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Article

Hungarian, 20th century, male.

Died 1941.

Painter, draughtsman. Figure compositions. Murals.

Allazio de Abacco spent some time in Rome. Influenced by German Expressionism in 1910, he was very active in Hungary between the wars producing murals for public spaces to publicise social schemes.

Article

Roberto Pontual

revised by Gillian Sneed

(b Araraquara, 1903; d Asunción, Paraguay, 1992).

Brazilian printmaker and teacher. Abramo was born into a middle-class Italian immigrant family in Araraquara, in the state of São Paulo, before moving to the city of São Paulo in 1909. In 1911 he studied drawing with painter Enrico Vio (1874–1960) at the Colégio Dante Alighieri in São Paulo. In 1926 he came into contact with German Expressionism and the work of engraver Oswaldo Goeldi, and made his first woodcut print, Vista Chinesa (1926; Echauri de Muxfeldt 2012, pl. 122), depicting a village bridge in an Expressionist style. Initially self-taught in printmaking, his work addressed social themes such as the São Paulo working class. In 1928 and 1929 he created linocuts depicting images of the working class in a Cubist style for the newspaper Lo Spaghetto. In the early 1930s he became influenced by the paintings of Tarsila’s anthropophagic phase (1928–1929) and Lasar Segall’s Expressionism. In 1930 Abramo joined the Communist Party (PCB), but he was expelled in 1932 after he was accused of being a Trotskyist. In 1931 he began working as a draftsman for the ...

Article

British-Pakistani, 20th century, female.

Born 1917, in London, England; died 1994, in Lahore (Punjab), Pakistan.

Painter.

Modern Expressionism.

Anna Molka, born in London of Polish and Russian-Jewish parents, studied at St. Martin’s School of Art in London and then at the Royal College of Art (RCA). During this period she converted from Judaism to Islam and married Sheikh Ahmed, then an Indian student at the RCA. They moved to India permanently in 1939, settling eventually in Lahore, where she was appointed the head of the newly founded, female-only Department of Fine Arts at the University of the Punjab. Known mainly for her painting, she taught diverse media and techniques at the school, including sculpture, printing, and pottery. She is remembered as a formidable, mercurial figure who kept the department alive from its modest beginnings through the bitter internal politics that characterized the department in the 1970s and 1980s.

When she was a young painter, Anna Molka’s approach was informed by the Post-Impressionist French artist Paul Gauguin, but as her art matured, she pursued an increasingly expressionistic style. Her figurative work is characterized by a thick, gestural application of paint and bold, unblended strokes of colour from a broad palette, while her subject matter is mainly realist and academic in theme, with a focus on portraits, self-portraits, and village scenes and pastoral views of rural Punjab....

Article

Swiss, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 28 March 1868, in Solothurn; died 1961, in Oschwand (Bern).

Painter, watercolourist, pastellist, engraver, lithographer, sculptor. Figure compositions, portraits, landscapes, still-lifes.

Die Brücke group. School of Pont-Aven.

Cuno Amiet began his artistic training under Frank Buchser in Feldbrunnen from 1884 to 1886. From 1886 to 1888 he trained at the academy of fine art in Munich. From 1888 to 1891 he trained under the guidance of William Bouguereau and Tony Robert-Fleury at the Académie Julian in Paris. Up to that point he had been influenced by Impressionism, which was still very much in evidence. Then in 1892, he went to Pont-Aven and made contact with O'Connor, Émile Bernard, Sérusier and Armand Seguin. They introduced him to the ideas and techniques suggested by Gauguin to those who would soon be classed as the École de Pont-Aven. They would also call themselves 'Nabis'....

Article

(b Solothurn, March 28, 1868; d Oschwand, July 6, 1961).

Swiss painter and sculptor. From 1884 to 1886 he received irregular lessons from the Swiss painter Frank Buscher (1828–90). In the autumn of 1886 he attended the Akademie der bildenden Künste in Munich and the following year met Giovanni Giacometti, who was to be a lifelong friend. In 1888 he visited the Internationale Kunstausstellung in Munich, where he was particularly impressed by the work of Jules Bastien-Lepage and Whistler. This prompted him to go to Paris to continue his studies, and from 1888 to 1891 he attended the Académie Julian, working under William-Adolphe Bouguereau, Tony Robert-Fleury and Gabriel Ferrier. While in Paris he also met Paul Sérusier, Maurice Denis and other Nabis artists, though his own painting of this period was most influenced by Impressionism. In 1892 he was advised to visit Pont-Aven in Brittany, where he met Emile Bernard, Armand Séguin and Roderic O’Conor, as well as seeing the works of Vincent Van Gogh and Gauguin at first hand. This brief period had a decisive effect upon his work, leading to such Synthetist paintings as ...

Article

Joan Marter

[Aleksandr ]

(b Kiev, Ukraine, May 30, 1887; d New York, Feb 25, 1964).

Ukrainian sculptor, active in Paris and in the USA. He began studying painting and sculpture at the School of Art in Kiev in 1902 but was forced to leave in 1905 after criticizing the academicism of his instructors. In 1906 he went to Moscow, where, according to the artist, he participated in some group exhibitions (Archipenko, p. 68). In 1908 he established himself in Paris, where he rejected the most favoured contemporary sculptural styles, including the work of Rodin. After only two weeks of formal instruction at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts he left to teach himself sculpture by direct study of examples in the Musée du Louvre. By 1910 Archipenko was exhibiting with the Cubists at the Salon des Indépendants, and his work was shown at the Salon d’Automne from 1911 to 1913.

A variety of cultural sources lies behind Archipenko’s work. He remained indebted throughout his career to the spiritual values and visual effects found in the Byzantine culture of his youth and had a strong affinity for ancient Egyptian, Gothic, and primitive art that co-existed with the influence of modernist styles such as Cubism and Futurism....

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 1907, in Raymond (Washington); died 1994.

Painter.

Darrel Austin set himself the task of rendering the dramas and conflicts of the human condition, via an Expressionist vision, between the two world wars.

New York, 11 Nov 1959: Lady of the Night...

Article

American, 20th century, male.

Born 1936.

Painter.

Edward Avedesian painting has evolved over the years from abstract expressionism, minimalism and pop-abstraction, through colour field painting in the 1970s, and then to a form of bold figuration. He has exhibited his work in New York and Los Angeles, notably at the Mitchell Algus Gallery in New York in ...

Article

Croat, 20th century, male.

Born 1890, in Jastrebarsko.

Painter, art critic.

Ljubo Babic studied in Zagreb, Munich and Paris. His painting evolved from the 1920s Yugoslavian Neo-Realism to a style of Expressionism depicting simplified forms in vivid colours. He was also known as an art critic....

Article

Swedish, 20th century, male.

Born 1911, in Halmstad; died 1981.

Painter, sculptor.

Neo-Constructivism.

Olle Baertling settled in Stockholm in 1928 and started painting in 1938. At the beginning of his career he was an Expressionist, but then began to paint portraits under the influence of Matisse. He subsequently studied under André Lothe and Léger in Paris in ...

Article

Dutch, 20th century, male.

Born 1912, in Eindhoven.

Painter, watercolourist. Scenes with figures.

Bakel was self-taught. He was interested in Flemish expressionists and organized exhibitions at the Stedelijk Museum in Eindhoven. In 1946, he spent some time in Paris and he spent further periods at Pont-Aven (in ...

Article

Yvonne Modlin

(b Wedel, nr Hamburg, Jan 2, 1870; d Rostock, Oct 24, 1938).

German sculptor and printmaker. He experimented with several media because he believed that conventional forms of communication were too formulaic and often failed to make tangible the essence of artistic vision. In his plastic and literary oeuvres Barlach sought to define and externalize the inner processes of humanity and nature through depriving his subject of its superficial mask and extraneous detail.

Barlach studied sculpture at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Hamburg (1888–9) and at the Dresden Akademie (1891–5), where he became the chief pupil of the sculptor Robert Diez (b 1844). After two brief visits to the Académie Julian in Paris, he returned to Germany and collaborated with his friend Karl Garbers (b 1864) on a commission for architectural sculptures for the city halls of Hamburg and Altona. Barlach’s early work was influenced by the sinuous, wavy line of Jugendstil. In 1899 he moved to Berlin, where he lived for two years, but he later returned to Wedel, hoping to find inspiration in a familial environment. In the winter of ...

Article

Kathleen James-Chakraborty

(b Karlsruhe, April 12, 1883; d Darmstadt, Feb 20, 1959).

German architect and writer. Bartning studied at the Technische Hochschule in Karlsruhe and at the Technische Hochschule and the University in Berlin. In 1905 he established a practice in Berlin. By 1918 he had received c. 50 commissions, but he only began to publish his work after World War I. The upheavals of the period prompted him to propose the spatial and stylistic reorganization of German Protestant church building as a means of restoring social harmony. His book, On New Church Buildings, appeared in 1919 and spurred a revolution in German sacred architecture. During the 1920s Bartning joined the Novembergruppe, the Arbeitsrat für Kunst, and Der Ring, the principal German avant-garde artistic and architectural groups. His most interesting contribution to the brief period of German Expressionism was the Sternkirche project (1922). The centralized church is surmounted by a roof of layered concrete shells that are supported by a thicket of columns, intended as a reinterpretation of Gothic construction....

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 1886, in Lyons; died 1926.

Painter, pastellist. Landscapes, flowers.

Lyons School.

Adrien Bas participated in the Salon d'Automne in Paris, notably in 1919 and 1920. His landscapes have rather an Expressionist feel, particularly when executed in pastel. This is achieved by emphasising the volumes and planes with the use of luminous colours....

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Born 1878.

Painter. Landscapes.

Der Blaue Reiter group.

In around 1911 or 1912, Bechtejeff formed part of the Blaue Reiter (Blue Rider) group, in which he does not seem to have played an active part. He sought to give his art a modernist style....

Article

Christian Lenz

(b Leipzig, Feb 12, 1884; d New York, Dec 27, 1950).

German painter, draughtsman, printmaker and teacher. He was one of the most important German painters of the 20th century. He was initially influenced by traditional styles, but during World War I he rejected perspective and classical proportion in favour of a more expressive objective art. He was persecuted by the Nazis in the 1930s but continued to work, painting his celebrated secular triptychs in the late 1930s and the 1940s.

Beckmann showed artistic promise from an early age, painting as early as c. 1898 a Self-portrait with Soap Bubbles (mixed media on cardboard; priv. col.; see Lackner, 1991, p. 10). After training at the Kunstschule in Weimar (1900–03), he studied under the patronage of Julius Meier-Graefe in Paris. There he became acquainted with the works of the Impressionists, Cézanne, van Gogh and probably such early French paintings as the Avignon Pietà. From 1903 until the outbreak of World War I he lived mostly in or near Berlin. He began painting landscapes and from ...

Article

American, 20th–21st century, female.

Born 1923, in Providence (Rhode Island).

Painter, printmaker. Figures, animals, beasts.

Figurative Expressionism.

Miriam Beerman studied painting with John Frazier at Rhode Island School of Design (RISD) and received her BFA in 1945. After RISD, Beerman studied with Japanese-American painter Yasuo Kuniyoshi at the Art Students League in New York, and Latvian-American abstract painter Adja Yunkers at the New School for Social Research. Beerman also spent two years in France on a Fulbright Scholarship (1954–1956), where she briefly studied at Atelier 17 in Paris. In the 1960s, Beerman and her husband moved to Brooklyn, New York, and she gave birth to her son Bill. Beerman had a one-woman show in 1971 at the Brooklyn Museum called The Enduring Beast. It was an aptly titled show for an artist whose work deals with human tragedy and who had witnessed the horrors of contemporary post–World War II society. The family lived in Brooklyn for 13 years before moving to Montclair, New Jersey, where she lived, worked, and taught painting for many years. In ...

Article

Iain Boyd Whyte

(b Hamburg, April 14, 1868; d Berlin, Feb 27, 1940).

German architect, designer and painter. Progressing from painting and graphics to product design and architecture, Behrens achieved his greatest successes with his work for the Allgemeine Elektrizitäts-Gesellschaft (AEG), in which he reconciled the Prussian Classicist tradition with the demands of industrial fabrication.

After attending the Realgymnasium in Altona, he began his painting studies in 1886 at the Kunstakademie in Karlsruhe. From there he moved to Düsseldorf, where he studied with Ferdinand Brütt. In December 1889 Behrens married Lilli Krämer, and the following year the couple moved to Munich, where he continued his studies with Hugo Kotschenreiter (1854–1908). Behrens was one of the founder-members of the Munich Secession (see Secession, §1) in 1893 and, shortly afterwards, a founder of the more progressive Freie Vereinigung Münchener Künstler, with Otto Eckmann, Max Slevogt, Wilhelm Trübner and Lovis Corinth. He also joined the circle associated with the magazine Pan, which included Otto Julius Bierbaum, Julius Meier-Graefe, Franz Blei, Richard Dehmel and Otto Eckmann....

Article

Lenka Bydžovská

(b Velké Lišice, nr Chlumec nad Cidlinou, Jan 22, 1883; d Prague, March 27, 1979).

Czech painter, writer and theorist. In 1902–4 he studied at the Prague School of Applied Art and in 1904–7 at the Academy of Fine Arts. After visiting Dresden, Berlin, Munich and Paris, he returned to Prague and joined Eight, the, which had been set up by his former fellow students; he exhibited at the group’s second show in 1908. His early work was influenced by the ideas of Bohumil Kubišta, with whom he shared a workshop. Although basically an uncomplicated, sensual painter, he attempted to keep well informed about contemporary artistic trends. In 1910–14 he became a fervent devotee of Cubism and, together with Emil Filla, adhered faithfully to the style of Picasso and Braque. He was one of the founders (1911) of the Group of Plastic Artists and contributed theoretical articles to its journal, Umělecký měsíčník. No consistent reconstruction of his paintings before World War I can be made because most of his Cubist works were later destroyed. His process of crystallization in relation to the painting of space culminated in ...

Article

Belgian, 20th century, male.

Painter.

In the course of an adventurous life, Benoit produced a body of work that, despite some Naïve aspects in terms of technique, nevertheless belongs in other respects to the Belgian Expressionist movement.