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Andrzej Rottermund

(b Puławy, June 1756; d Florence, Feb 8, 1841).

Polish architect and writer, also active in Italy. He probably studied in Rome in the late 1770s and returned to Italy in 1785–6 under the aegis of Stanisław Kostka Potocki, a collector and amateur architect with whom he collaborated throughout his life. In 1786 Aigner and Potocki refronted the church of St Anna, Warsaw, using a giant composite order on high pedestals. The political turmoil of the 1790s disrupted Aigner’s career, but during his second phase of creativity (1797–1816) he won fame through his work on the great estate of the Czartoryski family at Puławy, on the Vistula west of Lublin, the most important centre of cultural life in Poland during the Enlightenment. Aigner had already erected the Marynka Palace there in 1790, a variation on the Petit Trianon at Versailles, France, and from 1798 he began to add ornamental buildings to go with the new Picturesque layout of the Puławy gardens: a Chinese pavilion, a Gothick house and a peripheral Temple of the Sibyl with a shallow dome. In ...


Volker Helas

(b Drebach, Feb 12, 1823; d Dresden, March 16, 1890).

German architect, teacher and writer. He attended the Gewerbeschule in Chemnitz and studied architecture (1841–50) at the Dresden Kunstakademie under Gustav Heine (1802–80) and Gottfried Semper. In 1849 he was awarded a travel scholarship and visited southern Germany, Italy, France and Belgium. From 1853 he worked as a lecturer in architectural science at the Dresden Kunstakademie, where he was later professor (1861–85). His buildings include the church (1859–64) at Lengefeld, near Plauen-Vogtland, an aisleless Romanesque Revival building with a gallery and flat ceiling; Schloss Eckberg (1859–61) at Loschwitz, near Dresden, built in the Tudor Revival style; the Villa Löschke (1860) in Tolkewitzer Strasse, Dresden, which resembles a manor house in the German Renaissance style; a Romanesque Revival church (1861–3) at Staucha, near Riesa; the Kreuzschule (1864–6), Dresden, in a strict High Gothic style; and the rebuilding of the Sophienkirche (...


Jean-François Pinchon

(b Paris, June 8, 1817; d Paris, May 22, 1885).

French architect and writer . He trained at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, in the studio of Louis-Hippolyte Lebas and won the competition for the Prix de Rome in 1840. On his return to Paris from Rome he embarked on a brilliant administrative career, becoming Architecte en Chef, then Inspecteur Général, of the city of Paris, as well as Inspecteur Général des Edifices Diocésains. In the latter capacity, his work in Paris included completing the church of Ste Clothilde (1853–7), begun by Franz Christian Gau, designing the area around and restoring the Tour St Jacques (1854–6) and building the belfry of St Germain l’Auxerrois (1863), all in a Gothic Revival style. He also built the churches of St Denis (1866) at Argenteuil and St Ambroise (1869) in Paris in the Romanesque Revival style, although in general he was an eclectic architect. His two major works were the church of La Trinité (...


Kirk Ambrose

(b Moscow, May 7, 1903; d Paris, Jan 25, 1988).

Lithuanian art historian, scholar of folklore and Egyptology, and diplomat of Russian birth. Son of the celebrated Lithuanian Symbolist poet of the same name, Jurgis Baltrušaitis II studied under Henri(-Joseph) Focillon at the Sorbonne and earned the PhD in 1931. The concerns of his mentor are evident in La stylistique ornementale dans la sculpture romane (1931), which reprises and extends arguments for the ‘law of the frame’ in Romanesque sculpture. Accordingly, the shapes of architectural members, such as capitals and tympana, determined the articulation of sculptural forms. This theory could account for the genesis of a wide array of monumental carvings, from foliate capitals to narrative reliefs, but ultimately it had a rather limited impact on the field of Romanesque sculptural studies. In a scathing critique, Schapiro argued that Baltrušaitis’s book—and by implication Focillon’s methods—robbed Romanesque sculptors of agency and neglected the religious and expressive meanings of this art form....



French organization founded in Poitiers in 1953. The Centre d’études supérieures de civilisation médiévale (CECSM) is affiliated with the Université de Poitiers, the Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS), and the Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication. The founders, among them historian Edmond-René Labande and art historian René Crozet, began CESCM as a month-long interdisciplinary study of medieval civilization, inviting foreign students to participate. CESCM has since developed into a permanent organization but maintains the international and interdisciplinary focus of its founders.

CESCM continues to hold its formative summer session, known as ‘Les Semaines d’études médiévales’, and invites advanced graduate students of all nationalities. The summer session spans two weeks and includes sessions on a variety of topics, each conducted by a member or affiliate of CESCM. CESCM supports collaborative research groups and regularly holds colloquia attended by the international scholarly community.

Since 1958 CECSM has published ...


Betzy Dinesen

(b London, Sept 17, 1842; d London, April 5, 1935).

English architect and writer. He was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, and articled to John Prichard of Llandaff, Glamorgan, setting up in independent practice in 1867. He began moving in the circle of William Morris and Dante Gabriel Rossetti and between 1868 and 1870 designed St Luke’s, Kentish Town, London, in a Gothic Revival style, with stained glass by Henry Holiday and Morris, Marshall, Faulkner & Co. In 1872 Champneys designed the Eel Brook Common Board School (destr.), Harwood Road, Fulham, London. It was the first of the London board-schools, which were built as a result of the Elementary Education Act (1870), to be designed in the Queen Anne Revival style by a number of architects, one of the most important being J(ohn) J(ames) Stevenson. It had Flemish gables, large chimney-stacks and dormer windows. As a writer Champneys also supported this emerging style and praised vernacular traditions. Oak Tree House (...


Luc Verpoest

(b Feluy, Jan 10, 1849; d Ghent, Jan 11, 1920).

Belgian architect and writer. He trained as a civil engineer under Adolphe Pauli at the Ecole Spéciale de Génie Civil of the State University of Ghent. As a student he came into contact with the Belgian Gothic Revival movement centred on Jean-Baptiste Bethune and the St Luke School in Ghent, founded by Bethune in 1862. From 1874 Cloquet worked with the publishers Desclée. His early architectural work was similar to that of Bethune, Joris Helleputte and the first generation of St Luke architects. His most important projects were built around the turn of the century: the University Institutes (1896–1905), Ghent, and the Central Post Office (1897–1908), Ghent, the latter with Etienne Mortier (1857–1934), a pupil of Helleputte. In them Cloquet adopted a more eclectic though still predominantly medieval style, also introducing Renaissance motifs. Between 1904 and 1911 he designed a redevelopment plan for the historic centre of Ghent, between the early 14th-century belfry and the 15th-century church of St Michael, known as the Kuip, which was realized before the Ghent World Fair of ...


Douglass Shand-Tucci

(b Hampton Falls, NH, Dec 16, 1863; d Boston, Sept 22, 1942).

American architect and writer. Cram was the leading Gothic Revival architect in North America in the first half of the 20th century, at the head of an informal school known as the Boston Gothicists, who transformed American church design.

In 1881 Cram was apprenticed to the firm of Rotch & Tilden in Boston. His letters on artistic subjects to the Boston Transcript led to his appointment as the journal’s art critic by the mid-1880s. In 1886 he began his first European tour. In 1888 he founded the firm of Cram & Wentworth with Charles Wentworth (1861–97). With the arrival of Bertram Goodhue, the firm became Cram, Wentworth & Goodhue in 1892, and in 1899 Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson, with Frank Ferguson (1861–1926) having joined the office as business and engineering partner following the death of Wentworth.

Cram was strongly influenced both by the philosophies of John Ruskin...


(b 1838; d ?London, 1913).

English architect and designer. He studied under the architect James Kellaway Colling (c. 1815–1905), an expert on Gothic architecture, and spent several years as assistant to Matthew Digby Wyatt, who at the time was working on the then India Office (1867–8), Whitehall, London. Davis was a designer of architectural ornament, furniture, wallpaper, textiles, ironwork and ceramics, and in 1870 some of his designs were published in Building News. For James Shoolbred & Co., London (fl 1870–1900s), he designed furniture in the medieval, Jacobean, Stuart, Louis XVI and Japanese styles and in the style of Robert Adam and James Adam, illustrated in the company’s catalogue Designs of Furniture … and Interior Decoration (1876). A selection of furniture designed by Davis and manufactured by Shoolbred was shown at the Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia in 1876. In 1885 he published Art and Work, which contains 85 lithographic plates of ornament for marble, stone and terracotta and designs for furniture, ceramics, metalwork and textiles, accompanied by notes on the design sources; among the plates are several after drawings, previously unpublished, by the ...


Jean-Michel Leniaud

(b Paris, 1809; d 1881).

French architect and writer. He studied under Léon Vaudoyer and Louis-Hippolyte Lebas at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, and subsequently specialized in medieval architecture. He worked on the restoration of the churches of St Remi (c. 1837) at Reims, Notre-Dame de l’Epine (c. 1838) at L’Epine, near Châlons-sur-Marne, and the church at St Menoux (1841) in the Bourbonnais, before turning briefly to the Neo-classical style for the theatre (1842–53) at Moulins. At the Salon of 1845 he presented studies of sample schemes for religious buildings in the medieval style, envisaging types of buildings conceived in terms of the size of the municipality they were to serve, publishing estimates and plans for them in 1849. By 1848, Durand had a sufficient reputation as a Gothic Revivalist to be appointed diocesan architect to Bayonne, but after violent disagreements with the bishop he resigned in ...


Barry Bergdoll

(b Cologne, June 15, 1790; d Paris, Dec 31, 1853).

French architect, writer and archaeologist of German birth. In 1810 he left Cologne with his lifelong friend J. I. Hittorff for Paris, enrolling at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in 1811 under the tutelage of the ardent Neo-classicists Louis-Hippolyte Lebas and François Debret. But from the beginning Gau was exposed to a wider field of historical sources, first as assistant site architect under Debret on the restoration of the abbey church of Saint-Denis (1813–15) and then from 1815 in Nazarene circles in Rome, where he met the archaeologist and philologist Barthold Nieburh (1776–1831), who arranged a scholarship for him from the Prussian government and a trip through the eastern Mediterranean. In Egypt Gau undertook an arduous trip down the Nile to visit and record the monuments of Nubia, which he published as the lavish folio Antiquités de la Nubie. He noted assiduously every trace of colour on the remains, just as he was to do in ...


Marie-Therese Thibierge

(b Paris, Sept 29, 1816; d Valmondois, Val-d’Oise, Aug 25, 1892).

French goldsmith, sculptor and museum curator. He studied in Paris, first at the Ecole Gratuite de Dessin and from 1831 at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, where he was a pupil of David d’Angers and James Pradier. He worked principally as a goldsmith until 1848 but then devoted himself to the study of medieval sculpture. Throughout his career he collaborated on the restoration of many important Gothic buildings in France, notably with Emile Boeswillwald on Laon Cathedral, with Victor-Marie-Charles Ruprich-Robert on Bayeux Cathedral and with Jean-Baptiste-Antoine Lassus and Eugène-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc on the Sainte-Chapelle and Notre-Dame in Paris. At the Sainte-Chapelle he was responsible for the 12 stone statues of the Apostles at the base of the spire (in situ); from 1848 to 1864 he ran the sculpture studio at Notre-Dame, where among many other works in an elegant neo-Gothic style he executed 12 copper statues of the Apostles for the base of the spire (...


(b Bristol, May 26, 1833; d London, Oct 6, 1886).

English architect, designer and writer. He had an early interest in archaeology, which was fostered by fragments of medieval carving in his parents’ garden. From the age of 15 he began sketching buildings all over the West Country. In 1851 he contributed illustrations to The Antiquities of Bristol and Neighbourhood, by which time he was apprenticed to William Armstrong of Bristol. Armstrong, perhaps recognizing Godwin’s aptitude, entrusted him with much of his architectural work. This brought Godwin early responsibility but little formal training, a lack that he felt dogged his professional life. In 1854 he established an independent practice, and in an attempt to further his career, in 1856 he joined his brother, an engineer, in Londonderry, Ireland. During his visit he studied castles and abbeys throughout Ireland. He also designed three small Roman Catholic churches in a severe Gothic style at St Johnstown (1857–61), Newtown Cunningham (...


Katrin Kogman-Appel

Richly illuminated manuscript of the Passover liturgy together with a series of liturgical poems to be read during the Passover week (London, BL, Add. MS. 27210), possibly made in Barcelona, c. 1320. This text was to be recited during the seder ceremony at the eve of the Passover holiday. Like most medieval Haggadot (see Haggadah), the Golden Haggadah has no colophon, and its scribe and patrons are unknown. It contains both marginal decorations and a series of full-page miniatures preceding the text and displaying a fully fledged cycle of biblical illustrations following the books of Genesis and Exodus from the Creation of Man to the Crossing of the Red Sea. Stylistically both types of decoration are indebted to early 14th-century Catalan Gothic art.

Similarly, the imagery of the biblical picture cycle also draws on Christian Old Testament iconography and reflects a familiarity with Christian art. The artists and patrons of the Golden Haggadah adopted Christian pictorial sources in a complex process of adaptation and modification, translating the Christian models into a Jewish visual language meaningful in its messages to the Jewish readership. Avoiding themes and iconographic features of a particular Christological concern, the imagery also reflects a close affinity with the traditions of late antique Bible interpretation (Midrash). This points to a specific circle of scholars active in Iberia during the 13th and early 14th centuries as being responsible for the imagery of the cycle. The use of traditional midrashic Bible exegesis is typical for Sephardic Rabbis of anti-rationalist standing, who opposed earlier philosophical trends and followed, rather, scholarly trends common among the Tosafists of northern France. It has also been observed that some images adopt a more specific anti-Christian stance and address polemical issues....


Andrzej Rottermund

(b Olszanka, nr Pułtusk, Dec 24, 1798; d Lityn, Podole, May 3, 1879).

Polish architect and writer. He studied under Antoni Corazzi at the Faculty of Fine Arts of the University of Warsaw (1820–24). In 1824–7 he travelled to Italy, France, England and Germany. In Italy he was awarded membership of the Accademia del Disegno, Florence, for his restoration project for the Temple of Concord (ded. ad 10), Rome. From 1828 he worked as a building adviser in Warsaw to the governmental Commission for Enlightenment. He was also a member of the General Council of Construction to the governmental Commission of Internal Affairs. Idźkowski’s major architectural works were the Neo-classical reconstruction (1838–42; destr. 1944) of the Saxon Palace, Warsaw, which was based partly on a plan by Wacław Ritschel (1794–1872); the Gothic Revival reconstruction (1839–42; destr. 1944) of St John’s Cathedral, Warsaw, inspired by English Gothic cathedrals; the Gothic Revival railway station (1846...


Jean van Cleven

(bapt London, Nov 22, 1822; d Teignmouth, Devon, Jan 14, 1892).

English architect, writer and designer, mainly active in Belgium. From 1840 he studied at Exeter College, Oxford; he became a Catholic and a devoted follower of A. W. N. Pugin (see Pugin family, §2), leader of the Gothic Revival movement. About 1849 he moved to Bruges, where the publication of his Lettre sur la renaissance de l’art chrétien and Lettre (…) à M. l’abbé Carton immediately established him as a passionate advocate of the Gothic Revival movement. In 1850, still in Bruges, he published Les Vrais Principes de l’architecture ogivale ou chrétienne, a highly influential compilation and edited version of Pugin’s writings intended for an international readership.

In the following years King tried to promote the Gothic Revival both through his own architecture and publications and through teaching and supporting other artists. According to King’s notes, the plans for the Magdalenakerk in Bruges were adjusted (1853–6); he designed part of the interior decoration. He also did work for two other churches in Bruges—the church of Our Lady and the chapel of the Holy Blood in the basilica of the Holy Blood (Heilig Bloedbaziliek). In most of these designs the influence of Pugin is noticeable. King was also commissioned by Bishop Malou of Bruges to prepare for the building of the church of Our Lady, Dadizele (...


Roger White

(b Twickenham, bapt Sept 14, 1696; d London, March 3, 1751).

English architect and writer. The son of a gardener, he first tried his hand as a landscape gardener in Twickenham and published several books that reveal his practical knowledge of the subject, notably New Principles of Gardening (1728) and Pomona (1729). He deplored the rigid formality of continental horticulture and followed Stephen Switzer in advocating the introduction of the serpentine line into layout and planting. By 1731 he had moved to London, where at different times he ran a drawing school in Soho, manufactured artificial stone ornaments, engaged in polemical journalism and produced a succession of architectural publications.

Langley’s classical pattern books plagiarized an astonishing variety of sources, both Baroque and Palladian, although it is clear from their tone and that of his newspaper articles that he had little sympathy for the prevailing Palladian orthodoxy of Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington, and his followers. This may explain why, despite energetic self-publicity, he never managed to establish himself as a practising architect—his unsuccessful design (...


Douglass Shand-Tucci

(b Londonderry, Jan 7, 1867; d Boston, MA, Feb 15, 1955).

American architect and writer. He moved to the USA from Ireland at the age of 18. After an apprenticeship to Edmund M. Wheelwright in Boston, he established his own office, also in Boston, at about the turn of the century with Timothy Walsh (1868–1934). Among the Boston Gothicists headed by Ralph Adams Cram, Henry Vaughan (1846–1917), and Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue, Maginnis quickly established himself as a leader, best known for the magnificent Gothic Revival buildings of Boston College (begun 1909), for which the firm earned an American Institute of Architects Gold Medal. Like Cram, Maginnis’s work was eclectic and included the Spanish-style Carmelite Convent (c. 1915), Santa Clara, CA, and the regal Classical Revival chapel of Trinity College (c. 1920), Washington, DC, as well as a number of churches in the Lombard style, for which he had a special affinity. The best of these is St Catherine’s (...


James Yorke

(fl London, 1760–c. 1770).

English furniture designer and cabinetmaker. He was recorded as working in the Haymarket, London, from 1760 until 1766, but no furniture documented or labelled from his workshop has been identified. In 1760 he contributed 50 designs to Houshold Furniture in Genteel Taste, sponsored by a Society of Upholsterers and Cabinetmakers, and in the same year he published the Carpenter’s Compleat Guide to the Whole System of Gothic Railing, which consisted of 14 plates. There followed the Cabinet and Chair-maker’s Real Friend and Companion in 1765, with designs for 100 chairs in Gothic, chinoiserie, Rococo and Rustic styles. A second edition, virtually unaltered, appeared in 1775. In 1766 he brought out the Chair-maker’s Guide, containing ‘upwards of Two Hundered New and Genteel Designs … for Gothic, Chinese, Ribbon and other chairs’; it includes two plates from William Ince and John Mayhew’s Universal System of Household Furniture and at least six from ...


Alberto Villar Movellán

(b Barcelona, 1815; d Barcelona, 1895).

Spanish architect, urban planner and writer. He studied at the Escuela de Arquitectura, Barcelona, as a pupil of its founder, the Neo-classical architect Antonio Cellés y Azcona (1775–1835). Later he studied in Madrid, obtaining his degree in the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando in 1841. Despite his Neo-classical training, he distinguished himself as an exponent of Gothic Revival designs, influenced by elements of Romanticism. His best-known work in this style is his design (1864) for the principal façade of Barcelona Cathedral, which was commissioned by the Girona family. After 1882 the design was altered to accommodate that of Augusto Font y Carreras, resulting in a more generalized medieval style. Mestres Esplugas’ other decisive work was the Gran Teatro del Liceo (from 1861), Barcelona, which was reconstructed by him from the original building (1844–8; by Miguel Garriga y Roca), which had burnt down. Here he succeeded in building one of the leading opera houses in Spain, with a construction that combines classical splendour with an eclectic use of Baroque decoration. He was the municipal architect of Barcelona, where he won the competition for the Plaza Real, but this was not executed because it contained a proposal to use iron columns. He was also responsible for the restoration of various medieval buildings and wrote numerous articles on monuments and architectural criticism. Among the latter his essay entitled ‘¿Tenemos en España algun tipo de arquitectura que podamos calificar de arquitectura nacional?’ (...