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Article

Jan Jaap Heij

(b The Hague, Aug 18, 1871; d Amsterdam, Oct 19, 1934).

Dutch printmaker and painter. He trained at the Academie voor Beeldende Kunsten in The Hague, where he subsequently taught graphic art (1893–1911). In 1911 he succeeded Pieter Dupont as professor in graphics at the Rijksakademie in Amsterdam under the directorship of Antoon Derkinderen. In the early years of his career Aarts produced some paintings using the pointillist technique, mostly landscapes (The Hague, Gemeentemus.); he also carved some sculptures in wood. He is, however, best known for his graphic work. In technique and subject-matter, his prints have a great deal in common with those of Dupont. As the latter’s successor he devoted himself to the revival of engraving, which his predecessor had reintroduced; his own experiments in this medium (in particular his scenes with diggers and beggars, all c. 1900) are considered milestones in early 20th-century Dutch printmaking. He also applied his skills to etching, lithography, woodcutting and wood-engraving; of the latter his ...

Article

R. W. A. Bionda

[Flor; Pieter Florentius Nicolaas Jacobus]

(b Surabaya, Java, June 9, 1864; d The Hague, June 9, 1925).

Dutch painter, illustrator and printmaker. He moved to the Netherlands c. 1875, and was taught first by Johan Hendrik Frederik Conrad Nachtweh (1857–1941). He attended the Rijksacademie van Beeldende Kunsten in Amsterdam from 1883 to 1888, studying under August Allebé and Barend Wijnveld (1820–1902). He then spent a year studying life drawing at the Koninklijke Academie voor Schone Kunsten in Antwerp under Charles Verlat before returning to Amsterdam, where he initially applied himself to painting landscapes in the countryside around The Hague and in Nunspeet in Gelderland in the style of the Hague school.

Arntzenius settled in The Hague in 1892. He was particularly active as a painter of Impressionist townscapes in both oil and watercolour from c. 1890 to 1910. His crowded street scenes with their misty, rainy atmosphere, such as The Spuistraat (The Hague, Gemeentemus.), were particularly successful and despite their greater emphasis on intimacy and tonality are reminiscent of the work of George Hendrik Breitner and Isaac Israëls. Arntzenius may have collaborated with ...

Article

German, 19th century, male.

Born 4 May 1840, in Dresden; died 18 October 1892.

Painter, lithographer.

Created lithographs of fruit and flowers for the American market. In 1873, he sold his lithographic studio and settled in Munich to devote himself to painting. A literary man, he also achieved some success as an author....

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1877, in Paris; died 1931, in Paris.

Painter, poster artist, lithographer, humorist artist.

Barrère showed work at the Salon des Humoristes in 1929. He studied law and medicine before beginning his career as an illustrator, working first for some of the humorous publications popular at the time. His first opportunity came from the magazine ...

Article

German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 14 April 1868, in Hamburg; died 27 February 1940, in Berlin.

Painter, draughtsman, engraver, architect, designer, decorative artist, graphic designer. Posters, furniture, wallpaper, carpets, glassware, ceramics, table services, jewellery, silverwork, objets d'art, typefaces.

Jugendstil, functional school.

Die Sieben (Group of Seven), Deutscher Werkbund...

Article

Belgian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 8 November 1867, in Liège; died 1947, in Liège.

Painter, engraver, draughtsman, illustrator, poster artist.

A student of his father at the academy in Liège, Berchmans decorated the ceilings of the theatres in Liège and Verviers, as well as the cupola of the church of St Michel in Aachen. He illustrated an edition of Lucien's ...

Article

(b Salzburg, May 1, 1753; d Prague, June 25, 1829).

Austrian painter, printmaker, draughtsman, illustrator and teacher, active in Bohemia. He was taught by his father, the sculptor and painter Josef Bergler the elder (1718–88), and, during his stay in Italy, by Martin Knoller in Milan and Anton von Maron in Rome. An accomplished portrait painter, he was employed as official painter by bishops and cardinals at Passau and painted a number of altarpieces in Austria and especially in Bohemia. He helped establish the Academy of Fine Arts, Prague (1800), which placed a new emphasis on draughtsmanship, composition and Classical subjects and models. As the first Director of the Academy, Bergler won new academic prestige for art in Bohemia and, for himself, a privileged position in obtaining commissions such as the Curtain at the Estates Theatre (sketches, 1803–4; Prague, N.G., Convent of St Agnes). He also published albums of engravings intended as models (Compositions and Sketches...

Article

Berti  

French, 19th century, male.

Draughtsman, lithographer, poster artist.

Produced poster designs in 1861 and 1863.

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active also active in Japan.

Born 1860, in Paris; died 1927.

Painter, engraver (etching), illustrator, poster artist.

Japonisme, Art Nouveau.

At a very young age, Georges Ferdinand Bigot trained under Jean-Léon Gérôme (1824-1904) and Carolus-Durand (1837-1917) at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris. He learnt etching with Félix Buhot and collaborated on the journal ...

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1 February 1874, in Paris; died 16 December 1907, in Villejuif.

Painter, watercolourist, lithographer, draughtsman, illustrator, poster artist. Portraits, genre scenes, sporting subjects.

Georges Bottini was the son of a Parisian hairdresser. He trained in Cormon's studio, and at the same time was employed by Gardi, restoring paintings, which gave him the opportunity to study the techniques of the Old Masters. He suffered with mental illness from a very young age and died in an asylum in Villejuif when he was 31. He also designed posters and produced illustrations to advertise sporting events. His numerous illustrations for Jean Lorrain's book ...

Article

British, 19th century, male.

Born 1812, in Birmingham; died 1863.

Lithographer, watercolourist, draughtsman. Landscapes.

John Brandard was the brother of Robert Brandard. He represented naval subjects, topographical views and portraits, but was above all known for covers of musical works, which he designed with great style....

Article

Clare A. P. Willsdon

(b Bruges, May 12, 1867; d Ditchling, Sussex, June 11, 1956).

English painter and graphic artist. Largely self-taught, he helped his father, William Brangwyn, who was an ecclesiastical architect and textile designer in Bruges. After his family moved to England in 1875 Brangwyn entered the South Kensington Art Schools and from 1882 to 1884 worked for William Morris. Harold Rathbone and Arthur Mackmurdo encouraged him to copy Raphael and Donatello in the Victoria and Albert Museum, complementing his already broad knowledge of Dutch and Flemish art.

Brangwyn’s plein-air work in Cornwall from 1884 to 1888 resulted in a series of oils, exhibited at the Royal Academy and the Royal Society of British Artists, London, in which the subdued tones indicate the influences of Whistler and the Newlyn school. Journeys to the Near East, South Africa and Europe in the early 1890s, and contact with Arthur Melville, encouraged the use of a brighter palette in exotic subjects such as the Slave Market...

Article

(b Prague, April 9, 1858; d Prague, May 23, 1934).

Bohemian etcher, illustrator, painter and writer. As the daughter of František Augustín Braun, a prominent Bohemian politician, she was able to play a significant role in Bohemia’s cultural life at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th, especially in the area of Czech–French cultural relations. She was a frequent visitor to Paris, where her elder sister, who was married to the writer Elémir Bourges, lived. She was instrumental in familiarizing Bohemian artists with French culture and introduced them to such prominent artists as Rodin, Redon and others. In Bohemia she was much to the fore in bringing writers and artists together and in discovering such artists as František Bílek. She painted landscapes and together with her teacher Antonín Chittussi established contacts in France with members of the Barbizon school. She was, however, primarily an etcher and illustrator and she specialized in etchings of Old Prague, for example ...

Article

Lewis Johnson

[Phiz]

(b London, July 12, 1815; d Hove, W. Sussex, July 8, 1882).

English illustrator, etcher and painter. Browne’s only formal education consisted of sporadic attendance at the St Martin’s Lane Academy life class and apprenticeship to the line-engraver William Finden. In 1834 he cancelled his indenture and established an illustrators’ workshop with fellow apprentice Robert Young, producing etchings and watercolours in preference to the more laborious line-engravings. He won the Silver Isis medal of the Society of Arts in 1833 for his etching, John Gilpin’s Ride. He also produced illustrations for Sunday under Three Heads (1836), an anti-Sabbatarian pamphlet published pseudonymously by Charles Dickens, who later preferred Browne to Thackeray as collaborator in the production of The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club. Initially The Pickwick Papers was merely meant to accompany etchings of pastimes of contemporary London by Robert Seymour (1798–1836), but after Seymour’s suicide Dickens took charge and made them a narrative with illustrations in monthly parts. Symptomatic of this accommodation of image to prose is Browne signing himself first ‘Nemo’ and then ‘Phiz’ (a depicter of physiognomies) to harmonize with Dickens’s ‘Boz’. Browne played an important part, for instance, in the portrayal of Sam Weller, whom he made less wiry, less an example of what Dickens called ‘loutish humour’, but more resilient and knowingly ironical....

Article

Swiss, 19th century, male.

Active in Switzerlandc.1830.

Draughtsman, lithographer.

Bucholzer joined his father's lithographic company and also worked for the Eglin brothers. His best-known works are Young Man from Savoy and Werner Stauffacher Finds Tell's Arrow, in 1307.

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Born 3 September 1878, in Strasbourg; died 18 April 1947, in Munich.

Painter, graphic designer, draughtsman, interior designer, illustrator, engraver (wood). Designs for tapestries, ex-libris plates, posters, designs (wallpaper/jewellery).

Jugendstil.

Die Sieben (Group of Seven). Darmstadt Artists' Colony.

Paul Bürck was apprenticed to a decorative painter in Munich, and was also able to attend the Kunstgewerbeschule (school of industrial art and design). He was one of the first artists to be invited to the Mathildenhöhe artists' colony in Darmstadt between ...

Article

Colette E. Bidon

(b Cuisery, Saône-et-Loire, April 24, 1862; d Saulieu, Côte d’Or, Oct 29, 1928).

French painter, illustrator and printmaker. He was taught by his father, Victor Bussière, a decorative painter in Mâcon. He went to the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Lyon and then to Paris, where he studied in the atelier of Alexandre Cabanel. During further studies under Puvis de Chavannes, he came into contact with Gustave Moreau. Symbolist paintings followed, drawing on French legend, as in the Song of Roland (exh. Salon 1892), and Nordic myth (Valkyries, exh. Salon 1894); he exhibited at the Symbolist Salon de la Rose+Croix, 1893–5. In 1905 he rented a studio at Grez-sur-Loing on the edge of the Forest of Fontainebleau. Paintings such as the Rhine Maidens (1906; Mâcon, Mus. Mun. Ursulines) drew on observations of the forest, populating its streams with adolescent water nymphs. Such studies of the female nude—a lifelong speciality of Bussière’s—uphold a rigorous draughtsmanship that is yet not devoid of sensuality....

Article

Gerardo Pérez Calero

(b Madrid, 1823; d 1897).

Spanish painter, watercolourist and illustrator. He trained at the Escuela de Nobles Artes in Seville (1833–40) and subsequently at the Real Academia de S Fernando in Madrid. He became a member of the Academia de S Isabel de Hungria of Seville in 1848, where he taught from 1859 and reformed the teaching of art. His early work shows traces of Neo-classicism, although his art is essentially based on Romanticism. Between 1851 and 1861 he concentrated on portrait painting, depicting mainly female subjects or children; examples include Youth with a Dog (Seville, Neana Col.), Self-portrait (Seville, Mus. B.A.) and Josefa Garvey (Seville, priv. col.). He was an important link between Romanticism and Realism and stimulated a renewed interest in history painting in Spain, a genre he established at the Exposición Nacional in 1856 with his painting Christopher Columbus in the Convent of La Rábida (Madrid, Pal. de las Cortes), which was awarded first prize. He won the same prize in ...

Article

French, 19th–20th century, male.

Born 31 May 1836, in Paris; died 1932, in Nice.

Painter (gouache), pastellist, sculptor, engraver, lithographer, draughtsman, poster artist. Portraits, genre scenes, local scenes (carnival), flowers, landscapes.

Chéret created a genre, a new method of expression for poster art, and was the founder of a technique destined to set a trend. At the age of 13, he did an apprenticeship with a lithographer who employed him to design letters. But Chéret had other ambitions. He taught himself drawing, with only his very confident sense of taste and the very lively originality of his artistic temperament to guide him. At that time, he produced numerous lithographic vignettes for brochures or book covers. In 1856, Chéret went to England, where he studied new colour lithography techniques. He stayed in England for ten years, then returned to Paris and in 1866 established his printing works and launched his first two colour posters: ...

Article

Phillip Dennis Cate

(b Paris, May 31, 1836; d Nice, Sept 23, 1932).

French lithographer, poster designer and painter. Chéret’s formal training in art was limited to a course at the Ecole Nationale de Dessin, Paris, as a pupil of Horace Lecoq de Boisbaudran. More important for his future as a poster artist were his apprenticeships with lithographers from the age of 13. He created his first poster, Orpheus in the Underworld, for the composer Jacques Offenbach in 1858; this, however, did not lead to further commissions, and he went to London where he designed book covers for the publishing firm of Cramer as well as several posters for the circus, theatre and music halls. These efforts led him to work for the perfume manufacturer Eugène Rimmel, who in 1866 supported Chéret’s establishment of a commercial colour lithographic shop in Paris. First working in one or two colours, in 1869 Chéret introduced a new system of printing from three stones: one black, one red and the third a ‘fond gradué’ (graduated background, achieved by printing two colours from one stone, with cool colours at the top and warm colours at the bottom). This process was the basis of his colour lithographic posters throughout the 1870s and early 1880s; later, when the format of posters had grown to life-size, his colour schemes became much more elaborate and varied. By ...