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Article

Anjar  

Hafez K. Chehab

[Andjar, ‛Anjar, ‛Ayn al-Jarr]

Late Antique and early Islamic settlement in the Beqa‛a Valley of Lebanon, 56 km east of Beirut. Excavations since 1953 have revealed a cardinally orientated rectangular enclosure (370×310 m) with dressed stone walls. Each side has regularly spaced half-round towers and a central gate. Two colonnaded avenues intersecting at right angles under a tetrapylon link the gates, a plan recalling that of Roman foundations in the Levant and in North Africa. Within the enclosure are the remains of two palaces and the foundations of three others in stone and hard mortar, as well as a mosque, two baths (one paved with mosaics) and a well. The western area has streets intersecting at right angles and housing units with private courts, and the eastern area has open fields beyond the palaces and mosque. The construction of the greater palace in alternating courses of stone and brick is a technique well known in Byzantine architecture. Reused architectural elements from the Roman and early Christian periods, some bearing Greek inscriptions, are found all over the site. A large quantity of archivolts and mouldings, carved with vegetal, geometrical and figural motifs, was found among the ruined palaces. Texts suggest that Anjar was founded in the time of the Umayyad caliph al-Walid (...

Article

Arcabas  

French, 20th century, male.

Born 1926, in Frémery (Moselle).

Painter, sculptor, decorative designer. Figure compositions, religious subjects, landscapes. Murals, church decoration, designs for mosaics and stained-glass windows, stage sets, stage costumes.

Arcabas studied at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris and also had a degree. He was a friend of the painter Dimitri Varbanesco. He exhibited in numerous towns in France and abroad. From ...

Article

French, 20th century, female.

Born 19 November 1889, in Verdun; died 25 June 1972.

Painter, draughtswoman, humorist artist, watercolourist, illustrator, designer. Religious subjects, figures, portraits, genre scenes. Church decoration, furniture, frescoes, designs for tapestry, posters, costumes.

The third child of Edouard Branly, a doctor, Elisabeth Branly trained with Claire Chevalet, as well as with Jacques Cancaret at the Académie Julian until ...

Article

Virginia Davis

[Order of the Holy Saviour]

Religious order named after its foundress, St Bridget of Sweden (c. 1303–73; can 1391), a devout woman with Swedish court connections. In 1346 she founded Vadstena Abbey in Sweden, which she intended to be an influential spiritual centre reflecting the original group of the faithful with the Virgin at its head. Vadstena became the model for other Brigittine houses. Bridget went to Rome in 1349 to seek approval for her Order, dying there after returning from a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. Her body was returned to Vadstena in 1374.

The Brigittine Rule, the Regula Sancti Salvatoris, supposedly was revealed to Bridget by Christ. With the Augustinian Rule (see Augustinian Canons §1), it formed the constitution of the Order, which was finally recognized by Pope Urban VI (reg 1378–89) in a bull of 1378. The Order flourished mainly in northern Europe in the later Middle Ages. Intended primarily for women, it had double houses with separate but adjacent convents for men and women, sharing a church. Monks were superior in spiritual matters, the abbess in all else. Monasteries were large by contemporary standards, the rule stipulating that they should have 85 members. Convents were consecrated at Vadstena in ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 3 September 1921, in La Baule.

Painter, lithographer, illustrator. Scenes with figures, portraits, nudes, landscapes, still-lifes. Stage sets, stage costumes, church decoration.

Jean Bruneau was a student at the École des Beaux-Arts in Nantes from 1938 to 1945 and won the Prix de la Ville de Nantes in his final year. In ...

Article

French, 19th century, male.

Born 29 March 1808, in Paris; died 20 October 1892, in Paris.

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, illustrator, lithographer. Historical subjects, religious subjects, figures, genre scenes, interiors with figures, architectural views, costume studies.

Jules David studied under Duval-Lecamus and featured in the Paris Salon from 1834 to 1885....

Article

French, 18 – 19th century, male.

Born 26 April 1798, in Charenton-St-Maurice, France; died 13 August 1863, in Paris, France.

Painter, watercolourist, engraver, lithographer. Historical and religious subjects, figure compositions, battles, hunting scenes, local scenes, figures, costume studies, landscapes, animals, horses, flowers. Murals.

Orientalism, Romanticism.

Eugène Delacroix’s father, Charles Delacroix, was successively deputy minister of foreign affairs in The Hague and prefect of Marseilles and Bordeaux under the Directory, the First Republic, and the First Empire under the Republic. He died when Delacroix was only seven years old, leaving his family with next to no financial support. Delacroix then lost his mother when he was age 16. In 1814, he attempted an etching, of which only a single impression remains, on the bottom of a saucepan depicting a hunchback, a profile of Napoléon Bonaparte, and an officer on horseback. That year he also made an engraving on the copper plate formerly used to print the letterhead of his father when he was prefect of Marseilles. By 1815 Delacroix had already begun to copy engravings, a habit that would continue for many years. He studied in Paris at the Lycée Louis-le-Grand school but wrote to a friend in 1815 that he wished to leave school and develop his talent as an amateur painter. His initial inclination had been to study music, but by 1816, he had made his choice, partly motivated by admiration for Goya’s painting, ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 10 June 1880, in Chatou; died 10 September 1954, in Garches, as the result of an accident.

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, pastellist, draughtsman (red chalk/charcoal/ink), sculptor (including bronze), engraver (wood/metal), lithographer, illustrator. Religious subjects, figures, portraits, nudes, hunting scenes, scenes with figures, horse racing scenes, landscapes, waterscapes, landscapes with figures, urban landscapes, seascapes, architectural views, still-lifes, flowers, fruit...

Article

French, 18th century, male.

Born May 1743, in Auxerre; died 17 March 1804, in Stockholm.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtsman (including ink/wash), engraver (etching), caricaturist, decorative artist, architect. Religious subjects, historical subjects, military subjects, church interiors, architectural interiors, landscapes with figures, landscapes, urban views, harbour scenes, architectural views, costume studies...

Article

Fibula  

Niamh Whitfield

[Lat.: ‘brooch’]

Metal dress-pin that not only was used as a clothes’ fastener, but also acted as a sign of an individual’s allegiance, wealth, and status (see fig.). Brooches are common finds in pre-Christian graves of the Germanic peoples and Vikings, enabling inferences to be drawn about their uses, the garments to which they were attached, and migration patterns. For the later Middle Ages, comparable information can be gleaned not only from the objects but also figural representations, wills, and inventories.

Many brooches from the early Middle Ages descend from Roman fibulae of different types. These include the penannular brooches from Ireland and Britain, fastened by a pin slotted through a gap in a ring; disc-brooches, fastened by a pin on the back, and worn especially by Germanic women; and the various elongated Germanic bow brooches, which seem to be adaptations of the cross-bow fibulae worn by Roman officials in Late Antiquity (...

Article

Spanish, 20th century, male.

Active also active in France.

Born 5 February 1897, in Murcia; died 1967, in Paris (?).

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, pastellist, engraver (etching), draughtsman, illustrator. Figure compositions, figures, bullfighting scenes, harbour views. Church decoration, stage sets, stage costumes.

Following the collapse of the family business, Pedro Flores was allowed to leave school and study drawing at the Friends of Murcia academy where he was awarded the Government of Murcia Prize for Painting at a very young age. He also appears to have studied at the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando in Madrid. In ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 14 April 1886 or or, in Paris; died April 1953.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtsman, humorist, illustrator. Religious subjects, portraits, genre scenes, landscapes with figures, landscapes, still-lifes, flowers. Stage sets, stage costumes.

André Foy began his career by producing drawings for various humorous French newpapers and the London ...

Article

Amy Widmayer

[Galliano-Guillen, Juan Carlos Antonio]

(b Gibraltar, Nov 28, 1960).

British fashion designer, active also in France. Half renegade, half romantic, as a designer for Christian Dior, Galliano deftly captured Dior’s essence, creating excessively elegant garments for the modern, youthful woman unafraid of breaking fashion rules (see fig.). Known for his extravagant catwalk shows, over-the-top couture collections and knack for blending street- and high fashion, Galliano’s outrageous adaptations of iconic Dior silhouettes, master tailoring skills and penchant for theatrics, combined with a keen business sense, have earned him the distinction of being one of the most influential designers of his generation.

Born into a family of modest means in Gibraltar and raised in gritty south London, Galliano was educated at the prestigious Central Saint Martin’s College of Art and Design, where he graduated with a first class honours degree in 1984. His final collection at Central Saint Martin’s, entitled ‘Les Incroyables’, was an irreverent nod to the tattered clothing of the French Revolutionaries, and showcased not only his flawless technical skill, but his astute attention to detail and his passion for historical research....

Article

British, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1862, in Birmingham; died 4 June 1928.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtsman, illustrator, worker in precious metals, designer. Religious subjects, allegorical subjects, portraits. Jewellery.

Arts and Crafts.

Arthur Joseph Gaskin studied at the Birmingham School of Art, where he later taught. He was a member of the Arts and Crafts movement founded by William Morris, whose aim was to revitalise the decorative arts. From 1899, together with his wife Georgina Cave France, he created gold and silver jewellery, sometimes decorated with enamel. In 1902, he replaced R. Catterson Smith as director of the Birmingham School of Jewellery. He exhibited paintings at the Royal Academy in London in 1889 and 1890 and jewellery at the 1900 Paris Exposition Universelle....

Article

French, 19th century, male.

Born 1851, in Paris; died 1944, in St-Briac-sur-Mer (Ille-et-Vilaine).

Enameller, jeweller. Religious subjects, mythological subjects, allegorical subjects, portraits.

In 1874, Grandhomme gave an enamel portrait of Vittoria Colonna to the Paris Salon; he then worked with Puvis de Chavannes and Delaunay and was influenced by the painter Raphael Colin. In ...

Article

Alison Inglis

(b Plymouth, April 1806; d London, June 11, 1881).

English painter. His father, Samuel Hart, was a pupil of Abraham Daniel (d 1806), an engraver, miniature painter and jeweller. Hart moved to London c. 1820. His family could not afford to apprentice him to the line engraver Charles Warren, but in 1823 he entered the Royal Academy Schools. While studying there he painted miniatures and coloured theatrical prints for a living, exhibiting his first picture, a miniature, in 1826. In 1830 his Interior of a Jewish Synagogue at the Time of the Reading of the Law (1830; London, Tate) was purchased by the collector Robert Vernon. Not wishing to become a ‘painter of merely religious ceremonies’, Hart began to execute historical subjects, often taken from Shakespeare or, as with Richard Coeur de Lion and the Soldan Saladin (1835; Liverpool, Walker A.G.), from Walter Scott’s novels. In 1835 he was elected ARA and in 1840 he became the first Jewish RA....

Article

David M. Sokol

(b Russian Poland, April 10, 1872; d New York, July 26, 1946).

American painter of Russian-Polish origin. He claimed to have carved wooden ceremonial objects as a young boy, but ceased to create until he retired from his clothing manufacturing concern and began to paint. When Sidney Janis was arranging an exhibition of American folk art for the Museum of Modern Art (MOMA), New York, in 1939, he saw Hirshfield’s naive works in a gallery in New York. He exhibited two in the show and organized a one-man show for the artist in 1943; he also purchased two works, including Beach Girl (1937; New York, MOMA). In such paintings Hirshfield based large areas of the overall design on the fabrics with which he worked during his years in business, and his outlined forms on the art of patternmaking. In this and slightly later works, such as Inseparable Friends (1941; New York, MOMA), an ambiguous treatment of young female sexuality is played off against the patterns and the repetition of forms....

Article

French, 18th century, male.

Born 1697, in Paris; died 5 October 1778, in Paris.

Engraver (etching/burin), watercolourist (?). Religious subjects, mythological subjects, figures, portraits, nudes, scenes with figures, rustic scenes, costumes.

According to Mariette, François Joullain was a pupil of Gillot, which seems all the more likely since the numerous reproductions he executed after this master marvellously preserve Gillot's style. He may also have received advice from Laurent Cars. Joullain engraved after Watteau: ...

Article

German, 16th century, male.

Born 1515, in Munich; died 10 March 1573, in Munich.

Painter, draughtsman, miniaturist, copyist. Religious subjects, historical subjects, portraits. Designs for jewellery, decorative designs.

Munich School.

Hans Mülich's family came originally from Augsburg and Mülich himself is on record as a member of the Munich artists' guild in 1546. He was probably active there before that date, however, for the gallery of Munich houses a portrait of him dated 1540. Mülich was retained as a painter at the court of Albert V of Bavaria. It is thought that he visited Italy. It is certain that he made a copy of Michelangelo's ...

Article

French, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1767, in Chambéry (Savoy); died 1855, of cholera.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtsman, engraver, lithographer. Historical subjects, religious subjects, costume studies.

Jean-Baptiste Peytavin interrupted his artistic studies in Chambéry to go to Turin to study law. When he returned to Chambéry he became a prosecutor but found time to resume his painting, studying with P.-A. Hennequin and Louis David at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris. Through David he was introduced to the Tuileries where he gave lessons in painting to members of Napoleon's entourage. He showed work at the Salon between ...