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Article

(b Amsterdam, Dec 4, 1868; d Bloemendaal, Dec 31, 1938).

Dutch painter, printmaker, illustrator, writer and stained-glass artist. He trained at the Rijksakademie in Amsterdam (1886–90), under the directorship of August Allebé. Having initially painted and drawn Impressionistic landscapes, he started working in the ’t Gooi region in 1892, where, influenced by Vincent van Gogh and Jan Toorop, he made a number of Symbolist drawings and lithographs. In 1896 he married the Dutch writer Henriette van der Schalk. They both devoted themselves to the recently founded Sociaal Democratische Arbeiders Partij. In the years up to c. 1900 Holst produced among other things a series of lithographs of political cartoons with socialist content, as well as serene landscapes and paintings of girls from the village of Huizen. His allegorical murals (1902; in situ), on topics such as ‘Industry’ or ‘Commerce’, in the new Koopmansbeurs in Amsterdam by H. P. Berlage (1876–1903), marked an important point in his career as his first opportunity to construct a monumental piece of work. Partly inspired by the murals in the town hall at ’s Hertogenbosch by Antoon Derkinderen, he developed a tight, stylized type of design, which he believed to be ideal for visually representing idealistic and exalted thoughts. In his murals (...

Article

Blanca García Vega

(b Valencia, 1757; d Madrid, after 1807).

Spanish illustrator, printmaker and painter. He was nominated Miembro de Mérito of the Real Academia de S Fernando, Madrid, in 1781. He made reproductive engravings of paintings and illustrated such books as Juan Antonio Pellicer’s (1738–1806) annotated edition of Don Quixote (1797), the Fábulas morales (1781–4) by Félix María de Samaniego (1745–1801) and the 1803 edition of the short stories Novelas ejemplares by Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (1547–1616). In his depiction (1790) of the fire in the Plaza Mayor in Madrid and in his interiors of prisons and barracks he pioneered the use of aquatint. He produced the series Caprichos y bombachadas and illustrated the title-page of Ideas y caprichos pintorescos (Madrid, 1807). He had two sons: Laureano (1802–58), an engraver, and Vicente (1796–1857), a history painter.

M. Ossorio y Bernard: Galería biográfica de artistas españoles del siglo XIX...

Article

(b Pozsony [now Bratislava, Slovakia], Dec 13, 1834; d Budapest, Sept 2, 1902).

Hungarian painter, draughtsman, illustrator and critic. He studied drawing with his father, the landscape painter Karl Klette von Klettenhof (1793–1874), while he was a law student at the University of Pest. In Vienna he continued as a law student and also attended Carl Rahl’s art school in 1855. In 1861 he studied at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Munich under Eduard Schleich and Friedrich Voltz (1817–86) and in the private school of Johann Heinrich Fischbach (1797–1871). In 1867–8, under the patronage of the liberal Romantic writer Baron József Eötvös, Keleti undertook a long European tour to study teaching methods in art academies, with the intention of establishing such an institution in Hungary. The Design and Drawing Teachers‘ Institute was founded in Budapest in 1871, and Keleti was its Director until his death. In the 1870s he became a well-known painter of historical landscapes and views. His detailed and picturesque drawings were in the Neo-classical and Romantic style of his father and of his professors. His most famous painting is ...

Article

Jeremy Howard

(b Bebri farmstead, near Saldus, March 18, 1866; d Helsinki, Dec 26, 1916).

Latvian painter, graphic designer, writer, critic and teacher. He was the son of a country blacksmith and at the age of sixteen moved to Riga, where he spent four years as a painter and decorator. He then worked as an extra in the Riga Latvian Society Theatre and briefly attended drawing classes at the German Trade School before entering the St Petersburg Academy of Arts in 1888. He studied under Vladimir Makovsky and in 1894 was made an artist of the first degree for Leaving Church: After the Service (Riga, Latv. Mus. F.A.), a realist depiction of the inequalities of country life and the hypocrisy of church-goers who ignore the beggars outside the church gates. The scene represented is one from his native region, a source that he was to exploit extensively and variously. In the ensuing years he utilized motifs from the landscape, mythology and everyday life of Latvia as, coming into contact with developments abroad, he experimented with his approach. Thus, ...

Article

Nancy Gray Troyer

(b Florence, Aug 18, 1835; d Florence, Feb 11, 1901).

Italian painter, writer, critic, illustrator, etcher and teacher. He was a major figure of the Macchiaioli group, painting primarily landscapes, seascapes and street scenes in towns and villages in Tuscany and Liguria. As with many of the Macchiaioli, he did not always date his paintings, and their chronology must be deduced from exhibition catalogues and other contemporary sources. As a writer and critic he was the most ardent spokesman for, and promoter of, the Macchiaioli and wrote with insight and cutting wit about the art world of the second half of the 19th century.

He and his brothers Edoardo (c. 1830–51) and Egisto studied under their father, Giovanni Signorini (1808–62), an artist employed by the Austrian Grand Dukes of Florence to paint topographical views and scenes of local festivals. Telemaco Signorini’s first preference, however, was for literature, and he spent four years at the prestigious Scuola degli Scolopi in Florence, leaving in ...

Article

Ioana Vlasiu

(b Craiova, Aug 13, 1877; d Bucharest, Aug 4, 1953).

Romanian painter, illustrator, critic and teacher. He began his artistic training in a printer’s workshop in Craiova, then worked in a lithographic workshop in Düsseldorf (1898–9); from 1900 to 1905 he studied at the Fine Arts School in Bucharest. He rapidly became a well-known illustrator for newspapers and journals, notable for his polemical spirit, his conciseness and his geometrical and energetic graphic style. He also exhibited paintings in Bucharest at the official Salon and at the exhibitions of the association Tinerimea Artistică (The young artists) (e.g. A Halt, 1912; Bucharest, N. Mus. A.), and in 1916 he began to write art criticism. He participated in the exhibitions of the Arta Română association (1921–4) and with Ştefan Dimitrescu (1886–1933), Nicolae Tonitza (1886–1940) and the sculptor Oscar Han (1891–1976) created the Group of Four (1925–33), whose objective was to promote modern art in Romania. Şirato’s best-known paintings during this period featured Romanian peasants, as in ...

Article

Katalin Gellér

(b Kolozsvár [now Cluj-Napoca, Romania], May 8, 1835; d Mátyásföld [now part of Budapest], Aug 21, 1910).

Hungarian painter and illustrator. He studied drawing in Kolozsvár and in the early 1850s was taught by Carl Rahl and Nepomuk Geiger at the Akademie in Vienna, where he also briefly attended Ferdinand Waldmüller’s classes. After returning to Hungary, he painted portraits and also signboards for shops and inns in Transylvania (now in Romania) and Bohemia (now in the Czech Republic). From 1859 he studied at the Munich Akademie under Wilhelm von Kaulbach and Karl Theodor von Piloty. As Székely’s sketches (Budapest, N.G.) reveal, he was already a mature artist on his arrival in Munich, where he produced his first important history painting, the Discovery of the Corpse of King Louis II, and also a Self-portrait (both 1860; Budapest, N.G.), the latter being one of his most striking works. In 1859 he painted a series of scenes based on the life of Caravaggio and in 1863 a historical secco in the Bayerisches Nationalmuseum in Munich. Székely then went on a study tour of France, Flanders and the Netherlands and, on his return to Hungary, began painting portraits as a means of supporting his family....

Article

Annemieke Hoogenboom

(b Dordrecht, May 18, 1864; d Amsterdam, July 1, 1925).

Dutch painter, graphic artist, poet and critic. He was trained by August Allebé at the Amsterdam Rijksacademie. The circle of Allebé’s pupils with whom he associated, including George Hendrik Breitner, Willem Witsen and Jacobus van Looy, were known as the ‘Amsterdam school’ and were closely linked with the literary world. In 1885 Veth became involved with the avant-garde periodical De Nieuwe Gids. The reviews he wrote for it advocated an individualistic aestheticism which is not, however, manifested in his own paintings of this period; the rather naive realism of the portrait of his sisters Cornelia, Clara and Johanna Veth (1884–5; Amsterdam, Rijksmus.) is typical. The unforced portrait of the poet Albert Verwey (1865–1937) of 1885 (Amsterdam, Stedel. Mus.), dominated by blue-green and grey colours, is nearer to an assertion of mood. Around 1886 Veth attempted landscape painting under the tutelage of Anton Mauve, with whom he went on study trips in the countryside. Drawings and etchings of subjects from peasant life date from this time. Some of Veth’s etchings, including ...