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Philippe Durey

(b Le Havre, June 21, 1750; d Paris, April 15, 1818).

French sculptor, draughtsman and engraver. He arrived in Paris in 1765 to become a pupil of Augustin Pajou. Although he never won the Prix de Rome, he appears to have travelled to Rome in the early 1770s. About 1780 or 1781 he was involved in the decoration of Claude-Nicolas Ledoux’s Hôtel Thélusson, Paris. From 1784 to 1785 he carried out work at the château of Compiègne, including the decoration of the Salle des Gardes, where his bas-reliefs illustrating the Battles of Alexander (in situ) pleasantly combine a Neo-classical clarity of composition with a virtuosity and animation that are still Rococo in spirit.

Beauvallet was approved (agréé) by the Académie Royale in 1789. During the French Revolution he was a passionate republican and presented plaster busts of Marat and of Chalier (1793–4; both destr.) to the Convention. He was briefly imprisoned after the fall of Robespierre in ...


Seymour Howard

(b Rome, ?1716; d Rome, Dec 9, 1799).

Italian sculptor, restorer, dealer, collector and antiquary. He lived and worked all his life in the artists’ quarter of Rome. He was apprenticed to the French sculptor Pierre-Etienne Monnot from c. 1729 to 1733, and by 1732 had become a prize-winning student at the Accademia di S Luca. From the early 1730s he appears to have worked for Cardinal Alessandro Albani on his collections of antiquities, renovating sculptures with Carlo Antonio Napolioni (1675–1742).

In 1733 Clement XII bought most of Albani’s earlier holdings of antique sculpture in order to prevent their sale and export to the court of Augustus the Strong in Dresden. He housed them in the Museo Capitolino, Rome, where Cavaceppi worked as a principal restorer, with Napolioni and his nephew Clemente Bianchi, under the direction of Marchese Gregorio Capponi and Cardinal Giovan Petro Lucatelli, until the end of the papacy (1740–58) of Benedict XIV. By mid-century, after renovating Early Christian antiquities in the Lateran, Cavaceppi’s reputation extended beyond Italy and with the aid of Albani he had become an independent dealer. He was in great demand among the major collectors and agents of central Europe and England—including ...


In earlier times creative sculptors were also occasionally restorers; by the late 20th century sculpture restoration had become a separate profession in its own right. The history of sculpture restoration provides numerous examples of formal reconstitutions in which errors of stylistic interpretation have been recognized. A notable example of this is the famous Laokoon (Rome, Vatican, Mus. Pio-Clementino), which was given a new arm, the gesture and position of which constituted a Baroque explosion rather than dramatic Hellenistic intensity; the rediscovery of the authentic arm was a lesson in humility for the restorers. The restoration of nearly a third of the ancient Greek pediments (Munich, Glyp.) from the Temple of Aphaia in Aigina carried out by Bertel Thorvaldsen in 1816 consisted of new elements, and in about 1970 provoked a “derestoration” that was in every regard as radical as the first intervention. The recent history of art restoration has laid down stricter regulations. The trend should be towards preventive conservation (...


Kyotaro Nishikawa

In accordance with the Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties (Bunkazai hogohō), important works of art in Japan are designated and protected as National Treasures (Kohuhō) or Important Cultural Properties (Jūyō bunkazai). Among these are 2525 items of sculpture; in each item there are generally 3, 4, 8 or 12 individual statues, although the numbers vary widely. Wooden objects number 2200, those of bronze and iron 197, dry lacquer 49, clay 20, and stone or miscellaneous other materials 20 (see also Japan: Materials and techniques in sculpture).

Summers in Japan are hot, with high humidity, and the winters cold, with low humidity, although the relative humidity in Japan throughout the year is higher than in either Europe or North America. Repeated changes in humidity cause corrosion of iron, decay and deformation of wood and desiccation and shrinkage of joints. Insects and worms cause porousness, and destructive mould leaves stains. Sculptures kept in museums are of course stored in controlled conditions, with a standard temperature of 22°C or lower and a relative humidity of 60% ±5%. Most Buddhist sculptures were objects of worship and were therefore kept in temples constructed of wood, or in the open, in which case they were not preserved. The wooden temple buildings that have survived are those that were adapted to the climatic conditions. The surroundings of the temples were kept clean, and dust carried by the wind was removed from the images. At some temples the doors to small shrines containing Buddhist images were opened only once each year or even less often (there are even temples that possess secret Buddhas) and these images have retained their colour wonderfully, as well as their original form in many cases. The surfaces of some wooden sculptures were left bare, but most were painted, and, because of such effects as shrinkage, the paint on wood images flaked or chalked and peeled easily, weakening the piece....


S. Pressouyre

[Niccolò da Lorena; il Franciosino]

(b Saint-Mihiel, Meuse, c. 1567; d Rome, Nov 24, 1612).

French sculptor and ?painter, active also in Italy. He trained at Saint-Mihiel in the workshop of the Richier family, where he learnt the late Mannerist style current in Lorraine and much of northern Europe at the end of the 16th century. By c. 1590 he was working for Duke Charles III of Lorraine at Nancy, where he executed sculpture in wood (untraced). Late in 1592, at the expense of Charles III, he left for Rome, where he remained for the rest of his life.

Baglione reported that Cordier worked in wood in Rome, but by 1600 he had acquired sufficient reputation as a sculptor in marble to take part in Clement VIII’s decoration of the interior of S Giovanni in Laterano, for which he carved a marble high relief of an angel for the south transept. Stylistically it shares the traits of debased Mannerism common to many northern sculptors working in Rome. His first important works were a seated marble statue of ...


Jean-Pierre de Bruyn

(b Lille, Feb 8, 1861; d Ghent, Jan 7, 1938).

Belgian painter, sculptor, illustrator, and stage designer. He studied music at the Koninklijk Muziekconservatorium and sculpture at the Gewerbeschule, Ghent (after 1877). He visited Paris in 1887 and Italy in 1890, with a grant from the city of Ghent. He was deeply impressed by the masters of the Quattrocento, and was encouraged to take up painting after meeting Constantin Meunier (1891). He painted Symbolist scenes and was influenced by Art Nouveau. After exhibiting his work with Les XX in Brussels (1893), he made decorative panels for Oostakker Castle.

As an illustrator Doudelet worked on Pol De Mont’s Van Jezus (Antwerp, 1897) and books by Maurice Maeterlinck, for example Douze chansons (Paris, 1896) and Pelléas et Mélisande (Brussels, 1892 or 1922). He illustrated the periodicals Réveil (1895–1896), De Vlaamsche school, Mercure de France, Pan, L’Eroica, Nuovo Convito, De Vlaamsche School, Woord en beeld...


W. Iain Mackay

(b Ica, 1914; d Lima, Jul 21, 1961).

Peruvian painter, potter, and sculptor. He had little formal education, but after training as a boxer in Lima he settled in Buenos Aires, where his interest in pottery led him to set up a workshop for the conservation of Pre-Columbian pottery and for the manufacture of pottery in the style of this period. He learned to sculpt and studied painting under Emilio Pettoruti (1892–1971). In 1938 he went to Paris, where he studied the work of the French masters and relaxed his style, rejecting academic canons. Returning to Peru in 1942, he adopted a rather Expressionist style of painting, with clear lines, suggestive of sculpted forms. He avoided the other avant-garde European styles of the period, opting for a while for elements of the Indigenist style (see Peru, Republic of, §IV, 2). Under Pettoruti he developed a great interest in sculpture. His activity in this field was limited to a few works, culminating in ...


(b Stuttgart, Feb 2, 1789; d Hassfurt, Sept 28, 1865).

German architect, painter, sculptor, printmaker and writer. He belonged to a large family of artists descended from Franz Joseph (Ignatz Anton) Heideloff (1676–1772), who was a sculptor and possibly also a painter. He was trained by the architect Nikolaus Friedrich von Thouret, the sculptor Johann Heinrich von Dannecker and the painter Johann Baptist Seele. He also studied mural painting as assistant to his father, Victor (Wilhelm Peter) Heideloff (1757–1817). As a young man he became interested in Gothic and Romanesque architecture, and while he was in Mainz in 1814 he made the acquaintance of Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (reg 1826–44), who employed him as his architect until 1821. In 1822, having settled in Nuremberg, he was appointed curator of the city’s historical monuments; he used this position to encourage widespread interest in early German art and to rescue many examples from destruction. He also taught at the local Polytechnische Schule from its foundation in ...


Adriano Ghisetti Giavarina

(b Caravaggio; d Rome, before June 27, 1543).

Italian architect and sculptor. He was a pupil of the sculptor Andrea di Piero Ferrucci. From c. 1527 to 1532 he was supervisor of the Fonte di S Pietro, Rome. He was conservator of the gilded ceilings of the basilica of S Maria Maggiore until 1541, and from c. 1542 he was also the architect to the Camera Apostolica (Vatican Works Office), a post he held until his death. For Angelo Massimo, Mangone constructed the Palazzo di Pirro (initiated c. 1533). In this, his first architectural work, he appears as a faithful follower of the severe style of Antonio da Sangallo (ii) with whom he worked on the decorations (1534) for the coronation of Pope Paul III and the fortifications (1537–43) of Rome. In 1535 he worked on the palazzo in Rome of Giacomo Simonetta, Cardinal of Perugia, and in 1536 he planned alterations to the convent of the Serviti attached to the church of S Marcello al Corso. In the same year, he executed the monument to ...


Deborah Cullen

[MoMA] (New York)

The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) was founded in 1929 by patrons Lillie P(lummer) Bliss, Cornelius J. Sullivan and Rockefeller family §(1) to establish an institution devoted to modern art. Over the next ten years the Museum moved three times and in 1939 settled in the Early Modern style building (1938–9) designed by Philip S. Goodwin and Edward Durell Stone that it still occupies at 11 West 53 Street. Subsequent renovations and expansions occurred in the 1950s and 1960s by Philip Johnson, in 1984 by Cesar Pelli and in 2002–4 by Yoshirō Taniguchi (b 1937). MoMA QNS, the temporary headquarters during this project, was subsequently used to provide art storage. In 2000, MoMA and the contemporary art space, P.S.1, Long Island City, Queens, announced their affiliation. Recent projects are shown at P.S.1 in Queens in a renovated public school building.

According to founding director, Alfred H(amilton) Barr...


Rayne Roper

(b Savona; fl Rome, 1551; d Rome, c. 1589).

Italian sculptor and restorer. While earlier sources incorrectly state that he was from Sarzana, more recent documentation accurately cites his birthplace as Savona. The biographical information pertaining to Sormani remains incomplete, but it is suggested that he worked as an apprentice in his father’s workshop in Carrara after spending his early childhood in Savona. Sormani worked in Rome from 1551 until his death, remaining there except for a brief return visit to Carrara in 1561–2, possibly concerning the death of his father. In addition to minor restoration and sculptural work in Rome during the earlier years of his career, Sormani is credited with an extensive amount of sculpture in the basilica of S Maria Maggiore, Rome. In 1574 Cardinal Felice Peretti (later Pope Sixtus V) commissioned a tomb for Pope Nicholas IV in S Maria Maggiore from his architect Domenico Fontana. Fontana designed the structure of the tomb itself, and Sormani completed the marble sculptures that stand within its three rectangular niches. Sormani executed for the central, more prominent niche a seated statue of ...


Ana Maria Rybko


(b Bracciano, nr Rome, 1556; d Rome, Sept 22, 1619).

Italian sculptor and restorer. He was a little-known sculptor who also worked on the restoration of marble works excavated from archaeological sites. He trained in Florence in the circle of Bartolomeo Ammanati and Giambologna. This provided a Mannerist environment in which Stati acquired a good command of his craft and a certain elegance of style. Only a few of his works have been identified. These suggest that he was imbued with Classical culture, and wanted to recreate the artistic period that was recognized as a model of perfection: the Classicism of the age of Hadrian. During his time in Florence, between 1604 and October 1607, he carved the fountain with Samson Stopping the Lion’s Mouth (Aranjuez, Jardín de la Isla). This formed a pair with another group, by Giambologna (Samson and a Philistine, 1565–70; London, V&A; base, Aranjuez, Pal. Real), which has been identified with a work in the gardens of Aranjuez Palace in Spain. During the same period he carved the group of ...


(b Conflans, Oct 24, 1804; d Paris, May 11, 1874).

French sculptor and designer of Italian descent. He studied painting with Louis Hersent in Paris before embarking on a career as a sculptor. He made his début at the Salon of 1831 with a bronze relief of the Death of Charles the Bold (untraced); closely based on 15th-century models, it identified him as one of a new generation of Romantic sculptors who rejected the Neo-classical teaching of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in favour of learning from medieval and early Renaissance examples.

Triqueti occasionally put his knowledge of medieval art into practice as a restorer, working on the famous bone and marquetry reredos from the abbey of Poissy (Paris, Louvre) in 1831, and in 1840–48 on the restoration of the Sainte-Chapelle, Paris, under the supervision of the architect Félix-Jacques Duban. Numerous drawings provide further evidence of his interest in medieval and Renaissance monuments (e.g. Romanesque Portal of Basle Cathedral, 1831, Montargis, Mus. B.-A.; ...


Ana Maria Rybko

(b Rome, 1538; d Rome, Oct 26, 1605).

Italian sculptor of Spanish descent. Although an accomplished artist, he has been neglected and at times categorically condemned by critics. His few surviving works reveal the influence both of Classical models, to which he was passionately devoted, and of the Florentine manner derived from Michelangelo. He studied with the Florentine Vincenzo de’ Rossi, who was in Rome between 1546 and 1560, and at first worked on restorations and adaptations of antique sculptures. Around 1572 he was listed among the members of the Congregazione dei Virtuosi al Pantheon. His period of greatest creative productivity began in the last years of the pontificate of Pope Gregory XIII. In 1583 he carved the Pope’s coat of arms in the two large marble escutcheons for the Collegio del Gesù, the rich curves of which are meticulously carved in the Florentine style of Bartolomeo Ammanati. In 1587–8 he worked with Pietro Paolo Olivieri to complete an ...


Evita Arapoglou

(b Athens, June 23, 1843; d Athens, Dec 1908).

Greek sculptor. He studied at the School of Fine Arts in Athens and at the Accademia di S Luca in Rome. His works were based on classical academic principles, except perhaps for the controversial Spirit of Copernicus (1877; Athens, N.G.), which was greatly criticized for its unorthodox composition. Influenced by the school of Canova (Vroutos’s Athenian studio was full of plaster copies and photographs of Canova’s works), his sculpture remained conservatively classicist throughout his career, both in his funerary monuments (e.g. tomb of Papadakis, 1881; Athens, First Cemetery) and his lighter genre sculptures (e.g. Eros Breaking his Bow, c. 1900; Athens, Záppeion). Vroutos taught sculpture at the School of Fine Arts and was also involved in the restoration of ancient Greek sculpture.

S. Lydakes: E ellenes glyptes [The Greek sculptors] (Athens, 1981), pp. 60–63, 297 C. Christou and M. Koumvakali-Anastasiadi: Modern Greek Sculpture, 1800–1940 (Athens, 1982), pp. 51–2, 178–80...