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Lucília Verdelho da Costa and Sandro Callerio

(b Lisbon, Aug 26, 1839; d Genoa, Nov 30, 1915).

Portuguese painter, architect and restorer, active in Italy. He came from a middle-class family with trading interests in Italy. In 1854 Andrade went to Genoa, and friendships there with such artists as Tammar Luxoro (1824–99) led him to study painting with Alexandre Calame and later to study architecture at the Accademia Ligustica di Belle Arti. He travelled widely, and in Italy he came into contact with Antonio Fontanesi and Carlo Pittura (1835/6–91), with whom he became one of the most active painters of the Scuola di Rivara. According to Telamaro Signorini, Andrade was among the painters who frequented the Caffè Michelangiolo in Florence. The influence of the macchiaioli painters is also evident from 1863 in his paintings, especially in Return from the Woods at Dusk (1869; Genoa, Mus. Accad. Ligustica B.A.)

Lucília Verdelho da Costa

Andrade’s work represents a transition from the Romantic school of Calame to the Naturalism of the Barbizon school. His landscapes show careful observation of nature. The locations in northern Italy seem to have been chosen for their melancholy and serenity, as in the landscapes of Fontanesi. Andrade’s pastoral scenes at dawn or dusk are seen through morning mists or against sunsets, or they depict uninhabited countryside. Most of these works, for example ...


Lynn Catterson

(b Pieve Santo Stefano, nr. Arezzo, Apr 13, 1836; d Sept 12, 1922).

Italian painter and dealer. Trained as a painter, Stefano Bardini began dealing art in the 1860s, building a business network across Europe and in America. Based in Florence, he specialized in Renaissance art, furnishings, and architectural elements and was responsible for the sale of some of the most important works in collections around the world. Bardini’s clients numbered in the many hundreds and included the German museum agent Wilhelm Bode and John II, Prince of Liechtenstein (reg 1858–1929), the collectors Nélie Jacquemart and her husband Edouard André in Paris, and the American architect and decorator Stanford White.

From 1855 to 1859, during the years leading up to Firenze Capitale, when Florence would be appointed capitol of the newly unified kingdom, Bardini trained as a painter at the Accademia di Belle Arti, Florence. In the years immediately following, he produced few paintings, evidently because he shifted very quickly to a lifelong career of dealing art. His first documented commercial transaction occurred already in 1866, when he was actively selling paintings—certainly copies made of masterworks in the Uffizi and Palazzo Pitti executed by Florentine painter colleagues. Though his activity as a dealer was likely first conducted in Paris, by 1870 he had begun what would very soon become a flourishing business internationally transacting in fine and decorative art, including frescoes removed from their walls, sculpture in every medium, paintings, maiolica, arms and armor, wooden painted ceilings, furniture, embossed gilded leather to serve as wallpaper and furniture upholstery, architectural fittings such as mantelpieces, as well as carpets and tapestries. Bardini’s social and professional network was as intricate as it was vast; tiny address books dated ...


Alessandro Conti

(b Florence, Feb 1819; d Florence, April 3, 1892).

Italian restorer. He was the most important restorer of wall paintings in Florence during the second half of the 19th century. A painter of modest talent, specializing mainly in murals, as seen in his Self-portrait (1858; Florence, Uffizi), he was a successful restorer, who worked in the context of the tradition advocated by Viollet-le-Duc. He restored wall paintings in several rooms in the Bargello, in the south transept of Santa Croce (c. 1870) and in the Castello di Vincigliata (1870–80), all in Florence.

Bianchi’s technical methods, for example the transfer of the entire intonaco on to reed matting, and his extensive knowledge of the techniques and treatment of the layers of paint are reflected in Forni’s handbook. All his projects involved extensive in-painting, but he was careful to conserve any original painting. His most famous restoration was that of Giotto’s frescoes in the Bardi Chapel in Santa Croce (...


(b Toulouse, 1766; d Paris, 1826).

French dealer, restorer and painter. He may have begun his career as a protégé of Henri-Auguste de Chalvet, a collector and Associate Member of the Académie des Beaux-Arts in Toulouse. His first teachers were Pierre Rivalz and Lambert-François-Thérèse Cammas. He moved to Paris shortly before the French Revolution but went almost immediately to London, where he established himself as a portrait painter, exhibiting at the Royal Academy in 1794 and 1795. He returned to Paris in 1796 and that year sent three portraits to the Salon. In 1799, he exhibited the curiously Romantic Girl Surprised by a Storm (New York, Brooklyn Mus.). The following year he achieved popular success with Woman of Property Begging (England, priv. col.). His talents as a portrait painter were particularly admired: surviving examples are Adrien Segond (1812; Paris, Louvre) and Dieudonné Jeanroy (1812; U. Paris V, Fac. Médec.). His style of painting reflected contemporary admiration for highly finished works in the manner of 17th-century Dutch artists....


Alessandro Conti

(b Pisa, Dec 9, 1829; d Turin, ?after 1907).

Italian restorer. He was a painter of stained-glass windows, completing those in Perugia Cathedral by 1868. Later he worked exclusively as a restorer, particularly of wall paintings. He achieved fame through his work, in 1856, on Benozzo Gozzoli’s Rape of Diana in the Camposanto, Pisa, in which his aim was solely that of conservation. To this end he removed unsafe sections and simply replaced them securely on the wall, leaving repainted areas intentionally visible, in a conscious renunciation of the ‘artistic’ approach to restoration work. A trusted collaborator of Giovanni Battista Cavalcaselle, he worked on the frescoes in both the Upper Church of S Francesco, Assisi (1873), and also the Lower, particularly those by Ambrogio Lorenzetti (1874). He began restoration work in the Arena Chapel at Padua (1868–71) but was removed on the grounds of technical incompetence and replaced by Antonio Bertolli, who practised the same methods but was deemed to be more reliable. In ...


V. P. Tsel’tner


(b Romanivka, nr Ternopil, Oct 30, 1882; d 1939).

Ukrainian painter, teacher, theorist and restorer. From 1899 to 1905 he studied as the Matejka Academy of Art in Kraków and from 1905 at the Akademien der Bildenden Künste in Munich and Vienna. He lived and worked in Paris from 1908 to 1911 and visited Italy in 1910–11. He then moved to Lemberg (now L’viv), where he restored medieval paintings, and from 1917 settled in Kiev. After the Russian Revolution he emerged as one of the major artists who called for the revival of the Ukrainian national artistic tradition, regarding monumental painting as the most appropriate form. His paintings combine such timeless motifs as labour, motherhood, and man’s relationship to the soil with an acute sense of the great dramas of his time and are produced in a highly distinctive continuation of the Ukrainian Art Nouveau style. He drew on the traditions of Byzantine mural painting, Italian early Renaissance art and the medieval art of Ukraine, as well as on the stylistic features of folk art. He was an outstanding teacher and theorist who defended his ideas vigorously and skilfully in public appearances, uniting around him a set of like-minded young artists and creating a tendency that became known as ‘Boychukism’. From ...


Alexandru Beldiman

(b Vienna, May 23, 1899; d Iaşı Nov 1, 1960).

Romanian architect, urban planner, painter, theorist and restorer. Descended from a Wallachian family of statesmen and scholars, he studied (1920–29) at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, with Gustave Umbdenstock and G. Gromort. His work consistently showed Neo-classical and Renaissance influences, from the Palladian-style Chrissoveloni Bank (1928; with A. Schmiedigen), Bucharest, to the substantial number of buildings he completed in Romania during the 1930s. In many of these the classicist forms overlaid a sophisticated functionality in the planning, for example the IAR aeroplane factory (1933), Braşov. He also designed houses (e.g. in Amza Square, Bucharest, 1935), hotels (e.g. the Hotel Bellona on the Black Sea coast, 1934) and churches, such as those at Tetcani and Flǎmânda (1939), and he participated in the production of the master plan of 1935 for Bucharest. He was commissioned to design the Romanian Pavilion for the World’s Fair, New York (...


Jaynie Anderson

(b Caravaggio, Aug 8, 1844; d Milan, Dec 7, 1918).

Italian restorer and painter. He studied painting and restoration under Giuseppe Bertini and Giuseppe Molteni at the Accademia di Brera, Milan, and, after Molteni’s death in 1867, inherited his studio at the Brera and his private clientele. Cavenaghi was closely associated with Giovanni Morelli and his circle, most notably the collectors Gian Giacomo Poldi-Pezzoli in Milan, Sir Austen Henry Layard and Prince Giuseppe Giovanelli in Venice, as well as Morelli’s pupils, Gustavo Frizzoni and Jean Paul Richter. From the early 1870s most of the important pictures from north Italian collections in need of conservation were sent to Cavenaghi. Among his most famous restorations were the frescoes by Francesco Francia and Lorenzo Costa (i) (rest. 1874) in S Cecilia, Bologna, Donato Bramante’s frescoes (Milan, Brera) formerly in the Casa Panigarola, Milan, and Leonardo da Vinci’s Last Supper (Milan, S Maria delle Grazie; rest. 1908). As revealed in letters between Richter and Morelli, Cavenaghi’s studio became a laboratory for testing restoration techniques and for the re-attribution of paintings and was frequented by the most important international museum directors and connoisseurs. From ...


Ilaria Bignamini

(d London, 1748).

English restorer and art dealer. Possibly related to the print-seller and auctioneer John Cock (d 1714), he began his career cleaning and restoring Old Master paintings. In this capacity he was employed by some of the foremost collectors of his time, including John Hervey (1665–1751), 1st Earl of Bristol, and James Brydges, 1st Duke of Chandos. Around 1726 Cock set up the earliest art auction rooms in London to survive for any length of time. These were situated in the house in Covent Garden formerly occupied by Peter Lely. Around the same date he joined the gatherings of artists and amateurs of the Rose and Crown Club, London, where he met William Hogarth, who later satirized Cock’s supposed greed and cunning in his engraving Battle of the Pictures (1745). Cock also acted as a property auctioneer, conducting his business on a scale unprecedented in England. After his death he was succeeded in the salerooms in Covent Garden by the firms of ...


Canvas paintings have been restored for centuries and some paintings may have undergone conservation many times. Work may have been carried out to repair mechanical damage such as tears or distortions in the canvas, to reattach flaking paint, and to address materials the original artist used that may have deteriorated. There are also aesthetic treatments such as removing dirt or yellowed varnish from the painted surface. As a consequence of the aging of the original materials, no artwork will look the same as when it was first painted after some time has passed. Even contemporary paintings may be made with materials that age within an artist’s lifetime, and consequently need conservation treatment.

See also Canvas

In the days before heating could easily be controlled, rooms were heated by open fires. Light was provided by candles or torches made from oil-soaked rags. Thus the natural processes of aging to which paintings were subjected were exacerbated by seasonal and diurnal changes in temperature and humidity, as well as the soot and fumes given off by these fires. Paintings of all media can be affected by air-borne surface dirt settling on their surfaces, but unvarnished surfaces are affected more directly than are varnished ones. Acrylic paintings are affected particularly adversely as dirt does not always remain on their surfaces but can be drawn into the paint layer. Varnishing is not always the solution. Some modern media cannot be varnished and varnish itself can discolor with age, changing the look of the paint it covers, whether it is a traditional oil or modern paint. In fact, some artists never intended their work to be varnished. Aged canvases become brittle and no longer perform their primary function of supporting the paint. Contemporary works also suffer from uncontrolled, fluctuating enviromental conditions. Mishandling can result in bumps and scratches....


Painting conservation in Japan has always required the application of outstanding skills, not only in the presentation and mounting of paintings but also in their conservation. No painting, whether mounted on a folding screen, a sliding door or a horizontal or vertical scroll, can be worked on or moved unless certain operations are carried out to ensure its safe conservation. The hyogushi (‘master-framer’) is not therefore merely a picture framer but a highly qualified professional with complete mastery of the key: paper, silk, mineral pigments, ink, animal glue and starch paste, as well as wood and metal. He must also possess historical and regional knowledge of the different types of traditional mountings (see Mounting, §1). It takes a minimum of ten years for a craftsman to become thoroughly proficient as a hyogushi. Increasingly, Western restorers have shown interest in the vital and wide-ranging role of the hyogushi and in the techniques used....


Linda Whiteley

(b 1825).

French dealer, restorer and framer. He began his career managing a modest framing business in Rue Notre-Dame-des-Champs, Paris. The dealer Alexis Febvre (1810–81) became aware of him, provided encouragement and helped him to set up premises in the Rue Laffitte, which in the early years of the Second Empire (1852–70) was rapidly becoming the centre of the art trade. By 1857 Detrimont was buying paintings from Charles-François Daubigny, and in the next few years he gained a reputation as a dealer in contemporary paintings, with a particular interest in landscapes. For a time he was Courbet’s dealer and supervised the stretching and varnishing of his paintings for the Salon of 1861; one of these was Stags Fighting (1861; Paris, Mus. d’Orsay), a picture to which Courbet attached particular importance. It was perhaps through Courbet that Detrimont also dealt with the reclusive painter Amand Gautier, who had briefly enjoyed some success at the Salon of ...


Jean-Pierre de Bruyn

(b Lille, Feb 8, 1861; d Ghent, Jan 7, 1938).

Belgian painter, sculptor, illustrator, and stage designer. He studied music at the Koninklijk Muziekconservatorium and sculpture at the Gewerbeschule, Ghent (after 1877). He visited Paris in 1887 and Italy in 1890, with a grant from the city of Ghent. He was deeply impressed by the masters of the Quattrocento, and was encouraged to take up painting after meeting Constantin Meunier (1891). He painted Symbolist scenes and was influenced by Art Nouveau. After exhibiting his work with Les XX in Brussels (1893), he made decorative panels for Oostakker Castle.

As an illustrator Doudelet worked on Pol De Mont’s Van Jezus (Antwerp, 1897) and books by Maurice Maeterlinck, for example Douze chansons (Paris, 1896) and Pelléas et Mélisande (Brussels, 1892 or 1922). He illustrated the periodicals Réveil (1895–1896), De Vlaamsche school, Mercure de France, Pan, L’Eroica, Nuovo Convito, De Vlaamsche School, Woord en beeld...


P. Knolle

(b Groningen, bapt March 12, 1745; d Amsterdam, 1818).

Dutch painter, restorer and art appraiser. He began work at an early age in Steven Numan’s factory of lacquered objects in Groningen. With Numan’s son Hermanus he decided to improve his skills in the wallpaper factory of Jan and Johannes Luberti Augustini in Haarlem. When Numan left for Paris to continue his studies, van Drielst moved to Amsterdam, where he worked again for a short period in a wallpaper factory before he began to work independently. He became a member of the Guild of St Luke in 1768, the year he attended the Amsterdam city drawing academy to practise life drawing. He also carried out restorations and appraisals and became a friend of Adriaan de Lelie and other artists.

Van Drielst became increasingly interested in landscape, and working from nature studies he made watercolours and paintings that sold easily to such collectors as Bernardus de Bosch and Jan Gildemeester. These landscapes, which appealed to the renewed interest in nature in the 18th century, were based on the work of 17th-century Dutch painters such as Meindert Hobbema and Jacob van Ruisdael. Van Drielst was nicknamed the ‘Drentse Hobbema’, as he increasingly frequented the province of Drenthe to supplement his series of sketches from nature, for example the ...


Sarah J. Weatherwax

(b Geneva, Switzerland, Sept 18, 1737; d Philadelphia, PA, Oct 10, 1784).

American painter, draftsman, collector and museum proprietor of Swiss birth. Du Simitière, the son of Jean-Henri Ducimitière (or Dusimitière), an East Indies broker and Judith-Ulrique Cunegonde Delorme, studied art at the University of Geneva. In 1757 he left Amsterdam for the West Indies to document and sketch native flora and fauna and to collect historical materials, launching more than a decade of traveling and collecting in the New World including stops of varying lengths in New York City, Charleston, SC, Burlington, NJ, Boston, MA, Newport, RI, and Philadelphia, PA. In 1769 Du Simitière became a naturalized American citizen, living in Philadelphia (except for a two year sojourn in the West Indies) from 1770 until his death in 1784.

Du Simitière planned to write a natural and civil history of the West Indies and North America based on the large quantities of books, cartoons, manuscripts, coins, newspapers, natural history specimens, broadsides and art he amassed during his travels, but that project never came to fruition. In ...


Alessandro Conti

(b Loreto, 1744; d Venice, March 17, 1821).

Italian restorer. He was a pupil of the painter Gaspare Diziani, but is known mainly as a restorer and as the organizer of the restoration workshop set up by the Republic of Venice in 1778 for the conservation of ‘public paintings’, such as those in the Doge’s Palace and in churches under the state’s jurisdiction. For this task he called on the services of several restorers, including Giuseppe Bertani (fl c. 1717–97) and Diziani’s son Giuseppe (fl until 1803). Some aspects of Edwards’ techniques were unusual. When relining paintings, for example, he would pour warm sand on to the backs in order to paste them to the new canvas, a method that was gradually replaced by the system of hot irons introduced by the French at the end of the 18th century. He always restricted retouching to areas of missing paint and refused to add or remove inscriptions or to make any alterations or ‘improvements’ to a painting. He also kept careful records of the planning of his restorations, paying attention to the protection of the setting of a work, as well as individual costings. Edwards’ extensive restoration of works in the ...


Alessandro Conti

(b Siena, c. 1820; d Florence, 1867).

Italian restorer. He worked in Florence from 1845. He is known for his manual, published in 1866, in which he frequently disagreed with Conte Giovanni Secco-Suardo. Although it lacks the clear presentation of the latter’s work, Forni’s handbook is nevertheless one of the most valuable manuals of 19th-century restoration. Apart from an over-extensive list of recipes and an inexact approach to bibliography and information, it reflects a more modern working context than Secco-Suardo’s work and devotes much space to the restoration of medieval paintings, as well as dealing with different methods of rescuing, restoring and transferring wall paintings, probably based on advice provided by Gaetano Bianchi. Forni is known to have worked on Cosimo Rosselli’s Adoration of the Magi (Florence, Uffizi) and Pontormo’s Venus based on a cartoon by Michelangelo (Florence, Accad.).

Manuale del pittore restauratore (Florence, 1866) G. Incerpi: ‘Conservazione e restauro dei quadri degli Uffizi nel periodo lorenese’, ...


Linda Whiteley

French family of restorers, dealers, cabinetmakers and painters. François-Simon-Alphonse Giroux (d Paris, 1 May 1848) was a pupil of Jacques-Louis David and became a picture restorer, founding his business in Paris at the end of the 18th century. He specialized in genre paintings of medieval ruins and troubadours and bought particularly from a younger generation of artists such as Louis Daguerre, Charles-Marie Bouton (1781–1863), Charles Arrowsmith (b 1798) and Charles Renoux (1795–1846), all of whom painted church interiors. Giroux also admired Gothic art and became the official restorer for Notre-Dame, Paris. His daughter Olympe Giroux and son Alphonse-Gustave Giroux succeeded him in his business. Another son, André Giroux (b Paris, 30 April 1801; d Paris, 18 Nov 1879), was a painter. François-Simon-Alphonse’s firm publicized its stock by holding exhibitions of Old Master paintings and contemporary art and by publishing catalogues of works both for sale and for hire from their premises. After ...


W. Iain Mackay

(b Ica, 1914; d Lima, Jul 21, 1961).

Peruvian painter, potter, and sculptor. He had little formal education, but after training as a boxer in Lima he settled in Buenos Aires, where his interest in pottery led him to set up a workshop for the conservation of Pre-Columbian pottery and for the manufacture of pottery in the style of this period. He learned to sculpt and studied painting under Emilio Pettoruti (1892–1971). In 1938 he went to Paris, where he studied the work of the French masters and relaxed his style, rejecting academic canons. Returning to Peru in 1942, he adopted a rather Expressionist style of painting, with clear lines, suggestive of sculpted forms. He avoided the other avant-garde European styles of the period, opting for a while for elements of the Indigenist style (see Peru, Republic of, §IV, 2). Under Pettoruti he developed a great interest in sculpture. His activity in this field was limited to a few works, culminating in ...


Achim Sommer

(b Euskirchen, April 22, 1924; d Cologne, April 5, 1987).

German collector and restorer. After World War II he trained as a restorer of paintings in Cologne, Munich and Vienna. He worked in the Wallraf-Richartz-Museum in Cologne from 1949 and took charge of the restoration department in 1963. He started his collection with paintings by Cologne painters such as Peter Abelen (1884–1962), Joseph Fassbender, Peter Herkenrath (1900–93) and Ludwig Egidius Ronig (1885–1959). Under the stimulus of avant-garde exhibitions in Cologne and Düsseldorf, a keen interest in current events in the world of art and his friendships with artists and gallery owners, Hahn widened the scope of his collection. His advice as a connoisseur of contemporary art was valued not only by his museum colleagues but also by collectors such as Peter Ludwig.

Hahn assembled a remarkably complete collection of works by many artists closely connected with Nouveau Réalisme, including Arman, Christo, César, Jean Tinguely, ...