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Article

M. Dolores Jiménez-Blanco

(b Madrid, 1942).

Spanish painter, sculptor and printmaker. After studying at the Escuela Superior de Bellas Artes in Madrid he came under the influence of Pop art during a stay in London in 1965. On settling again in Madrid in that year he began to concentrate on images of movement, as in the screenprint Story of the Man Who Falls I, for which he was awarded a prize at the Kraków Biennale in 1966. He continued to explore movement through serial forms and stereotyped images in plexiglass constructions such as the Changeable Movement series (1967) and from 1968 used computers as part of this process. These interests led to sculptures and paintings titled Transformable Movements, which he presented in association with aleatoric music.

Alexanco became increasingly involved with performance and collaborated with the Spanish composer Luis de Pablo (b 1930) on Soledad interrumpida (1971) and Historia natural...

Article

Roberto Pontual

revised by Elaine Wilson

(b São Paulo, 1935; d São Paulo, 2015).

Brazilian painter and printmaker. After studying engraving in São Paulo, he moved to New York in 1959 to complete his studies at the Pratt Graphic Center, where his contact with international Pop art merged with his own interest in Brazilian popular imagery, for example in the portfolio of woodcuts Mine and Yours (1967). Immediately afterwards he began painting ambiguous and ironic still lifes collectively titled Brasíliana, which use bananas as symbols of underdevelopment and exploitation, for example BR-1 SP (1970; São Paulo, Pin. Estado) and Bananas (1971; Washington, DC, Mus. Mod. A. Latin America). In 1971 he won a trip abroad in the National Salon of Modern Art (Rio de Janeiro), which took him again to New York between 1972 and 1973. On his return to São Paulo he began the series Battlegrounds, in which he submitted the previously reclining bananas to slashing, torture, and putrefaction. Subsequently, shapes were reorganized into configurations of an undramatic Surrealism, playful, colorful, tumescent, and as firmly rooted as ever in his native Brazil and Latin America....

Article

Canadian First Nations (We Wai Kai/Cape Mudge Band), 21st century, male.

Born 1975, in Richmond (British Columbia).

Painter, sculptor, printmaker, photographer.

The aesthetic of Sonny Assu (Liǥwilda’x̱w/Laich-kwil-tach) is a confluence of Northwest Coast formline motifs and popular Western culture. He is well versed in the traditional Kwakwaka’wakw arts of drum, blanket and basket making and uses these as the starting place of many of his artworks. Drawing on a pop sensibility, mass-media culture is used as a conduit to explore and expose these Kwakwaka’wakw traditions as well as the artist’s own mixed heritage. By bringing these seemingly desperate elements together, Assu’s works challenge popular notions of authenticity regarding Indigenous people and their art. Moreover, while the works may appear whimsical at first glance, they offer a sharp critique of Western society’s culture of consumption as it relates to colonisation, both historical and ongoing, in North America....

Article

Marco Livingstone

(b Luton, Bedfordshire, Aug 29, 1940).

English sculptor, draughtsman and printmaker. He studied at Luton College of Technology and Art from 1957 but abandoned the course in 1959, working instead on the assembly-line of the Vauxhall car factory in Luton for 18 months. The experience of helping to build beautiful, machine-made objects on the shop floor proved decisive on his choice of materials for his first sculptures in 1962: leather and chrome-plated metal. The idea of relying on specialist fabricators to achieve the best result made it easy for him to accept Marcel Duchamp’s notion of the ready-made, as applied to ordinary manufactured items designated as sculpture but not made by the artist’s own hands. Rather than simply taking things as he found them, however, Barker either commissioned fabricators to make them to his specifications as with his leather-clad Zip Boxes of 1962, which aligned him with Pop art or had the original objects recast or resurfaced so that the sculptures became non-functional surrogates for them. The techniques and materials he employed, the almost heroic elevation of the commonplace, the humorous touches and the acceptance of the banal and the kitsch all contribute to the provocative originality of Barker’s work of the 1960s and to its importance in anticipating and probably influencing the sculptures with which Jeff Koons made his name in the mid-1980s....

Article

Canadian, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1957, in Toronto (Ontario).

Sculptor.

Neo-Conceptual Art, Appropriation Art.

Alan Belcher lives and works in Toronto and New York. In the Pop Art tradition, Belcher uses advertising images, meaningfully exploiting their powers of enticement. His work consists of glossy colour photographs that are usually pinned, screwed, nailed or wrapped around various objects made of Plexiglas, metal or wood. By using the seductive colours of publicity photographs, and their perfect finish, Belcher's sculpture works on two levels. On one, he denounces marketing's manipulative wiles; on the other, he creates works of art that are almost Minimalist in their simplicity of form. Since ...

Article

American, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1959, in Barbados.

Sculptor, installation artist.

Neo-Conceptual Art (Neo-Geo), Appropriation Art, Neo-Pop Art.

Ashley Bickerton lives and works in Los Angeles. He arrived on the American art scene in the mid-1980s. With Peter Halley, Jeff Koons and Meyer Vaisman, Bickerton, he belongs to the group of artists known as the ...

Article

Swedish, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1957, in Stockholm.

Painter (mixed media).

Ernst Billgren studied at the Valand art academy (1982-1987). HIs paintings are presented with a flourish not dissimilar to Pop Art practices, the complexity of which adds a theatrical, distancing dimension. He has had many solo exhibitions in Sweden, and has participated in collective exhibitions in Sweden, Norway, Germany, Brasil and Mexico....

Article

Marco Livingstone

(b Leicester, April 5, 1944).

English painter and printmaker. From 1962 to 1967 he studied at the University of Newcastle upon Tyne under Richard Hamilton, also benefiting from contact with visiting tutors such as Pop artists Richard Smith (for whom he later worked as an assistant), Joe Tilson and Eduardo Paolozzi. As a student at the University of Reading from 1967 to 1969, Buckley began to present his paintings as substantial physical objects, constructed in frequently eccentric shapes and then decorated. The clues to subject-matter were often indicated in the titles, which could be allusions to places, for example Rannoch (1971; AC Eng); to the techniques used, as in Cut, Burnt and Tied (1971; London, Brit. Council); or to historic styles, such as Cubism, as in Head of a Young Girl No. 1 (1974; Liverpool, Walker A.G.). Often Buckley drew upon the everyday environment: in the early work by referring to crazy pavings, tartan patterns and prosaic interiors, and in the later work by alluding to more specific architectural details and by using cardboard tubing and plastic drainpipes as constructional elements. He not only painted with brushes on stretched canvas but also worked with improvised processes such as tearing, folding, stitching, stapling, patching, screwing together, nailing and weaving. Along with traditional artists’ materials, he used house paint, shoe polish, liquid linoleum, perspex, carpeting and old clothes. Often admired for the breadth of his reference to other 20th-century art, Buckley, like his friend Howard Hodgkin, used the abstraction of simple marks and bold design to convey specific moods and circumstances....

Article

Margo Machida

Asian American mixed-media and installation artist and cultural activist. Ken Chu came to the United States from Hong Kong in 1971, settling in California where he received a BFA in film studies from San Francisco Art Institute (1986). Relocating to New York City after graduation, his encounters with local Asian American artists, activists and cultural organizations supported his artistic efforts, in which he often drew upon subjects that emerged organically from personal experience in the US as a gay Asian man. Adopting popular cultural idioms from film and comics, while also drawing upon symbols and motifs from Chinese and other Asian cultures, his imagery from this pivotal period featured Asian men cast as prototypically American masculine figures, such as California surfers and cowboys, who populate colorful, imaginary scenarios of cross-cultural contact, mixing and desire. In Western societies, where the dominant norms are non-Asian and few viable role models for Asian men exist, Chu’s art strongly asserted their collective presence and place. His socially inspired work has since also engaged matters of anti-Asian violence, internalized racism, stereotyping, homophobia and the impact of AIDS on Asian diasporic communities....

Article

Australian, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1951.

Painter.

Pop Art.

Bob Clutterbuck's work consists of slogans that have been cut out of newspaper articles and other printed material combined with drawings that recall traditional aboriginal art.

Adelaide (AG of South Australia): Stop the Merchants of Nuclear Death...

Article

Belgian, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 10 September 1947, in Verviers.

Painter. Murals.

Pop Art.

Alain Denis trained at the Académie des Beaux-Arts in Liège between 1964 and 1970, winning the Watteau and Marie prizes between 1967 and 1970, and later becoming a teacher there. He has taken part in numerous group exhibitions in Belgian and German cities. There have also been a large number of solo exhibitions of his works in various towns across Belgium, particularly in Verviers, and in New York in ...

Article

Der'ven  

French, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 12 March 1948, in Boulogne-Billancourt.

Painter. Still-lifes.

Claude Derrien ('Der'ven') studied at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris from 1964 to 1966. His technique is close to Pop Art and industrial drawing, but his work exudes a degree of lyricism which elevates it above his somewhat mundane subject matter - kitchens, electrical circuits, bidets and electric dials and switches....

Article

American, 20th – 21st century, female.

Born 1949, in New Haven (Connecticut).

Painter (mixed media), draughtswoman, watercolourist, engraver, lithographer.

Neo-Pop Art.

Carroll Dunham almost always paints on panels, integrating the natural unevenness of the wood into the structure of the work. Influenced by Pop Art, she creates biomorphic abstractions and tragi-comic figures combining grotesqueness and power. These creatures, which come from comic book culture and what is known as 'low art', are nevertheless painted with a skill that places them in the pictorial tradition of 'high art'. Peter Schjeldahl has compared her work to a confrontation between and a graffitist in a public toilet and Helen Frankenthaler. The interior violence of the paintings became more accentuated in the 1990s, expressing the multiple contradictions of contemporary American society....

Article

Reena Jana

(b Cologne, Germany, 1969).

American mixed-media artist of German birth and Asian descent. Ezawa studied at the Kunstakademie in Düsseldorf (1990–94) before moving to San Francisco in 1994. He received a BFA from the San Francisco Art Institute (1995) and an MFA from Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA (2003). Ezawa is not a photographer, but his work centers around photography; he has used a variety of media, from digital animations to paper collages and aquatint prints, to revisit some of the world’s most familiar, infamous and historically significant news photographs, television broadcasts and motion-picture stills (see The Simpson Verdict). All of Ezawa’s work utilizes the artist’s signature style of flat, simple renderings that are cartoonlike and also suggest the streamlined and colorful style of Pop artist Katz, Alex.

Ezawa’s project, The History of Photography Remix (2004–6), exemplifies his approach to exploring the power of photographs as a mirror of reality and yet also a force that can manipulate memories of events and people. The project consists of images appropriated from art history textbooks, such as American photographer Cindy Sherman’s ...

Article

French, 20th – 21st century, female.

Born 20 June 1953, in Paris.

Painter (mixed media), screen printer.

Pop Art.

Dominique Fury points to the influence of Pop Art in her work, with its techniques, silk-screen transfers to canvas and images borrowed from the media, which she has freely put to her own use....

Article

Native American (Choctaw, Cherokee), 20th-21st century, male.

Born 31 March 1972, in Colorado.

Painter, sculptor, mixed-media artist.

Jeffrey Gibson received a BFA from the Art Institute of Chicago (1995) and an MFA from the Royal College of Art (1998), which was funded by his tribal group, the Mississippi Band of the Choctaw Nation. Since ...

Article

British, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active in Ireland from 1990.

Born 1961, in Great Britain.

Painter (mixed media).

Pop Art.

From 1980 to 1984, David Godbold studied at the Norwich School of Art and Design and then at Goldsmiths College in London. In 1999 to ...

Article

American, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1946, in Biloxi (Mississippi).

Painter.

Pop Art, Conceptual Art.

Scott Grieger studied at California State University in Northridge and Chouinard Art Institute in Los Angeles. He is active on the American west coast. His first paintings were influenced by Pop Art, while later works reflect the growing influence of Conceptual Art. Using symbols borrowed from advertising, packaging, computers, clothing, toys and so on, Grieger subverts corporate and political slogans in order to assert his own counter messages of shared responsibility and ethical living....

Article

Japanese, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1946, in Kagawa Prefecture.

Sculptor, painter, draughtsman, engraver.

Haraguchi Noriyuki studied at Nihon Uni­versity until 1970. His style can be described as Pop Art and he mainly uses heavy materials such as concrete, steel, copper and tar. Work by him was shown at the following: the seventh Exhibition of Contemporary Japanese Art (...

Article

Julia Robinson

(b Valrico, FL, 1930).

American performance artist and sculptor. Hay started out in the performance scene at Judson Memorial Church in downtown New York City in the early 1960s. He arrived in New York from Florida in 1959, after studying at the Florida State University (1953–8). His wife, the dancer Deborah Hay, was a key figure in the Judson Dance Theater, launched in the summer of 1962, and Alex Hay performed in many of its productions. In the early 1960s he assisted Robert Rauschenberg on set designs for Merce Cunningham, and danced with him with roller-skates and parachutes in Rauschenberg’s now famous performance piece Pelican (1963). After these collaborations, Hay was invited to participate in 9 Evenings: Theater & Engineering at New York’s 69th Regiment Armory (fall 1966). This initiative, conceived by Rauschenberg with critical contributions from the engineer Billy Klüver, was an idealistic effort to pair artists with engineers, to merge art and new technologies. That project evolved into ...