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Christian Norberg-Schulz

Norwegian architectural and furniture design partnership formed in 1922 by Gudolf Blakstad (b Gjerpen, 19 May 1893; d Oslo, 1986) and Herman Munthe-Kaas (b Christiania [now Oslo], 25 May 1890; d Oslo, 5 March 1970). Blakstad was awarded his diploma as an architect at the Norwegian Institute of Technology in Trondheim in 1916. He collaborated with Jens Dunker on the New Theatre, Oslo, from 1919 to 1929. After a preliminary training in Christiania, Munthe-Kaas finished his education at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm in 1919.

From the beginning of their careers Blakstad and Munthe-Kaas played a leading role in Norwegian architecture. After studying in Italy in the early 1920s, they advocated Neo-classicism in architectural projects, furniture designs and writings. In 1922 they won the competition for the new Town Hall in Haugesund (1924–31), a major work of 20th-century Norwegian Neo-classicism. Above a powerfully rusticated basement, the long office wing with its regular fenestration contrasts with the higher City Council Hall, accentuated by pairs of monumental, free-standing columns. In general the effect is of robust strength and an exciting interplay of horizontals and verticals....


Belgian, 20th century, male.

Born 1869, in Antwerp; died 1941, in Brussels.

Painter, sculptor, illustrator, poster artist. Religious subjects, portraits, landscapes.

Art Nouveau.

Having first studied law, Ghisbert Combaz became a pupil at the academy in Antwerp and a professor at the Brussels academy. He spent most of his life in Antwerp, where he exhibited from 1886 onwards; he also exhibited in conjunction with the association of Art Nouveau artists known as the Libre Esthétique from 1897. As an art historian, he made special study of the art of the Far East. With their sinuous and undulating rhythm, the arabesques in his engravings and posters provide typical examples of the Modern Style....


German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 13 July 1873, in Neuhaus; died 1948, in Dresden.

Sculptor, medallist. Religious subjects, figures, animals. Funerary monuments, designs (porcelain).

Art Deco.

Max Hermann Fritz was a student of Lorenz Hutschenreuther, and was active in Dresden from 1898. He carried out numerous sculptures for Hartau Church (including a ...


French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1864, in Remiremont, Lorraine; died 16 December 1948, in Lay-St-Christophe, Lorraine.

Painter, designer. Religious subjects, figures, landscapes. Murals, designs for fabrics and book binding.

Art Nouveau.

School of Nancy.

The father of the sculptor Henri Guingot, Louis Guingot trained from ...


Christian Norberg-Schulz

(b Christiania [now Oslo], Aug 14, 1900; d Cuzco, Peru, Aug 29, 1968).

Norwegian architect and designer. He graduated as an architect from the Norwegian Polytechnic in Trondheim in 1926. He worked as an assistant to architects in Oslo and in 1928 travelled extensively in Europe before starting his own practice in Oslo with Sverre Aasland (b 1899) in 1929. Together they designed the Frøen housing development (1929–30), the block of flats at Pavels Gate 6 (1930), Oslo, the Havna housing development, Oslo, including Villa Dammann (1930–32), and a grain silo in Kristiansand (1933–6).

Korsmo was a major exponent of the Modern Movement in Norway during the 1930s, and continued to expound its tenets after World War II. His first important work, the Villa Dammann, is a good illustration of his sensitive and original approach. It is reminiscent of the work of Erich Mendelsohn and W. M. Dudok: the exterior walls are concrete, interrupted in places by brick. A large, semi-cylindrical projection on the south side accommodates the living-room, and it is broken only by a horizontal strip of windows, set high so as to give a large wall area for the display of a painting collection inside....


South African, 20th century, male.

Born 8 May 1903, in Plungian, Lithuania; died 25 October 1980, in Kiryat Tivon, Israel.

Sculptor in diverse materials, draughtsman, printmaker.

In 1908, Isreal-Isaac Lipshitz emigrated to South Africa where he remained, apart from trips abroad, until his retirement to Israel in ...


Romanian, 20th century, male.

Born 1873, in Pitesti.

Painter, fresco artist. History painting, religious subjects.

Art Nouveau.

Costin Petrescu studied in Bucharest and Vienna and became professor at the fine arts academy in Bucharest.


Spanish, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1856, in Barcelona; died 1932.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtsman, illustrator. Religious subjects, figures, portraits, genre scenes.

Symbolism, Art Nouveau.

José Maria Tamburini y Dalmau came from a family of silversmiths of Italian origin who settled in Barcelona. From the age of 13 he studied under Antoni Caba at the Barcelona school of fine arts. He then went to Paris where he worked at the studio of the portrait artist Léon Bonnat. He then later spent time in Naples and returned to live in Barcelona in ...