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Deborah Nash

(b Nuremberg, Feb 21, 1938).

German painter, film maker and teacher. In 1959 he studied under Fred Thieler at the Staatliche Hochschule für Bildende Künste, Berlin, but turned away from his mentor’s abstraction to a more figurative Expressionist style of painting. In 1961 he joined a group called ‘Vision’ and in 1964 co-founded Grossgörschen 35, an artists’ co-operative that exhibited a range of figurative work by artists who rejected abstraction. Passage V (1964; Düsseldorf, priv. col., see 1986 exh. cat., p. 32) is typical of Hödicke’s interest at the time in light and reflections: a car speeds past a department store at night and the instant is caught as rapid streaks of light; lights from the car collide with the artificial lights of the glass façade.

In 1966 the Grossgörschen group dissolved and Hödicke temporarily abandoned painting for a more conceptual approach. He moved to New York where he made a number of experimental films, such as ...


Sook-Kyung Lee

One of the characteristics of Korean contemporary art is a continuous effort in employing and interpreting international art practices and discourses. Art movements from Europe and North America in particular, including Abstract Expressionism, Art informel, Minimalism, Conceptual art and Post-modernism, have influenced many Korean artists’ styles and ideas since the 1950s, providing formal and conceptual grounds for critical understandings and further experiments. Whilst some artists who maintained traditional art forms such as ink painting and calligraphy exercised modernist styles and abstract forms largely within the norms and conventions of traditional genres, a large group of artists proactively adapted to Western styles, employing new materials and techniques as well as the notions of avant-garde and experimentalism (see fig.).

A major critique of the reception of Western art and aesthetics came from ‘Minjung art’ (People’s Art) in the 1980s as part of instigating a nationalist and politically charged art strategy. Several art historians and critics who emerged in the 1990s also expanded the scope of the debate with postcolonial and pluralist points of view. The shift in social, economic and political environments played an important role in changing sensibilities in art, along with the advances of technology and new media in the 2000s. The high degree of diversity and sophistication of Korean art in terms of media and subject matters became widely acknowledged within and outside the nation, and an increasing number of artists started to work on the cutting edge of international art....


American, 20th century, male.

Born 14 March 1923, in Brooklyn (New York); died 1976, in New York.

Painter, collagist, printmaker, experimental film. Figures, abstraction.

Figurative Expressionism.

Earle Montrose Pilgrim was a Caribbean-American artist, experimental filmmaker, and jewelry designer. Pilgrim’s parents, Leon and Amy, were born in the British West Indies and settled in the Brooklyn neighbourhood of Bedford-Stuyvesant where they raised Pilgrim and his sister. Pilgrim was a rebellious youth who was expelled from high school in his sophomore year for not wearing the regulation school uniform. Instead of completing his high school education, Pilgrim took an apprenticeship with a printmaker, which was instrumental in his venture into the arts. In 1943, during World War II, Pilgrim joined the US Army and wrote for the Army newspaper, Yank. Pilgrim’s rebelliousness eventually led him to be court-martialled for his refusal to listen to a white officer.

After the war, Pilgrim returned to New York, and studied at the Art Students League as well as with jewelry maker Sam Kramer. In the summer of ...