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Morgan Falconer

(b Mie, 1969).

British painter of Japanese birth. She studied at Wimbledon School of Art, London (1991–2) and Goldsmiths’ College, London (1993–5). Hasegawa came to prominence in the mid-1990s with large cut-out tableaux which bear idealized images of young people. Constructed from MDF and painted in gloss, they resemble displays from store windows. Initially she based her work on images of models that she took from magazines: Untitled (1995; see Artforum, 1996, p. 38) is a monumental depiction of an already tall female model who teeters on one foot. Hasegawa’s interest in glamour soon gave way to a preoccupation with the standardization of ideal youths in commercial advertizing imagery, and to examine this further she began to use her friends as models. Many of her figures stand alone, such as Boy in White T-Shirt (1996; see 1997 exh. cat., p. 68): the well-built, healthy looking youth smiles, appearing relaxed in a T-shirt; the schematic, illustrative style of cartoons lends him definition and a pale palette colours him. Some figures appear in groups and suggest narrative: ...


Terry Hiener

Japanese militaria (bugu) include offensive and defensive body armour, edged weapons, archery equipment and horse trappings; specifically, the term covers helmets and body armour (katchū or yoroi kabuto) and weapons (buki). These were originally made for practical purposes but in time came to be appreciated for their decorative and ritual qualities as well. Many of the surviving pre-modern arms and armour are preserved in the Shinto shrines to which they were donated upon the death of their owners.

See also Japan

In the Jōmon period (c. 10,000–c. 300 bc) hand-held lithics and triangular points were used for hunting. Distinct weapons such as large, flat, double-edged socketed spearheads (dōhoko), non-socketed halberds with perforations for lashing to a pole (dōka) and straight pommelled swords (dōken) appeared with the introduction of bronze-casting technology from the continent during the Yayoi period (...


Kazutoshi Harada

The Japanese archipelago has modest deposits of all major metals, the most common being iron, copper, zinc and lead. Following ancient Chinese practice, Japanese metalworkers traditionally identified gold (kin), silver (gin), copper (akagane; ‘red metal’), tin (suzu) and iron (tetsu) as the five true metals (gokin). The largest gold deposits are found in the east of the country, while the richest silver deposits tend to be concentrated in the west. This uneven distribution led to the use of gold coinage in the Kanto region, centred around Edo (now Tokyo), and of silver coinage in the Kinki (Osaka–Nara–Kyoto) region. Until the discovery of the first gold mine on the main island of Honshu in the 8th century ad, gold was extracted from river sands by placer mining. During the Edo period (1600–1868) the most productive gold mines were on ...


Phylis Floyd

French term used to describe a range of European borrowings from Japanese art. It was coined in 1872 by the French critic, collector and printmaker Philippe Burty ‘to designate a new field of study—artistic, historic and ethnographic’, encompassing decorative objects with Japanese designs (similar to 18th-century Chinoiserie), paintings of scenes set in Japan, and Western paintings, prints and decorative arts influenced by Japanese aesthetics. Scholars in the 20th century have distinguished japonaiserie, the depiction of Japanese subjects or objects in a Western style, from Japonisme, the more profound influence of Japanese aesthetics on Western art.

There has been wide debate over who was the first artist in the West to discover Japanese art and over the date of this discovery. According to Bénédite, Félix Bracquemond first came under the influence of Japanese art after seeing the first volume of Katsushika Hokusai’s Hokusai manga (‘Hokusai’s ten thousand sketches’, 1814) at the printshop of ...


Mitsuhiko Hasebe


(b Kyoto, March 23, 1883; d Kanagawa, Dec 21, 1959).

Japanese potter, calligrapher and medallist. At an early age he taught himself seal-carving and calligraphy, for which he won a prize in 1904; soon after he became a commercial calligrapher and medallist. In 1915 he had his first experience of decorating pottery at a kiln in the district of Hokuriku. In 1919 he opened an art shop in Tokyo, and in 1920 he founded the Gourmet’s Club on the second floor of the store, serving food in traditional ceramic vessels that he had himself collected. Kitaōji soon began to produce his own pottery, creating forms drawn from studying the vessels that he used for his cuisine. In 1925 he opened the Gourmet’s Club Hoshigaoka Restaurant in Tokyo. In 1926 he established a studio and kiln known as Hoshigaokayō in Kita Kamakura. He often surpassed the classical forms on which his works were based, becoming well known for his simple but original designs. He used red enamels and gold in his work and was influenced by blue-and-white wares and coloured porcelain from the Ming period (...



Robert W. Bagley


Site in Hunyuan County, northern Shanxi Province, China. A tomb or hoard of Eastern Zhou (771–256 bc) bronzes was discovered at the site in 1923. The bronzes (mainly Shanghai, Shanghai Mus.; Paris, Mus. Guimet; Washington, DC, Freer; New York, Met.) include one vessel decorated in red inlay with a turbulent hunting scene and another textured with a repetitive pattern of tiny interlocked dragons in rectangular units. The majority, however, are decorated in low or high relief with horizontal bands of large-scale dragon interlace and are often further embellished with intaglio sketches or modelled figures of such creatures as fish, ducks, and water buffalo. In Western writings about Chinese bronzes the name of the site has been attached to designs of this last type. A large bronze pan (Beijing, Pal. Mus.), though not from the Liyu group, is a dazzling example of the so-called Liyu style. The style probably spanned the late ...



Gordon Campbell

Chinese funerary wares made from the Han dynasty (206 bcad 220) onward. Most are low-fired ceramic figurines, but there are also models of furniture and household possessions in bronze and pewter.

J. P. Desroches: ‘Trois acquisitions exceptionnelles au muséee national des Arts asiatiques-Guimet: Les sculptures du royaume de Chu (Ve–IIIe siècle av. J.-C.)’, ...


Bent Nielsen


County in Hunan Province, China, west of the city of Changsha. Several remarkable bronze vessels and bells of the late Shang Anyang phase (c. 1300–c. 1050 bce; see China, §VII, 3(ii)) were at various times discovered in the ground or in watercourses in the vicinity of the town of Huangcai in Ningxiang County. Although the site is of the Anyang phase chronologically, the bronzes found there differ stylistically from Anyang bronzes.

In 1938 a bronze vessel of the fang zun (square wine vessel) type weighing 34.5 kg was found. The vessel is cast entirely within the tradition of the Anyang phase except for a ram protruding from each corner. The heads, necks, chests, and forelegs of the rams are modeled with considerable attention to detail and realism, although they incorporate conventional surface decoration. On the shoulder of the vessel, that is on the rams’ backs, horned dragons lie curled, while stylized birds adorn part of the rams’ bodies. (A similar Anyang-phase bronze ...



Esther Jacobson

Small region contained within the large bend of the Yellow River where it passes through the southern central part of the modern Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region of China. Applied to a particular tradition of metalwork, the term designates the types of objects and the styles associated both with the Ordos proper and with adjoining regions in Inner Mongolia from the late 2nd to the late 1st millennia bc. The term has also been applied to bronze objects found within the Chinese provinces of Shaanxi, Shanxi and Liaoning, as well as to objects of uncertain provenance but of that particular style.

The earliest bronze metalwork associated with the Ordos region dates to the late Shang (c. 1600–c. 1050 bc) and early Zhou (c. 1050–256 bc) periods. It is attributed to non-Chinese peoples, sometimes referred to as the ‘Northern’ culture, who depended for their livelihood on livestock husbandry and on the subsistence agriculture sustainable within this area of grassland. Most indicative of the artistic traditions of the region are bronze ...


John-Paul Stonard

(b Hong Kong, Oct 10, 1963).

British painter. She completed a foundation course at Croydon College of Art (1983–4), and a BFA at Goldsmiths’ College, London (1984–7). Her reputation was quickly established; a year after her inclusion in the exhibition Freeze (curated by fellow artist Damien Hirst in 1988), she showed at the Waddington Galleries in London. She was shortlisted for the Turner Prize in 1991, and in 1993 for the Austrian Eliette Von Karajan Prize for Young Painters. Rae makes highly coloured, vivid abstract paintings that draw on and develop a variety of formal, painterly motifs. Common to all her work is the self-conscious juxtaposition of flat areas of colour with dragged, daubed or scumbled paint marks. Although her compositions can appear accidental, almost arbitrary, close inspection reveals a highly controlled handling of paint and style and a tight underlying structure. As her work developed throughout the 1990s it became still more structured, and focused in a more condensed manner on certain motifs. ...


John-Paul Stonard

(b Tokyo, July 20, 1966).

Japanese installation artist active in England. She studied painting at the Tama Art University, Tokyo (1985–9), and then moved to London to take a foundation course (1990–91) and complete a BFA at Goldsmiths’ College, London (1991–4), followed by postgraduate study in sculpture at the Slade School of Fine Art, London (1994–6). From 1997–8 she was an Associate Research Student at Goldsmiths’ College, London. She achieved widespread recognition after winning the seventh EAST International Exhibition Prize in 1997, and in 2000 was shortlisted for the Turner Prize. She had her first solo exhibition, Company Deal, at Claydon Heeley International, Battersea, London, in 1997. In her complex and cluttered installations Takahashi raises questions concerning technology and consumerism, obsolescence and waste, order and chaos. Her installation Line Out (1998; mixed media, London, Saatchi Gal.), which formed the central work for the exhibition New Neurotic Realism...


Japanese, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 19 March 1852, in Edo (Tokyo); died 10 October 1934, in Tokyo.

Sculptor. Buddhist subjects. Wood carving, bronze and metalwork.

Takamura Koun exhibited in Paris including at the 1900 Exposition Universelle, where he received a bronze medal. He sought to preserve the art of traditional Japanese wood carving....


Japanese, 20th century, male.

Born 1919, in Tokushima Prefecture; died 1986, in Kanagawa Prefecture.


Groups: Nihon Bijutsu-kai, Zen-Ei Bijutsu-kai.

After training as a goldsmith, Yamashita Ki- kuji studied painting in Tokyo from 1938. He worked in a Surrealist style often intermingled with elements of calligraphy. In ...


Chinese, 20th century, male.

Born in Guangdong.

Sculptor, medallist.

Zheng Ke trained in France.