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Article

Sofia Hernández Chong Cuy

American installation artists, active also in Puerto Rico. Jennifer Allora (b Philadelphia, Mar 20, 1974) graduated with a bachelor’s degree in art from the University of Richmond, Virginia (1996), and Guillermo Calzadilla (b Havana, Cuba, Jan 10, 1971) graduated with a Bachelor of Fine Arts from the Escuela de Artes Plastica in San Juan, Puerto Rico (1996). Allora and Calzadilla met in Italy in 1995 during a study abroad program in Florence. They then lived together in San Juan for a year before moving to New York City where they started working collaboratively while each participated in different residency and study programs. In 1998–1999, Allora participated in the year-long Whitney Independent Study Program, while Calzadilla participated in the P.S.1 Contemporary Arts Center National Studio Program.

Allora & Calzadilla’s first important international exhibition was the XXIV Bienal de São Paulo in 1998 curated by Paulo Herkenhoff, which investigated the idea of cultural cannibalism known in Brazilian literature as ...

Article

Klaus Ottmann

American performance artist and sculptor. Antoni studied sculpture at the Rhode Island School of Design in Providence. Antoni drew attention to herself in 1993 during a performance (Loving Care) at the Anthony d’Offay Gallery in London where, dressed in a black catsuit, she dipped her long hair repeatedly into a bucket filled with hair dye, and using her hair as a paint brush, mopped the gallery floor on her hands and knees. Her performance was reminiscent of Yves Klein’s 1960s ...

Article

Brazilian, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active in France.

Born 19 August 1948, in Olinda.

Engraver, sculptor.

José Barbosa da Silva's father was a carpenter and taught him woodwork, which was to prove influential in his later work.

Folklore and the popular and religious art of his country are common features in Barbosa da Silva's engravings and low reliefs. Most typical of his work are small, engraved caskets showing connections with fetishism....

Article

Eduardo Serrano

(b Cartagena, Oct 27, 1945).

Colombian painter, sculptor and conceptual artist. He studied at the Escuela de Bellas Artes of the University of Atlántico in Barranquilla, Colombia, from 1958 to 1960, and in Italy from 1966 to 1967 at the University of Perugia. In 1966, under the influence of Pop art, he made the first of a series of collages combining cut-outs of well-known individuals and comic strips with drawn elements. Two years later he added frosty effects and velvet flowers to his interpretations in black and red ink of figures with distorted bodies and the faces of film stars. In 1969 he began to present these in increasingly three-dimensional boxes or glass cases, accompanied by clouds of cotton wool, plastic figures and other additions that combined to make up fantastic or nostalgic scenes, dream-like and surrealist in appearance and tone.

Barrios was among those who introduced conceptual art to Colombia, for example by publishing in newspapers a series of ...

Article

Jorge Glusberg

(b Buenos Aires, Aug 7, 1947).

Argentine sculptor and architect. After studying architecture he began in 1967 to make multiple color projections of shadows, continuing in 1968 to work with light apparatuses. He then traveled on a French Government scholarship to Paris, where he began to create multiple superimposed images using acrylic shapes laid on top of flat mirrors. He became involved with the Groupe d’Art Constructif et Mouvement and turned to spheres within cubes or other spheres. After this he experimented with inflatable sculptures and back projections of photographs, and later with Books (e.g. Summa geometrica, 1979, see Glusberg 1985, 133) and Megacubes, which consist generally of ruins or landscapes rendered unfamiliar. As an architect he worked on the Recoleta Cultural Center (1972–1979; with Clorindo Testa and Luis Benedit) in Buenos Aires. He was a founder-member of Grupo CAYC.

Glusberg, J. Del Pop-art a la Nueva Imagen. Buenos Aires, 1985, pp. 133–138.Tager, A....

Article

Brazilian, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1952, in Belo Horizonte.

Sculptor.

Marcos Benjamin was influenced by the painter Bispo do Rosario and the sculptor Amilcar de Castro; his works are characterised by the purity of his popular touch and economy of means. He represented Brazil in ...

Article

Katherine Chacon

(b Caracas, Aug 4, 1930).

Venezuelan sculptor and museum founder. Bermúdez studied at the School of Visual and Applied Arts of Caracas between 1944 and 1946. Jesús Soto and Ernest Maragall (1903–1991) were among her professors in that time. In 1947 she moved to Maracaibo where she continued her studies at the Escuela de Artes Plásticas “Julio Árraga” (1948–1950). During the early 1950s she produced stylized figurative paintings derived from Cézanne, but soon she started to paint abstract and flat forms, influenced by Soto, who had been named director of the school in 1947. Her researches in abstraction went together with her inquiries about three-dimensionality and she became a pioneer of abstract sculpture in Venezuela. In 1957 she made her first solo exhibition at the Centro de Bellas Artes de Maracaibo which contained paintings made with lacquer on wood, and some of her first sculptures—open-line hanging structures made of welded iron. In ...

Article

Argentinian, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active in France.

Born 1956, in Buenos Aires.

Sculptor.

Leandro Berra has lived and worked in Paris since 1981. His wooden low reliefs are constructed in the form of diptychs in which man confronts his image in black and white, the image of his internal self in compositions with evocative titles such as ...

Article

John-Paul Stonard

(b Barbados, May 26, 1959).

American sculptor and painter. He studied at the California Institute of the Arts (1982) and the Whitney Independent Studies Program, New York (1985). He had his first solo exhibition at Artists Space, New York (1984), and subsequently showed regularly in America and Europe. Bickerton emerged in New York in the early 1980s as part of the group of artists termed ‘Neo-Geo’, along with Jeff Koons, Peter Halley and Meyer Vaisman. Their work was characterized by a rejection of the neo-expressionist trends in painting and, in Bickerton’s case, by the appropriation of images and labels from consumer culture. His use of popular imagery, though most obviously indebted to Pop art, was influenced also by conceptual and Minimal art; because of its critique of consumer society, it has also been termed ‘commodity art’. In the early 1980s Bickerton made paintings on masonite boards that contained single words, such as ‘Susie’ and ‘God’, in extravagantly ornate lettering as ironic reflections that foreshadowed his later criticisms of American society. These developed into the works for which he became known: wall-mounted black containers, riveted together and covered with corporate logos. Labelled either ...

Article

Brazilian, 20th – 21st century, female.

Born 1965, in São Paulo.

Sculptor, engraver, draughtswoman.

Elisa Bracher lives and works in São Paulo.Bracher is interested in ephemeral phenomena which she addresses in the form of liminal drawings, engravings and sculptures. At the Capc-Musée d'Art Contemporain in Bordeaux she installed metal carvings along the walls; these black and white, horizontal and vertical geometric forms of varying thickness talk to each other acquiring density and marking out a barely perceptible path....

Article

Ricardo Pau-Llosa

(b Havana, Oct 10, 1947).

Cuban sculptor, active in the USA. She arrived in the USA during the 1960s and in 1979 obtained an MFA at the University of Miami. She worked primarily in three formats: wall-hanging constructions, free-standing sculpture, and installations situated in corners like stage props. Using mixed media, often wood and found objects, she focused on the objective representation of personal dreamed images, reminiscent of the assemblages of Joseph Cornell and Marisol (e.g. Next Room (Homage to R.B.), mixed media, 1986; see 1987–1988 exh. cat., p. 259). Brito exhibited widely throughout the USA, in both one-woman and group exhibitions.

Plagens, P. “Report from Florida: Miami Slice.” Art in America [cont. as A. America & Elsewhere; A. America] 74, no. 11 (Nov 1986): 26–39.Pau-Llosa, R. “The Dreamt Objectivities of María Brito Avellana.” Dreamworks 5, no. 2 (1986–1987): 98–104.Fuentes-Pérez, I., Cruz-Taura, G., and Pau-Llosa, R. Outside Cuba. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1987. Published in conjunction with the exhibition of the same name, shown at New Brunswick, NJ, Rutgers U., Zimmerli A. Mus. New York, Mus. Contemp. Hisp. A.; Oxford, OH, Miami U., A. Mus.; and elsewhere; 1987–1989, pp. 258–261....

Article

Manuel Rojas Sotelo

(b Bogotá, Sept 8, 1933; d Paris, Jan 8, 1982).

Colombian sculptor. One of the first modern female sculptors in Colombia, Bursztyn introduced industrial materials and an anti-aesthetic language into a conservative art scene. Bursztyn, a descendent of Polish Jewish migrants who settled in the Colombia before the outbreak of World War II, lived in the country during the advent of the so-called violencia política (political violence) that began in 1948 in Colombia and continues to this day. Bursztyn studied at the Art Students League in New York City (1952–4), and later in Paris in the studio of Belorussian sculptor Ossip Zadkine at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière (1956–8). During these years, Bursztyn had a romantic relationship with Jorge Gaitán Durán, a leftist poet and critic living in Paris, and the founder of the journal Mito, who would also influence the magazine Les Temps modernes established by Jean-Paul Sartre, Simone de Beauvoir, and Maurice Merlau-Ponty. In the early 1960s Marta Traba, the Argentine Colombian critic, described Bursztyn’s formal and conceptual approach as anarchist, though it might better be characterized as anarcho-feminist, highlighting the struggle against the patriarchy as a key component in anarchist opposition to state oppression. Between ...

Article

Brazilian, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1946.

Painter (mixed media), sculptor.

Conceptual Art.

Waltercio Caldas Junior has taken part in group exhibitions including the Art from Brazil in New York exhibition shown in various museums and galleries in 1995 and the São Paulo Biennale in ...

Article

Brazilian, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1961, in São Paulo.

Sculptor, draughtsman.

Carlito Carvalhosa lives and works in São Paulo. He creates volumes in space. Lacking in decorative value, his blocks of white plaster suggest the idea of a 'geographical fault', challenging visual equilibrium. Subjected to strong pressure, the mass fractures in two and the visitor is invited to move within it. Alongside his sculptural works he also produces drawings of a geometrical nature....

Article

Argentinian, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active in France since 1975.

Born 13 April 1954, in Buenos Aires.

Painter, sculptor. Scenes with figures, figures, portraits, landscapes, still-lifes. Stage sets.

Ricardo Cavallo studied at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, the city where he now lives and works. In his early career he was an abstract painter but he went on to create clay sculptures after models, of which only photographs have survived....

Article

Brazilian, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active in the USA and in France.

Born 1951, in Cruz Alta.

Sculptor.

At the age of 22, Saint Clair Cemin moved to Paris to study at the École Nationale des Beaux Arts. He now lives in New York and Paris. In both composition and technique Cemin shows the influence of Henry Moore among others. His bronze ...

Article

Margarita González Arredondo

revised by Ana Garduño

(b Mexico City, Jun 10, 1940).

Mexican painter, sculptor, illustrator, and stage designer. Coen was self-taught when he took up painting in 1956 with the encouragement of Diego Rivera, but from 1956 to 1960 he studied graphic design with the American publicist Gordon Jones. During those years he worked in an Abstract Expressionist manner, although he soon incorporated figurative elements and, from around 1963 onward, elements of fantasy.

In the 1950s until the early 1970s, he was one of the indispensable creators of the collective exhibitions organized by the Juan Martín Gallery, the most important platform for vanguard art in Mexico City at that time. This gallery also dedicated four individual exhibitions to the work of Coen. In 1967 he went to Paris on a French government grant. In the following year he was a founder-member of the Salón Independiente, where he began to exhibit acrylic sculptures of the female torso.

He systematically returned to working the image of the feminine. These were followed between ...

Article

Mexican, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1948, in Guadalajara.

Painter, sculptor. Figures, scenes with figures, circus scenes.

In 1971, Alejandro Colunga gave up studying architecture in order to join a circus.

He depicts figures, magicians, imaginary creatures and incredible scenes which border on caricature and display elements of Expressionism, Surrealism and a fantastical imagination. His technique is very elaborate and displays a particularly rich appreciation of colour, harmony and contrast. He beautifies ugliness, horror and the monstrous....

Article

Colombian, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active also active in France from 1989.

Born 1953, in Rivera.

Sculptor. Figures. Busts.

Raul Cortés Castaneda was one of sixteen children. A self-taught artist, he began by modelling figures and animals in clay and carving fruit kernels. He left his family to study drawing, ceramics and modelling when he was 16. In ...

Article

Daniel R. Quiles

(b Buenos Aires, Oct 5, 1940).

Argentine poet, critic, conceptual artist, painter, and sculptor. He studied literature at the Universidad de Buenos Aires (UBA), graduating in 1964. Between 1959 and 1966 he co-published the literary magazine Airón (Heron) with Madela Ezcurra, Leandro Katz, and other former students of Jaime Rest (1927–1979) at UBA’s Philosophy and Literature Department. In 1965 he joined a group of young intellectuals studying semiotics and media theory with the theorist Oscar Masotta (1930–1979). In 1966, working with fellow Masotta associates Raúl Escari (1944–2016) and Roberto Jacoby (b 1944), Costa co-wrote Un arte de los medios de comunicación, a manifesto for inserting works of informational art within the circuits of the mass media. This text accompanied the trio’s first work of this new genre, Happening para un jabalí difunto (Happening for a Dead Boar, 1966; 2014 exh. cat., 29), a fictional description of a happening distributed to different Argentine newspapers and magazines followed by an explanation one month later, in which the artists wrote: “[A]ll that matters is the image that the news media construct out of this artistic occurrence” (see Costa ...