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Article

A. G. Gertsen

[Turk. Baghče sarǎy: ‘Garden palace’]

Ukrainian city in the Crimea, 35 km north-east of Sevastopol, which was the capital of the Tatar in the Crimea throughout the rule of the Giray dynasty (c. 1423–1783). It developed from an important burial ground of the Giray khans, but the Garden Palace (1503–19), founded by Khan Mengli Giray I (reg 1466–1514 with interruptions) and covering over 4 ha in the valley of the River Churuk-Su, represents the historical core of the city. The earliest structure is the Demirkap (‘Iron gate’) with an inscription referring to Mengli Giray and the date 1503. It is thought to be by the Italian architect Aleviz Novy or Aloisio (fl early 16th century), builder of the cathedral of the Archangel Michael (wooden church, 1333; rebuilt 1505–8) in the Moscow Kremlin. Little is known of the layout of the palace in the 16th and 17th centuries as it was badly damaged by fire in ...

Article

John Seyller

[Bālchand; Bālacanda]

(fl c. 1596–1640).

Indian miniature painter , brother of Payag. Balchand began his long career in the imperial Mughal atelier with figural illuminations on at least three pages (fols 17r, 33v, 60v) of the Bāharistān (‘Spring garden’) of Jamiz of 1595 (Oxford, Bodleian Lib., MS. Elliot 254). The small, repetitive figures in two lightly coloured illustrations in the Akbarnāma (‘History of Akbar’) of 1596–7 (Dublin, Chester Beatty Lib., MS. 3, fols 152v–153r; alternatively dated c. 1604) also bear the mark of youthful apprenticeship. Among the few works known from the next two decades are a single illustration ascribed to him from a dispersed Shāhnāma (‘Book of Kings’) of c. 1610 (ex-Colnaghi’s, London, 1976, no. 88ii), a border decoration in an album prepared for Jahangir between 1609 and 1618 (Berlin, Staatsbib. Preuss. Kultbes., Libr. pict. A117, fol. 13v), a portrait of the Dying ‛Inayat Khan...

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 25 November 1870, in Granville; died 13 November 1943, in St-Germain-en-Laye, in a traffic accident.

Painter, watercolourist, engraver, lithographer, draughtsman, illustrator, designer. Religious subjects, figure compositions, figures, nudes, portraits, rustic scenes, scenes with figures, landscapes, gardens, urban landscapes, church interiors, still-lifes...

Article

Italian, 15th – 16th century, male.

Born after 1490, in Ferrara; died c. 1548, in Ferrara.

Painter, decorative artist, caricaturist. Religious subjects, landscapes.

Ferrara School.

Battista Dossi was a landscape artist and caricaturist. He was the pupil of Lorenzo Costa, and worked almost exclusively with his brother Giovanni, although they did not get on. Battista had a difficult temperament and was physically deformed, and only communicated with his brother in writing. According to Barruffaldi, they lived in Rome for six years, then in Venice for five years, where they painted from nature, and had the best teachers....

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 8 April 1880, in Anzin; died 20 September 1947, in Paris.

Painter, draughtsman (charcoal), engraver, lithographer, illustrator, designer. Historical subjects, military subjects, religious subjects, sporting subjects, figures, portraits, historical portraits, scenes with figures, local scenes, genre scenes, street scenes, interiors with figures, church interiors, landscapes, waterscapes, seascapes, gardens, panoramas...

Article

Bruce A. Coats

[Kūtaiji; Kūdaiji; Kubonji]

Buddhist temple and garden near Nara in the Sōraku District, Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. It is a temple of the Pure Land (Jōdo) sect of Esoteric Buddhism. The present compound contains a honden (main hall), a pagoda and a pond garden. Alone among Pure Land temples, Jōruriji retains its original 12th-century garden designed to look like the Western Paradise. Temple records indicate that the temple was established in 1047 with the construction of a honden dedicated to Yakushi (Skt Bhaishajyaguru; the Buddha of healing). It was reconstructed in 1107 as a hall for the worship of Amida (Skt Amitabha; Buddha of the Western Paradise) and moved to its present position in 1157.

The Amida Hall (Amidadō) stands on the western side of the pond. It is a wooden post-and-beam structure in the yosemune zukuri (‘hipped-gable roof construction’) format, 11 bays long and 4 bays deep, and is the only extant example of a ...

Article

Werner Wilhelm Schnabel

(b Dresden, March 2, 1718; d Dresden, Nov 28, 1789).

German architect, teacher, theorist and landscape designer. He was first taught mathematics and the rudiments of architecture by his uncle, Christian Friedrich Krubsacius (d 1746), a lieutenant-colonel in the engineers’ corps. He received further training from Zacharias Longuelune and Jean de Bodt. In 1740 he held the post of ‘Kondukteur’ in the building department at Dresden. From c. 1745 he collaborated in the designs of the chief state master builder, Johann Christoph Knöffel. After Knöffel’s death, Krubsacius became the favoured architect of Heinrich, Graf von Brühl, at that time the most important architectural patron in Saxony. In 1755 he was appointed Electoral Court Master Builder, a position created especially for him. He went on a study trip to Paris in 1755–6, at Brühl’s instigation. After the outbreak of the Seven Years War in 1756, his scope for architectural employment deteriorated, so he turned to teaching. In 1764 he became Professor of Architecture at the newly founded Dresden Kunstakademie. His most important work was Schloss Neschwitz (...

Article

German, 19th century, male.

Born 8 December 1815, in Breslau (now Wroclaw, Poland); died 9 February 1905, in Berlin.

Painter, watercolourist, pastellist, engraver, draughtsman (including charcoal). Historical subjects, portraits, genre scenes, interiors with figures, church interiors, landscapes, urban landscapes, gardens, animals.

Munich School.

Adolf Menzel was first taught by his father, a lithographer, and then studied at the academy in Berlin until his father's death. He was made famous by his historical paintings, being a semi-official painter honoured by the emperor. He became a member of the Berlin academy in 1853, and was also a member of the academies of Vienna, Munich, Dresden and Brussels. In 1875, he became a member of the Senate of the Berlin academy of fine arts. He was awarded medals in 1857 in Berlin, 1879 in Munich, 1883-1888 in Vienna, 1893 in Chicago and 1894 in Antwerp....

Article

Bruce A. Coats

(b Ise Prov. [now in Mie Prefect.], 1275; d Kyoto, 1351).

Japanese Zen master, poet, scholar and garden designer. As spiritual adviser to both Emperor GoDaigo (reg 1318–39) and the military leaders who overthrew him, Musō was politically influential and acted as mediator during the civil wars of the 1330s. At various times in his life Musō served as abbot of Nanzenji, one of the various Gozan (Five Mountains) Zen monasteries including Nanzenji in Kyoto (see Kyoto §IV 4.). The support of both imperial and shogunal courts enabled him to found many new Rinzai Zen temples. He was instrumental in popularizing Zen teachings, though also criticized for the secularization of some Zen institutions. Three times during his life and four times posthumously he was given the honorific title kokushi (National Master).

Musō began Buddhist studies at the age of three. Although his early training was in the Esoteric Tendai and Shingon doctrines, attraction to Zen brought him to Kamakura, where he received instruction from the Japanese disciples of distinguished Chinese Chan (Jap. Zen) monks, including Kōhō Kennichi (...

Article

Italian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 6 March 1859, in Verona; died 1937.

Painter, engraver (etching). Religious subjects, figures, genre scenes, landscapes, flowers.

A talented landscape artist, de Stefani was a skilled colourist, using strong and warm tones together with an accurate and confident line....

Article

French, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 20 November 1757, in Moutier-en-Der (Haute-Marne); died 27 June 1826, in Paris.

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, draughtsman (including ink). Church interiors, landscapes with figures, landscapes, urban landscapes, gardens, harbour scenes, architectural views.

Jean Thomas Thibault made his name essentially through his architectural drawings....

Article

Monique Riccardi-Cubitt

French term used to describe artefacts made in Turkey, or in France by Turkish craftsmen, and by derivation the influence on French design of elements from the Byzantine Empire, the Saljuq Islamic period and the Ottoman Empire. Specific motifs, borrowed from the original Turkish carpets, included arabesques or stylized flowers and vegetal scrolls and decorative animal forms—also included within the generic term ‘grotesques’—from the Renaissance onwards. From the Middle Ages inventories and accounts record objects façon de Turquie imported from the East through the Crusades or the Silk route. In the accounts (1316) of Geoffroi de Fleuri, treasurer to King Philippe V of France, ‘11 cloths of Turkey’ were noted, and in 1471 the inventory of the château of Angers records a wooden spoon and a cushion ‘à la façon de Turquie’. In the 16th century Turkish textiles were highly prized, and Turkish craftsmen were employed in Paris to embroider cloth for ladies’ dresses: in ...

Article

German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 22 May 1848, in Wolkenburg; died 25 February 1911, in Munich.

Painter (including gouache), draughtsman (charcoal), pastellist. Religious subjects, historical subjects, figures, genre scenes, interiors with figures, rustic scenes, landscapes, gardens.

Symbolism.

Munich Secession group.

Von Uhde was one of the most original and appealing German personalities of the second half of the 19th century. He studied painting in Munich, but then signed up for ten years in the Saxon cavalry. Resigning from the army, he want to Paris and made the acquaintance of Mihály Munkácsy, who was enjoying enormous prestige after showing his ...

Article

Uzgend  

V. D. Goryacheva

[Uzgand; Uzgen]

Town in Kyrgyzstan. Located between the Kara and Yassa (Dzhaza) rivers in the eastern part of the Ferghana Valley, Uzgend is set on three hills and comprises three freestanding towns and citadels surrounded by suburban estates and gardens. The town developed in the 8th and 9th centuries along the Silk Route as a border post on the frontier between the lands of Islam and the Turks. In the 10th and 11th centuries it became the major trading and administrative center in the region and the fourth largest town in Ferghana, covering 12–15 sq. km. From the second half of the 11th century to the beginning of the 13th it was the capital of the Ferghana region of the Qarakhanid khanate, and the major architectural ensemble of the town, comprising three dynastic mausolea, the Friday mosque and minaret, and the remains of a madrasa, dates from this period. Square chambers with ...

Article

Russian, 19th century, male.

Born 26 October 1842, in Luibez (Cherepovets district, Novgorod); died 13 April 1904, in Port Arthur (now Lushun, China).

Painter, designer, illustrator, writer. Historical subjects, military subjects, battles, genre scenes, portraits, figures, interiors with figures, church interiors, landscapes, townscapes, seascapes, architectural views, ruins, gardens, animals, birds, costume studies...

Article

Dutch, 16th century, male.

Born 1526, in Leeuwarden; died between 1606 and 1609, in Antwerp.

Painter, architect, draughtsman, engraver, designer of ornamental architectural features, decorative artist, art restorer. Religious subjects, landscapes, architectural views, interiors, church interiors, gardens, decorative motifs (grotesques), models (buildings).

Prague School.

Hans Vredeman de Vries was a pupil of Cornelis Floris (Cornelis Cornelis de Vriendt) and studied painting in Amsterdam. He was a great traveller and went to Mechelen, to Antwerp in 1549 and again in 1562 and from 1575 to 1585 and then to Leipzig. In 1586, he went to Frankfurt and then Brunswick, where he was based until 1596. In 1591 he was in Hamburg. Between 1592 and 1595 he worked in Danzig (now Gdansk) where he designed the fortifications and some ornamental motifs and also decorated the town hall and a number of churches. Next he went to Prague (1596-1598), to the court of Rudolph II, and to Amsterdam and The Hague. He had two sons, Salomon and Paul, who worked with him....