The sociologist Pierre Bourdieu (1930–2002) developed cultural capital theory as way to examine the influence of intangible resources on the phenomena of social reproduction and social mobility. He described a society of competing classes, arranged in a hierarchy of prestige. The classes are composed of individual agents who attempt to climb the socio-economic ladder by maximizing the use of capital resources, which include both material objects of symbolic value and intangible attributes that imply prestige and power. Bourdieu identified four types of capital: economic, social, symbolic, and cultural. Economic capital represents one’s financial resources, social capital consists of one’s social support system, symbolic capital describes one’s prestige, and cultural capital includes the knowledge, values, and skills that support an understanding of cultural relations and cultural artefacts. The forms of capital are inequitably distributed among classes, and one form of capital can be converted to another. Since the value of capital is defined by social relations within a specific field, agents strategize the best way to leverage their capital for maximum gain of the valued capital within that field....
Joseph R. Givens
[Cousin Pons; Paul du Crotoy; Paul du Gord]
(b Le Crotoy, Somme, Oct 23, 1837; d Cellettes, Loir et Cher, Nov 18, 1911).
French art journalist and collector. After completing his secondary studies in Nantes, Eudel sailed for the island of Réunion where he gathered materials for travel accounts to be published in various regional newspapers upon his return to Nantes. In 1871 he was elected a municipal councillor of Nantes, where he was notably responsible for the public library. After settling in Paris in 1877 to work in journalism, Eudel threw himself into collecting art, becoming a great collector and connoisseur of antique silver. As a critic he contributed to several leading art periodicals: Journal des Arts, Journal des Artistes, Revue des Arts Décoratifs, L’Opinion, La Vie Moderne, Le Figaro, Le Temps, and L’Illustration. Most notably, his reputation as the foremost art-market journalist of the 19th century was established with a series of articles published in Le Figaro, beginning in 1881, which principally covered sales in the Hôtel Drouot auction house. These essays first appeared individually in newspapers and magazines, but were reprinted in a set of year books, consisting of nine volumes, that appeared between ...
Joseph R. Givens
(b Los Angeles, CA, May 3, 1932; d Los Angeles, CA, March 20, 2005).
American dealer, curator, and museum director. Hopps pioneered international awareness of Pop art and helped to establish Los Angeles as an internationally recognized art centre. He opened museum doors to contemporary art and paved the way for the explosion of the contemporary art market in the 1980s.
As a teenager, Hopps was introduced to modern art through frequent visits to the famous collection of Walter and Louise Arensberg. Hopps went to college to study medicine at the behest of his parents, first at Stanford University then at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), but classes in art history, jazz concert promotion, and the creation of Syndell Studio eclipsed his science curriculum. Hopps’s ambition for a large-scale exhibition of West Coast Abstract Expressionism outgrew Syndell’s salon-style space. In 1953 he arranged Action 1, one of the first exhibitions of action painting outside New York. Hopps’s partnership with artist Edward Kienholz...
(b Paris, Feb 16, 1748; d Paris, Aug 6, 1813).
French dealer, collector, writer, and painter. He was the son of a painter and picture dealer, Pierre Le Brun (c. 1703–1771), and great-nephew of Charles Le Brun. He studied painting with Jean-Baptiste Deshays, François Boucher, and Jean-Honoré Fragonard before becoming a leading connoisseur and art dealer. In 1776 he married the painter Louise-Elisabeth Vigée (see Vigée Le Brun [Vigée-Le Brun; Vigée-Lebrun], Elisabeth-Louise). He was curator of paintings to the King’s younger brother, Charles-Philippe de Bourbon, Comte d’Artois (later Charles X), and to Louis-Philippe-Joseph, Duc d’Orléans (1747–93), and subsequently acted as intermediary for foreign collectors, including Catherine the Great of Russia. His European art networks spanned England, Holland, Flanders, Italy, Spain, and Russia that he exploited to buy and sell art. In addition to his auction catalogues, Le Brun produced a series of erudite books and pamphlets and in some of his articles (1771–81...