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Howard Colvin

(b Westminster, London, Jan 1647 or 1648; d Oxford, Dec 14, 1710).

English architect and scholar. The son of Henry Aldrich, later auditor to James, Duke of York, he was educated at Westminster School, London, and at Christ Church, Oxford, where he graduated as a BA in 1666 and an MA in 1669. He remained in Oxford for the rest of his life, becoming in 1682 a canon of Christ Church and in 1689 Dean of the College and Cathedral. From 1692 to 1695 he served as Vice-Chancellor of Oxford University.

Aldrich was a highly accomplished man who was well known for his learning in many fields. He edited Greek and Latin texts, wrote a standard book on logic, and also published works on mathematics, music and architecture. He had a large library that included books on antiquities and many architectural and other engravings. He left his library to Christ Church, where it remains, but directed that all his personal papers were to be destroyed. As a result, relatively little is known about his architectural interests and activities. However, there is reason to think that he had visited France and Italy, and he was certainly regarded by contemporaries as an authority on architectural matters. He was himself an excellent draughtsman and made the drawings for the allegorical engravings that decorate the Oxford almanacks for ...


(b Venice, Dec 11, 1712; d Pisa, May 12, 1764).

Italian patron, collector and writer. The second son of a wealthy Venetian merchant, he was educated in Bologna, where he studied under the eminent scientists Eustachio Manfredi and the Zanotti brothers. Afterwards he travelled in the Veneto and developed a particular admiration for the works of Veronese, Guido Reni and Andrea Palladio. In Florence in 1733 he was impressed by the art of Titian and Fra Bartolommeo. He then spent a year in Rome, where the ancient monuments and paintings by the Caracci and Domenichino had a considerable impact on him. There, too, he made the acquaintance of the scholar and antiquarian Giovanni Gaetano Bottari. A period in Paris led to contacts with Pierre-Louis Moreau de Maupertuis, an early champion of Newton’s principles, and with Voltaire and the collectors Pierre Crozat and Pierre-Jean Mariette. Then in England in 1736 he was a social success; during this visit Jonathan Richardson made two portrait drawings of him (London, V&A). After a further stay in Paris, with Voltaire, he spent a year in Milan and Venice and published a popular exposition on Newton’s discoveries in optics, ...


Andrew McClellan

[Billarderie d’Angiviller, Comte de la; Flahaut, Charles-Claude]

(b Saint-Rémy-sur-l’Eau, Jan 24, 1730; d Altona, nr Hamburg, Dec 11, 1809).

French administrator. His brief but distinguished military career led to the Dauphin Louis, son of Louis XV, by whose side he had served at the Battle of Fontenoy (1745), entrusting him with the education of the royal princes, including the Duc de Berry, the future Louis XVI. Flahaut’s many years of faithful service were rewarded with his appointment as Directeur-Général des Bâtiments du Roi after Louis XVI’s accession in 1774. Although nothing in his background had prepared him for his new responsibilities—he was of pure military stock and unlike his predecessor, the Marquis de Marigny, had not been groomed in the arts—he proved an excellent civil servant: efficient, imaginative and, above all, devoted to the King. Of all 18th-century Directeurs des Bâtiments, he alone merits comparison with Jean-Baptiste Colbert, Louis XIV’s great minister.

D’Angiviller is best known for his attempts to revitalize history painting and sculpture (see...


Olivier Michel

[Gondrin, Antoine-Louis de Pardaillan de]

(b Paris, Nov 5, 1665; d Paris, Nov 2, 1736).

French administrator and patron. He was the son of the Marquis de Montespan, whose wife, Françoise Athénais de Mortemart, became one of the mistresses of Louis XIV. During the prominence of her successor Mme de Maintenon, d’Antin pursued an undistinguished military career, and it was only after his mother’s death in 1707 that his gifts as a courtier were rewarded with the post of governor of the Orléanais and, in 1708, with that of Directeur-Général des Bâtiments du Roi (see Maison du Roi, §II). His predecessor, Jules Hardouin Mansart, had been termed Surintendant; d’Antin held this amplified title from 1716 to 1726, but thereafter returned to his initial designation. His dukedom was from 1710. He inherited the châteaux of Bellegarde (Loiret), Oiron (Deux-Sèvres) and Petit-Bourg near Fontainebleau, and considerably embellished them.

As Directeur-Général, d’Antin’s authority extended over all artists nominally attached to the royal household, over the Imprimerie Royale, the Mint, the Gobelins, the Observatoire and all the academies except the Académie des Sciences. During the last years of Louis XIV financial difficulties inhibited state patronage of the arts, but after his death in ...


Mercedes Agueda

(b Barbuñales, 1730; d Paris, Jan 26, 1804)

Spanish diplomat, writer and patron . He studied at the University of Salamanca and entered the Ministerio de Estado at an early age. His political career included service in the Spanish Embassy in Rome as Agente de Preces from 1766, and he rose to be Ambassador there from 1784 to 1798, when he was appointed Ambassador to Paris; a second appointment to this post lasting until shortly before his death.

Azara was a typical figure of the Age of Enlightened Despotism—a Royalist and convinced anti-Jesuit. He cultivated the 18th-century literary genre of letter-writing, corresponding with leading figures such as the statesman and general Don Pedro Pablo Conde de Aranda, the printer Giambattista Bodoni, Manuel de Roda and Bernardo de Iriarte. He was in touch with intellectual circles, and among his friends were the Spaniards E. Llaguno (d 1799) and E. de Arteaga (1747–99), Italians such as Carlo Fea (...


Martin Postle

(b Fenny Compton, Warwicks, Aug 25, 1745; d Cheltenham, Feb 1, 1824).

English writer, collector and clergyman. The son of a clergyman, Bate-Dudley (he added ‘Dudley’ to his name in 1784 in order to inherit a legacy) succeeded his father as rector of the parish of North Farmbridge, Essex; by his mid-twenties, however, he preferred to spend his time in London, where his ebullient behaviour earned him the nickname of ‘the fighting parson’. In 1772 he became editor of the Morning Post; six years later he left to found the rival Morning Herald. The following year he was imprisoned for 12 months for libelling Charles Lennox, 3rd Duke of Richmond.

Bate-Dudley was a close friend of the actors David Garrick and Sarah Siddons as well as a leading supporter of Thomas Gainsborough. He mounted spirited defences in his newspapers of Gainsborough’s art, often at the expense of Joshua Reynolds, the Royal Academy’s president, whose pretensions towards high art Bate-Dudley felt militated against the interests of his own favourite. ...


David Rodgers

(b London, Sept 29, 1760; d Bath, May 2, 1844).

English patron, collector and writer. He was the only son of Alderman William Beckford, MP (1709–70). Orphaned at the age of nine, he inherited a fabulous fortune derived from his family’s Jamaican plantations. He was a precocious child, brought up in a puritanical atmosphere only relieved, after 1775, by the appointment of Alexander Cozens as his drawing-master. An ardent Orientalist, Beckford studied Arabic from 1778 until his departure in June 1780 on the Grand Tour.

In 1781 Beckford returned to England, where he celebrated his majority with a spectacular party; he followed this with scandalous Christmas festivities in a setting devised by the theatrical painter Philippe Jacques de Loutherbourg and embarked on a princely career of collecting and patronage by commissioning silver from John Schofield and the partnership of Daniel Smith and Robert Sharp. In early 1782 he wrote his celebrated Gothic Orientalist romance, Vathek (pubd 1786). His descriptions in it of tombs and ruins have been thought to reflect his familiarity with the fantastic landscapes of Piranesi’s etchings, such as the ...


Edward Chaney

(b Dysart Castle, Kilkenny, March 12, 1685; d Oxford, Jan 14, 1753).

Irish bishop, philosopher, writer, collector, and traveller of English descent. He established the basis of his reputation as a philosopher while still a Fellow of Trinity College, Dublin, with An Essay towards a New Theory of Vision (Dublin, 1709) and the Principles of Human Knowledge (Dublin, 1710), in which he introduced his theory that material reality exists only in as much as it can be perceived by the mind, and that God is the omnipresent perceiver and the originator of our sense experiences. Early in 1713 he visited England. There he met the writers Joseph Addison, Jonathan Swift, and Alexander Pope; with their help and encouragement, by October he had arranged to travel as chaplain to Charles Mordaunt, 3rd Earl of Peterborough on his embassy to Sicily; but Berkeley only reached Tuscany on this occasion. He returned to Italy in 1716, however, as tutor to St George Ashe, son of the Bishop of Clogher. Over the next four years Berkeley conducted his frail pupil on what was an exceptionally extensive (and intensive) Italian tour for the time. Though underestimated in the history of aesthetics, Berkeley’s value to art history lies largely in what he recorded in his travel journals and letters home from Italy. Cumulatively these represent a fascinating landmark in the history of taste and indicate how successfully a truly independent mind can resist the pressure to conform to contemporary opinion. In early ...


(b Saint-Marcel de l’Ardèche, May 22, 1715; d Rome, Nov 2, 1794).

French priest, diplomat, poet and patron. As an abbé, he went to Paris, where he quickly became a favourite of the Marquise de Pompadour and was given a pension and lodgings at the Tuileries. At the age of 29 he became a member of the Académie Française, producing affected mythological poetry, which was mocked by Voltaire. From 1752 to 1755 he was Ambassador to Venice, and in 1756 he concluded the Treaty of Versailles between France and Austria. He was made Archbishop of Albi in 1764, and Ambassador to Rome in 1769. Bernis was a significant patron: not only was he involved in discussions concerning important public works, such as the equestrian statue of Louis XIV (1749; destr. 1792) by Jacques-Philippe Bouchardon, but he also himself made significant commissions. In 1778, for example, while Ambassador to Rome, he commissioned Pierre Peyron to paint Belisarius Receiving Alms from a Soldier who had Served under Him...


(b Duchen, Sept 5, 1674; d Göttweig, Jan 22, 1749).

German theologian, diplomat, collector and historian. In 1693 he entered the Benedictine monastery at Göttweig, near Krems, where he was named Gottfried. He studied philosophy, law and theology in Salzburg and Vienna, obtaining his doctorate in those subjects in Vienna in 1696. In that same year he was expelled from the Benedictines because of differences with his fellow monks and accepted the chair of philosophy at Seeligenstadt, near Frankfurt am Main, where he met Lothar Franz von Schönborn, Elector-Archbishop of Mainz, who became a lifelong friend. In the Archbishop’s service he made many journeys, including three to Rome in 1708, 1710 and 1711, and began a successful career as a lawyer and diplomat on behalf of Mainz and the imperial family. This patronage promoted his election as abbot at Göttweig on 7 December 1714. Under the influence of Bessel, Göttweig became a centre of art and science, boasting a library with 40,000 new volumes, a medallion and picture collection and the basis of a coin and graphic cabinet. His exemplary rearrangement of the monastery documents served as an example for other archivists. In his chronicles, ...


(b Paris, March 1695; d Paris, July 10, 1776).

French administrator and collector. His early career is obscure, but by 1737, when he was one of the major purchasers at the sale of the collection of Jeanne-Baptiste d’Albert de Luynes, Comtesse de Verrue, he possessed a considerable fortune. At the beginning of 1750 he was appointed Trésorier Général des Amortissements des Dettes du Roi, and two years later became Intendant des Menus Plaisirs du Roi. He collected chiefly Dutch and Flemish paintings; during the 1760s and 1770s, his gallery was one of the best known and most frequented in Paris. His collection was depicted in a drawing, View of Blondel de Gagny’s Picture Cabinet (Paris, Louvre, Cab. Dessins) by Augustin de Saint-Aubin, and described by Hester Thrale, later Mrs Piozzi (1741–1821). The paintings were hung in panels, juxtaposed to complement each other and reflect the display on the opposite wall; paintings on similar themes by the same or different artists were hung as pendants on either side of mirrors or of paintings that complemented them. Schools and subjects were often intermingled. In addition to purchasing works from sales in Paris, Blondel sponsored picture-buying trips abroad by the picture dealer ...


Simonetta Prosperi Valenti Rodinò

(b Busto Arsizio, Nov 11, 1777; d Milan, Dec 15, 1815).

Italian painter, collector and writer. He studied painting at the Accademia di Brera in Milan. Between 1785 and 1801 he lived in Rome, where he met such Neo-classical artists as Angelica Kauffman and Marianna Dionigi (1756–1826) as well as writers, scholars and archaeologists, notably Jean-Baptiste Séroux d’Agincourt, Giovanni Gherardo de Rossi (1754–1827) and Ennio Quirino Visconti. While in Rome he studied Antique and Renaissance works, making copies of the statues in the Museo Pio-Clementino and the frescoes by Raphael and Michelangelo in the Vatican, also furthering his studies of the nude in the Accademia di Domenico Conti and making anatomical drawings of corpses in the Ospedale della Consolazione. On his return to Milan in 1801 he became secretary to the Accademia di Brera, a post he held until 1807. During this period he devoted all his efforts to the restructuring of the Brera, providing it with new statutes and a major library and also founding the adjoining art gallery. He prevented numerous works from being smuggled abroad or dispersed and was responsible for their inclusion in the ...


Simonetta Prosperi Valenti Rodinò

(b Florence, Jan 15, 1689; d Rome, June 4, 1775).

Italian historian, collector and writer. His special interests were the literature of Tuscany during the 14th and 15th centuries, medieval and contemporary art, sacred archaeology and ecclesiastical history. As a scholar of art he brought out (in 1730) a new edition of Raffaele Borghini Il riposo … and wrote the Dialoghi sopra le tre arti del disegno, which was published some years later (Lucca, 1754). The artistic theories he expressed in these works owed something to L. A. Muratori and were influenced by a view of works of art as documents of their time. He exalted the classical traditions of Tuscan art in the early and high Renaissance, praised the classicism of the Carracci and bluntly opposed Mannerist and Baroque art. In the Dialoghi he demonstrated a practical interest, unusual for the period, in methods of restoring and conserving artefacts.

Bottari served the Corsini family from 1718, in Florence at first and then in Rome, where he was summoned in ...


S. J. Turner

(b c. 1723; d Guzel Hisar, Turkey, Sept 19, 1750)

English collector and antiquarian. He was educated at New College, Oxford. After inheriting a large fortune, he went on the Grand Tour to Italy (1740–42). He travelled extensively throughout his short life and went to Italy several times, acquiring antiquities, paintings, engravings, medals, cameos and, above all, drawings. His collection of Old Master drawings was one of the most important assembled in England in the first half of the 18th century. It included examples by Leonardo, Michelangelo, Raphael, Rembrandt and particularly Guercino. Many of these are still identifiable by their beautiful mounts, which have a distinctive ruled and patterned border (see Display of art §IV).

The provenance of the Bouverie drawings was lost sight of until the early 1990s, and until then these mounts were rather misleadingly known as ‘Casa Gennari’ mounts (from the family name of Guercino’s descendants). The greater part of the Bouverie collection was inherited in the first half of the 19th century by the 1st ...


Seymour Howard

(b Rome, ?1716; d Rome, Dec 9, 1799).

Italian sculptor, restorer, dealer, collector and antiquary. He lived and worked all his life in the artists’ quarter of Rome. He was apprenticed to the French sculptor Pierre-Etienne Monnot from c. 1729 to 1733, and by 1732 had become a prize-winning student at the Accademia di S Luca. From the early 1730s he appears to have worked for Cardinal Alessandro Albani on his collections of antiquities, renovating sculptures with Carlo Antonio Napolioni (1675–1742).

In 1733 Clement XII bought most of Albani’s earlier holdings of antique sculpture in order to prevent their sale and export to the court of Augustus the Strong in Dresden. He housed them in the Museo Capitolino, Rome, where Cavaceppi worked as a principal restorer, with Napolioni and his nephew Clemente Bianchi, under the direction of Marchese Gregorio Capponi and Cardinal Giovan Petro Lucatelli, until the end of the papacy (1740–58) of Benedict XIV. By mid-century, after renovating Early Christian antiquities in the Lateran, Cavaceppi’s reputation extended beyond Italy and with the aid of Albani he had become an independent dealer. He was in great demand among the major collectors and agents of central Europe and England—including ...


Danielle Rice

[Tubières de Grimoard de Pestels de Lévis, Anne-Claude-Philippe de]

(b Paris, Oct 31, 1692; d Paris, Sept 5, 1765).

French amateur engraver, antiquarian, patron and writer. Born into an old aristocratic family, he enjoyed all of the privileges of his class, including a large private income, free time, access to artists and collectors, and mobility. He entered the army and distinguished himself in battle at an early age. In 1714 he spent a year in Italy, where he developed a lifelong passion for the arts, especially for antiquities. After the death of Louis XIV in 1715, Caylus resigned his military post and shortly thereafter undertook a hazardous journey to Turkey. In pursuit of ancient sites rarely seen by European eyes at this time, he negotiated with the local bandit chieftain for safe passage to the ruins of Ephesos and Colophon.

In 1719 Caylus settled in Paris, where he remained with the exception of a brief trip to Holland and England in 1722. He began frequenting the weekly gatherings held by Pierre Crozat, a wealthy financier and collector. Crozat’s circle included many important artists as well as connoisseurs and aestheticians who met to study his extensive collection of Old Master paintings and drawings and to debate theories of art. In this lively company, Caylus developed his eye and learnt etching and engraving from the artist ...


Nigel Glendinning

(b Gijón, Asturias, 1749; d Madrid, Dec 3, 1829).

Spanish writer and collector. His early association with Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos was clearly of mutual benefit: Jovellanos learnt a great deal about art and collecting from Ceán, who was helped in his career as a minor civil servant by Jovellanos. As an amateur painter, Ceán acquired basic skills from Juan de Espinal (d 1783), director of an art school established in Seville by Ceán and his circle in 1770; he also had some guidance from Anton Raphael Mengs in Madrid, where he settled in 1778 and, presumably through Jovellanos, met Francisco de Goya c. 1778–80. At this time Goya was making his series of etchings after Diego Velázquez, and Ceán later owned most of Goya’s preliminary drawings for these. Goya painted and drew him several times (e.g. c. 1785; Madrid, Conde de Cienfuegos priv. col., see Gassier and Wilson, no. 222) and also painted a portrait of Ceán’s wife, Manuela Camas y Las Heras, normally identified with the ...


Ivan Hall

(b Burton Constable, N. Humberside, 1721; d Burton Constable, 1791).

English antiquary, collector and patron. His father Cuthbert Tunstall had succeeded to the huge Yorkshire estates of the Constables, taking their name through his mother, daughter of William Constable, the last Viscount Dunbar (d 1718). The younger William Constable’s education in France helped to form his taste in art. He subsequently made the Grand Tour on several occasions (1741–2, 1764–5 and 1769–71), and, on becoming a patron of the arts, he sought to fuse the Antique with the modern. He became a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries and of the Royal Society. Between 1757 and 1789 he greatly extended Burton Constable Hall, having the grounds redesigned by ‘Capability’ Brown and reproducing the house’s original Elizabethan exterior. The interior was decorated in a Neo-classical style, first by Timothy Lightoler (fl c. 1760s) and subsequently by James Wyatt and by Thomas Atkinson (fl...


Linda Whiteley

(b Rouen, 1755; d Paris, Dec 1816).

French dealer, collector and museum curator. He was based in Paris as a dealer in Old Master paintings. He also bought contemporary art, which brought him into close contact with artists, among whom was the landscape painter Thomas Naudet (1773–1810), who was on almost filial terms with Constantin in gratitude for the dealer’s disinterested protection. Constantin was also a friend of Pierre-Paul Prud’hon and is said to have had exclusive rights to his work, one of the earliest instances of such an agreement. Constantin’s wife was the daughter of the publisher François-Ambroise Didot, and Prud’hon’s important collaboration with Pierre Didot as an illustrator of several of his well-known editions was a result of this connection. As a connoisseur of art, Constantin was given a place on the committee for the reorganization of the Musée du Louvre during the reign of Napoleon Bonaparte (see France, Republic of, §XIV...


(b London, Feb 26, 1670/1; d Naples, Feb 15, 1713).

English philosopher, aesthetician and patron. Shaftesbury has been described as the first great aesthetician that England produced, and his writings were both original and influential. His education was entrusted to the philosopher John Locke, who had him instructed in Greek and Latin from an early age. So quickly and thoroughly did he learn these languages that by the age of 11 he could read and discuss the Classics, an interest he was always to maintain. During his three years of travel in Holland, France and Italy he learnt French and developed his taste for modern and Classical sculpture, architecture, painting and music. He served in Parliament for three years and succeeded to the earldom and a seat in the House of Lords in 1699. Shaftesbury’s interest in art and aesthetics developed considerably in his final years, after he moved to Naples for his health in 1711.

Shaftesbury’s dialogues, letters and miscellany do not form a systematic doctrine, for he despised philosophical systems; rather they stand as elegantly composed and passionate topical essays. His posthumously published treatises on art, ...