing famous men of Toulouse, together with a bust of Louis XIV for the Galerie des Illustres of the Capitole (Hôtel de Ville; 21 still in situ). From 1678 to 1688 Arcis was employed by the Bâtiments du Roi, collaborating on the sculptural decorations for the château of Versailles. These included a stone statue personifying Reason of State on the south wing, as well as a marble vase and term figure of Flora for the gardens (all in situ). In 1684 he was received (reçu) by the Académie Royale on presentation of a marble low relief of St Mark (Versailles, Notre-Dame). The following year the city of Toulouse commissioned a bronze equestrian statue of Louis XIV, raised on a high base with four low reliefs and four seated statues of slaves; this did not progress beyond a terracotta model (Toulouse, Mus. Augustins). In ...


A. Gerhardt

(b Heimingberg-Hopperg, Tyrol, 1645; d Grins, Tyrol, May 7, 1706).

Austrian sculptor. From 1666 to 1671 he was an apprentice in the workshop of Michael Lechleitner (c. 1611–69), whose daughter he married. From 1671 to 1673 he probably worked in Otztal, Tyrol: the high altar in the church at Zwieselstein may be an early work of his. In 1673 he took over Lechleitner’s workshop. The first certain work by Auer is an ivory relief of the Fall of Man (signed and dated 1677; Weimar, Schlossmus.). The almost transparent relief ground, the smooth, soft full figures and the highly detailed, naturalistic delineation of the accessories are typical of Auer’s small sculptural work. The ceremonial goblet of rhinoceros horn carved with mythological scenes (signed i.a., c. 1680–90; Munich, Residenz) is probably also by Auer, as the small, lively figures are common in his work.

It is not easy to trace a stylistic development in Auer’s art; thus, lacking documentation, it is not possible to establish the chronology of his small sculptural work, his work for the royal art collection or his devotional images. He may have travelled to Vienna ...


J. J. Martín González

(b Valladolid; d 1739).

Spanish sculptor . He was the son of the sculptor Juan de Ávila (fl 1678–c. 1700) and a collaborator of Juan Antonio de la Peña (fl 1674–96), whose daughter he married in 1700. In his early works, such as Pietà (Valladolid, Colegio de los Ingleses), the folds are smoothly carved, like those of his father, but he subsequently developed towards a more Baroque style of great masses and sharply cut folds. In 1720 he undertook to make five sculptures for S Felipe Neri, Valladolid: in the Immaculate Conception the folds spread out from the centre of the figure; the contemplative Mary Magdalene continues the tradition of the 17th-century ascetic type. His St Michael (Palencia, Castil de Vela) is a heroic and courtly figure.

Ávila carved a series of statues for the high altar (the architecture of the retable probably being by Alonso de Manzano) of the parish church of Fuentes de Valdepero, Palencia (...


(b Cefalù, Sicily, c. 1572; d Naples, Dec 12, 1645).

Sicilian painter and sculptor. He was probably trained in Sicily, yet he is recorded in Naples from 1594, and his artistic roots are Neapolitan. The painting of the Presentation in the Temple (1599; Naples, S Maria la Nova) is his earliest datable work. It demonstrates that Azzolino was already aware of trends in late 16th-century Neapolitan painting and that he knew the art of Belisario Corenzio, Fabrizio Santafede and Luigi Rodriguez (fl 1594–1606). He took his lead at first from Corenzio and was, like him, an expert fresco painter. In 1599 Azzolino was commissioned to execute the decoration (untraced) for the church of the Spirito Santo, Naples. In the canvases and frescoes that he painted between 1606 and 1610 for the church of Gesù e Maria, Naples, and in the earlier Pentecost for the church of S Francesco at Caiazzo (in situ; his only signed work) it is possible to discern the influences of both Corenzio and Santafede. An awareness of the new clarity and naturalism of the Florentine reformers Lodovico Cigoli, Agostino Ciampelli and Domenico Passignano had spread in Naples through Santafede, whose role in the development of Azzolino’s style was fundamental. Both artists subsequently remained faithful to the devotional art of the Counter-Reformation, although they later demonstrated an awareness of the innovative work of Caravaggio. Azzolino countered both the excessive intellectual subtleties of Mannerism and the experimental naturalism of Caravaggio with serene and familiar renderings of sacred stories such as the ...


Matthias Frehner

(b Pfronten-Ried, nr Füssen, June 25, 1716; d Einsiedeln, Feb 9, 1799).

Swiss sculptor of German birth. He was apprenticed to the sculptor Peter Heel (1696–1767), but in 1732, after his father died, Babel became an itinerant journeyman sculptor. He appears to have moved gradually southwards, possibly drawn by the chance to study at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna and by the far greater number of commissions to be found there, from both secular and ecclesiastical patrons. In collaborating on large-scale decorative commissions, Babel would not only have acquired a solid training as a sculptor in stone and stucco but would also have learnt the stylistic vocabulary of international Baroque. A particularly strong early influence was the stuccowork of Francesco Carlone (1674–1750), with whom Babel probably collaborated.

In 1742 Babel settled in Mimmenhausen, residence of the leading Rococo sculptor Josef Anton Feuchtmayer. Here he made his first appearance as an independent master when he presented Abbot ...


François Pupil

(b Nancy, bapt April 27, 1620; d Nancy, March 10, 1707).

French sculptor . He was the son of the Lorraine sculptor Nicolas Bagard (fl early 17th century) and was apprenticed to the painter Jean Gérard in 1633. He was subsequently the pupil of the sculptor Nicolas Jacquin (?1625–?1695), who probably took him to Paris around 1659. Bagard’s earliest works seem to have been undertaken in collaboration with the painter Claude Deruet, whom he assisted with decorations at the Ducal Palace in Nancy and with ephemeral decorations for ceremonial entries to the city in the years 1655 to 1658. His only recorded works dating from his stay in Paris are ephemeral statues of Hercules and Minerva to decorate the Porte Saint-Antoine during the celebrations for the marriage of Louis XIV in 1660. The document (1669) confirming Bagard’s appointment as Sculpteur Ordinaire to Duke Charles IV of Lorraine mentions that he had studied abroad, and on the stylistic evidence of his few surviving works it is possible that he had been to Italy. His work consists mainly of life-size religious and allegorical statues, powerfully carved in a sober interpretation of Italian Baroque models. Extant works include the group of the ...


Maria Concepción García Sáiz

(b Zamora, c. 1680; d Mexico City, 1748).

Spanish architect and sculptor, active in Mexico. Between 1702 and 1703 he worked in Madrid as a designer of stage machinery, later moving to Andalusia, where he produced the principal altar of the sacristy of Seville Cathedral in the Rococo style, completed in 1709 (destr. 1824). Ceán Bermúdez described it as having ‘four large estípites, pilasters, lots of angels prankishly tumbling about and a cornice broken and interrupted in a thousand places with tortuous projections and recessions, the whole topped by a huge arch’. In 1714 Balbás also carried out the plan for the choir-stalls of the church of S Juan in Marchena, carved by Juan de Valencia, equally playful in style and similarly using estípites. The same year he designed the lectern in the same church, though this was not constructed until 1735.

Around 1718 Balbás went to Mexico City to take charge of the ‘retablo del Perdón’ in the Chapel of the Kings at the Metropolitan Cathedral, using the ...


Ursula Verena Fischer Pace

[Naldini, Paolo]

(b Rome, 1605; d Rome, 1650).

Italian painter and sculptor . In documents he is referred to as del Modello (deriving from the name of the street in Rome in which he was living, the Vicolo dei Modelli). Baldini is presumed to be the same person as the sculptor Paolo Naldini, whose biography by Pascoli presents him as beginning his career with painting, as a pupil in Rome of Andrea Sacchi, before turning to sculpture later at the suggestion of his friend Carlo Maratti. Pascoli gave a list of sculptures by Naldini. The existing data on the painter and the sculptor coincide in such a way as to convince scholars of the artist’s activity in both fields, which was not unusual in the 17th century.

The painter Baldini belonged to the group of artists who worked in the style of Pietro da Cortona in Rome during the 1630s, when the Palazzo Barberini was being decorated. On the basis of documents, and through stylistic analysis, his first work can be identified as the fresco of the ...



Gauvin Bailey and Jillian Lanthier

Term used to describe one of the first genuinely global styles of art and architecture in the Western canon, extending from its birthplace in Bologna and Rome to places as far-flung as France, Sweden, Russia, Latin America, colonial Asia (Goa, Macao), and Africa (Mozambique, Angola), even manifesting itself in hybrid forms in non-European cultures such as Qing China (the Yuanming yuan pleasure gardens of the Qianlong Emperor) or Ottoman Turkey (in a style often called Türk Barok). The Baroque also embraced a very wide variety of art forms, from the more traditional art historical media of painting, sculpture, and architecture to public spectacles, fireworks, gardens, and objects of everyday use, often combining multiple media into a single object or space in a way that blurred traditional disciplinary boundaries. More so than the Renaissance and Mannerist stylistic movements which preceded it, Baroque was a style of the people as well as one of élites, and scholars are only recently beginning to explore the rich material culture of the Baroque, from chapbooks (Italy) and votive paintings (central Europe and Latin America) to farm furniture (Sweden) and portable oratories (Brazil). Although its precise chronological boundaries will probably always be a matter of dispute, the Baroque era roughly covers the period from the 1580s to the early 18th century when, in places such as France and Portugal, the ...


O. Lohr

(b Dresden, Dec 10, 1625; d Dresden, Nov 12, 1672).

German sculptor, ivory-carver and ?master builder . He probably started his training with his father, the sculptor Hieronymus Barthel (fl 1625; d c. 1640), and completed his apprenticeship (c. 1640–45) with Johann Boehme (d 1667). There are records of various journeys he made to Augsburg, Ulm, Venice and Rome. He lived in Venice for 17 years, during which time he made sculptures for the tomb of Doge Giovanni Pesaro (d 1659) (1669; Venice, S Maria Gloriosa dei Frari), based on a design by Baldassare Longhena, a statue of St John the Baptist (Venice, Chiesa degli Scalzi), a Crucifix (Venice, S Bartolomeo) and a mourning female figure for the tomb of the painter Melchiore Lanza (Venice, SS Giovanni e Paolo). From Venice, Barthel returned to Dresden, where he was appointed court sculptor in 1670. No large works are known from his time in Dresden. His works in ivory include copies (large col., Dresden, Grünes Gewölbe) of groups from Classical antiquity. No evidence of his work as a master builder has survived....


Hannelore Hägele

(b Pfarrkirchen, Upper Bavaria, c. 1660; d Augsburg, Jan 31, 1738).

German sculptor. He was the son of the sculptor Johann Christian Bendl, with whom he trained. Having become a journeyman, he travelled for six years, probably to Bohemia and Venice. On his return he entered in 1684 the workshop in Augsburg of Johann Jakob Rill (fl c. 1686–99); on 26 November 1687 he was made a master and also became a citizen of Augsburg. He was the city’s leading sculptor during the late Baroque period; many important churches in and outside of Augsburg had sculptures by him. He worked mostly in wood, but also in stone, terracotta and stucco, and probably in ivory and metal as well. For jewellers and goldsmiths he produced models, such as a figure of St Sebastian (1714–15) and a crucifix (1716). His major work included two series of life-size statues: one, of the Apostles, for St Moritz and the other, of the ...


(b Brussels, May 14, 1696; d Brussels, Nov 16, 1756).

Flemish sculptor. In 1714 he entered the Guild of the Quatre Couronnés (the corporation of masons, stonecutters, sculptors and slate-quarrymen) in Brussels and served his apprenticeship with the sculptor François Delpier. In 1715 he entered the studio of Nicolas Coustou in Paris. This stay in the French capital and a subsequent period in Rome (1717–19) were to mark all of Bergé’s work, with its transitional character between late Baroque and Neo-classicism enlivened by Rococo grace. At the age of 26 he became a master in the Brussels guild and in 1737 he became the co-director of the Académie des Beaux-Arts in Brussels.

Bergé worked mainly for two abbeys of the Premonstratensian order. For that of Parc, Leuven, he executed, among other works, the high altar (wood, 1728); the monument to former prelates (wood and marble, 1729); the abbot’s throne (wood, 1730); the stalls and the confessionals, together with the pulpit (oak, ...


(b Cavallerleone [Cuneo], 1736; d Turin, Jan 7, 1796).

Italian sculptor. A royal subsidy provided by Charles-Emanuel III of Savoy, King of Sardinia, enabled him to attend the school of Claudio Francesco Beaumont in Turin. Bernero showed an early preference for papier-mâché as a medium, producing papier-mâché works for popular devotional dramas. In 1765 a second royal stipend supported a four-year continuation of his studies in Rome. There he trained with Ignazio Collino, acquiring skill in working more durable materials, such as marble and stone. Collino’s classicizing influence was not strong enough, however, to counteract Bernero’s apparent preference for Baroque effects, as is demonstrated in his dramatically swooning marble Magdalene (1770; Duomo di Casale), a typically highly charged composition. In 1770, a pivotal year, Bernero joined the Confraternity of the Company of St Luke in Turin and began to receive commissions from royal and religious patrons in Turin and other cities in Piedmont. From c. 1770 to 1772...


Rudolf Preimesberger and Michael Mezzatesta

[Gian LorenzoGiovanni Lorenzo]

(b Naples, Dec 7, 1598; d Rome, Nov 28, 1680).

Italian sculptor, architect, draughtsman and painter, son of Pietro Bernini. He is considered the most outstanding sculptor of the 17th century and a formative influence on the development of the Italian Baroque style. His astonishing abilities as a marble carver were combined with an inventive genius of the highest order. From the mid-1620s the support of successive popes made his the controlling influence on most aspects of artistic production in Rome. Although his independent works of sculpture, both statues and portrait busts, are among the most brilliant manifestations of their kind in Western art, his genius found its highest expression in projects in which he combined sculpture, painting and architecture with scenographic daring and deep religious conviction to express more fervently than any other artist the spiritual vision of the Catholic Counter-Reformation Church.

Bernini was not often active in the decorative arts, but was nonetheless influential on furniture design. The wooden plinth shaped like a burning log that he designed for his marble statue of ...


Françoise de la Moureyre

(b Mazan, Vaucluse, Dec 15, 1650; d Mazan, Mar 25, 1728).

French sculptor. He came of a Comtat Venaissin family of sculptors of varying degrees of talent and was trained by his father, Noël Bernus (d 1702), and later by Nicolas Levray, director of the sculpture workshop at the Arsenal, in Toulon. Refusing Levray’s offer to appoint him as his successor, Bernus preferred instead to settle in his native province. He likewise declined an offer from Laurent Buty, bishop of Carpentras from 1691 to 1710, to send him to Rome to perfect his art. The period from 1692 to 1708 was the most fruitful of his career. Buty commissioned him to decorate the choir and the sanctuary (mostly preserved in situ) of the cathedral of St Siffrein in Carpentras: this work included the high altar, the tabernacle with adoring angels, a Glory imitating that executed by Bernini for the high altar of St Peter’s in Rome, the panelling for the choir and Buty’s own tomb in marble. At the same time Bernus sculpted a considerable number of statues and ecclesiastical furnishings for neighbouring churches. Little is known about his activities between ...