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Emma Packer

(b Parish of St Martin’s in the Field, Middx; fl c. 1710–1750; d 1759).

English goldsmith. He was the son of Peter Archambo, a Huguenot refugee who worked in London as a staymaker. In 1710 he was apprenticed to the goldsmith Jacob Margas (c. 1685–after 1730) and, like Margas, became a freeman of the Butchers’ Company (rather than the Goldsmiths’ Company) on 7 December 1720. He first registered his mark at Goldsmiths’ Hall, London, in 1721, when he gave his address as the Golden Cup in Green Street. One of his apprentices was Thomas Heming. He produced fine quality domestic silver, and a wide range of objects, including cups, candlesticks, cream jugs and cake baskets, bearing his mark survives. His work is French in influence, and he is often credited with helping to introduce the Rococo style into England. His approach to the Rococo was, however, more restrained than that of some of his contemporaries, for example Paul de Lamerie. His work also often incorporates marine motifs. His most important patron was ...


Matilde Amaturo

(b Mantua, Sept 23, 1690; d Mantua, Aug 18, 1769).

Italian painter. He was the son of the goldsmith Giovanni Bazzani and trained in the studio of Giovanni Canti (1653–1715). Giuseppe was a refined and cultivated artist (Tellini Perina, 1988) and as a young man profited from the rich collections of art in Mantua, studying the works of Andrea Mantegna, Giulio Romano, 16th-century Venetian painters, especially Paolo Veronese, and Flemish artists, above all Rubens. His earliest works, for example the Assumption (Milan, priv. col., see Caroli, pl. 20), reveal an affinity with contemporary Venetian painters such as Giovanni Battista Piazzetta, Federico Bencovich and Andrea Celesti, but Bazzani rapidly absorbed the influence of Antonio Balestra, Domenico Fetti and most of all Rubens and Veronese. The inspiration of the last two artists is apparent in a number of works that may be dated in the 1720s and early 1730s. These include the Miracles of Pius V, the Conversion of a Heretic...


[Reinier; Reijnier]

(b Wesel, Gelderland, 1702; d Amsterdam, 1788).

Dutch silversmith. In his youth he moved to Amsterdam, where he was active from c. 1734; a silversmith with the initials R.B. received the citizenship of Amsterdam that year. He specialized in delicate bread- and cake-baskets in the Rococo style, all of which have the same basic form: a graceful ogee-shape with an openwork body and curving sides tapering into handles at either end. They are decorated with openwork patterns of trellis or foliage. The rims and bases are trimmed with linked volutes or fillets and groups of flowers and fruits, and Rococo scrolls form the feet (e.g. basket, 1770; Amsterdam, Rijksmus.). In the later 18th century, with increasing mechanization, some components of his baskets were machine-made. Though chiefly known for these elaborately decorated objects Brandt also produced relatively plain ones, for example an inkstand of 1735 (Amsterdam, Rijksmus.), which is undecorated except for a small pierced lid, and a large tureen and salver (...


José Manuel Cruz Valdovinos

(b Córdoba, 1716; d Córdoba, 1793).

Spanish gold- and silversmith. He qualified as master of the guild of goldsmiths in Córdoba in 1736, and his earliest-known pieces follow the Baroque tradition prevalent there in the early 18th century and in particular the work of his father-in-law, Bernabé García de los Reyes (1696–1750). By the end of the 1750s his curving outlines and decoration (e.g. fonts in Caracas Cathedral) were Rococo in form, and this was the style that was to predominate in his work from the 1760s. He was appointed Cathedral Goldsmith in 1761 and made a number of ecclesiastical pieces (e.g. pyx, 1761, Córdoba, Mezquita; monstrance, 1768, La Orotava, Tenerife, Concepción Church; several pieces for the Bishop of Segovia, Martín Descalzo, 1769). He made several monstrances, including one (1769; in situ) for S Nicolás de la Villa, Córdoba, and one (1779–80; untraced) for Sigüenza Cathedral, for Cardinal Delgado, his most important patron. Castro’s work is characterized by the use of extended and twisted shafts (e.g. chalice, ...


Françoise de la Moureyre

(b Paris, baptJune 10, 1646; d Paris, Dec 31, 1732).

French sculptor and bronze-caster. He came from a family of goldsmiths of Flemish origin who settled in Paris in the early 17th century. Early biographers state that he trained with Michel or François Anguier and at the Académie Royale. He spent six years at the Académie de France in Rome, where he is said to have studied above all the sculpture of Bernini. This was followed by four years in Venice. He applied for admission to the Académie in 1678, and he was received (reçu) in 1681 with a marble statuette of Polyphemus (Paris, Louvre), inspired by Annibale Carracci’s fresco in the Palazzo Farnese, Rome. From this time until 1720 he enjoyed a highly successful career in royal service and in the employ of the Church and of private clients. He devoted much energy to the affairs of the academy, eventually holding the office of Chancellor. He worked in every branch of sculpture, from monumental marble and bronze statues to small bronze statuettes and candlesticks....


Maria Leonor d’Orey

(b S Payo de Ruilhe, Braga, 1710–20; d Oporto, Nov 11, 1784).

Portuguese silversmith. Nothing is known of his early career. He was established in Oporto as a member of the Confraria de S Eloi (Confraternity of St Eligius) by 1747, as his name appears in a list of signatories to the ‘Covenant and Statutes of the workers in silver of the city of Oporto’ and to later additions to the Covenant, which was of major importance for the regulation of the craft in the city. In 1755 he was a guarantor for another goldsmith, Domingos Sousa Coelho, and he worked on the silver altarpiece (in situ) of Oporto Cathedral. This altarpiece was designed by the architect Nicolau Nasoni, whose work greatly influenced Sampaio. He also worked for the church of Clérigos from 1756 and for the church of S Ildefonso between 1760 and 1781. He was considered one of the best silversmiths in Oporto, being elected a judge of the goldsmiths’ guild in ...


Stephen Clarke

English family of silversmiths, industrialists, collectors, and patrons, of French origin. The family originated from the town of St Pierre on the Ile d’Oléron off La Rochelle. They arrived in London a few years after the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, and between 1708 and 1780 three generations of Courtauld silversmiths were registered at the Goldsmiths’ Company. Augustine Courtauld (c.1686–c. 1751) was apprenticed to Simon Pantin in 1701 and, after becoming a freeman of the Goldsmiths’ Company in 1708, he started a business as a plateworker in Church Court, off St Martin’s Lane in London. The majority of his work is of high quality, for example a silver tea-table (1742; St Petersburg, Hermitage) and the state salt of the Corporation of the City of London (1730; London, Mansion House). Augustine’s brother Pierre Courtauld (1690–1729) registered a mark in 1721...


(b London, 1694; d Southampton, Jan 25, 1770).

English goldsmith. He was the son of French Huguenot refugees who had settled in England in 1687. Apprenticed in June 1713 to Jean Pons, he entered his first marks between July 1720 and December 1721 and established a workshop in Old Compton Street, Soho, London, close to that of Nicholas Sprimont. During the 1720s Crespin’s reputation grew rapidly, and he attracted a number of commissions from the Portuguese court. An early example of his chasing skill can be seen on a cruet stand (1721; Colonial Williamsburg, VA), the rim of which is decorated with hunting scenes. Although brought up in England, he corresponded with clients in French and was aware of, and responsive to, stylistic developments in France. The silver gilt ice buckets (1732; Blenheim Pal., Oxon), for example, which he made for Charles Spencer, 3rd Duke of Marlborough (1706–58), relate closely to a Parisian engraving published in the 1720s. He maintained a high standard of workmanship and was an innovative designer, one of the few English goldsmiths to adopt the Rococo manner as early as the mid-1730s. His clients included ...


Carola Wenzel

German family of artists. From the 16th century to the 18th the Drentwett family of Augsburg produced over 30 master gold- and silversmiths who received commissions from monarchs, nobility and the wealthy bourgeoisie of all parts of Europe. Members of the family were active in many fields, including cast and repoussé gold- and silverwork, engraving, enamelling and even wax modelling. The founder of the family’s reputation, Balduin Drentwett (1545–1627), worked for a number of courts, notably that of the Margraves of Baden-Baden. The work of his son Elias Drentwett I (c. 1588–1643) includes an exceedingly fine ewer and basin (1619; Munich, Bayer. Nmus.); the ornamentation on the ewer is part cast and part repoussé, and the reliefwork on the oval basin depicts marine motifs.

Philipp Jacob Drentwett I (c. 1583–1652) was one of the first goldsmiths in the 17th century to produce large articles of silver, sending silver tableware, wine-coolers, buffets and ewers to Poland, Sweden and the Viennese imperial court. His son ...


[Du Plessis; Duplessy.]

French family of goldsmiths, bronze founders, sculptors and designers, of Italian descent. Due to the similarity in name, there has been some confusion between father and son and the attribution of their work; they are now generally distinguished as Duplessis père and Duplessis fils. Jean-Claude Chambellan Duplessis [Giovanni Claudio Chiamberlano] (b Turin, ?1690–95; d Paris, 1774) practised as a goldsmith in Turin before his marriage in 1720 and probably worked for Victor Amadeus II. He moved with his family to Paris c. 1740, perhaps encouraged there by Juste-Aurèle Meissonnier. In 1742 he was commissioned by Louis XV to design and make two large, bronze braziers, presented to the Turkish ambassador Saïd Mahmet Pasha (e.g. in Istanbul, Topkapi Pal. Mus.). From c. 1748 until his death he was employed at the porcelain factories of Vincennes and Sèvres as a designer of porcelain forms and supplier of bronze stands. He also supervised and advised craftsmen. In ...


Gordon Campbell

English family of silversmiths, active in London. David Hennell (1712–85) registered his first mark in 1736; he made modest domestic plate with restrained Rococo decoration. David was joined by his son Robert Hennell (1741–1811) in 1763; Robert fashioned Neo-classical silver in the style of Robert Adam’s designs. The company now trades as Hennell of Bond Street Ltd....


Gordon Campbell



(fl 1727–c. 1750).

English silversmith of German birth. He is known only by a small quantity of elaborate silver, characterized by the use of decoration in high relief and three-dimensional form that has led to the belief that he was related to the renowned German porcelain modeller, Johann Joachim Kändler. He was first mentioned in the register of the Goldsmiths’ Company in London as a ‘largeworker’ in 1727 in St Martin’s Lane, with a partner, James Murray (d c. 1730). In 1735 he was recorded as a goldsmith in Jermyn Street near St James’s church and used the initials CK or KA as his mark. Another goldsmith named Charles Frederick Kandler, possibly a cousin or nephew, was entered in the register in 1735, located at the same address. He was known as Frederick Kandler and used the initials FK and KA as his mark.

Charles Kandler’s pieces rival those of his better-known contemporaries, Paul de Lamerie and Nicholas Sprimont. All three were active in England when the French Rococo style, particularly the designs of Juste-Aurèle Meissonnier, was a major influence on English silver. Kandler’s silver tureens, salvers, coffeepots, candlesticks and other wares are enriched with elaborate ornament: naturalistic fruit, flowers, foliage and mythological figures. A silver tea kettle and stand made by Kandler (...


Joellen Secondo

(b Bois-le-Duc [now s’Hertogenbosch], April 9, 1688; d London, Aug 1, 1751).

English silversmith of Dutch birth. He was one of the leading silversmiths in England in the first half of the 18th century and was renowned for his innovative designs and technical proficiency. He was the son of French Huguenot parents who had emigrated to the Netherlands before settling in London by 1691. In 1703 he was apprenticed to Pierre Platel, a Huguenot goldsmith working in the French Régence style, and continued as Platel’s journeyman after 1711. De Lamerie registered the first of the five makers’ marks of his career (two were not registered) at Goldsmiths’ Hall, London, in 1713 and set up a workshop on Windmill Street. His early work is in the simple, unornamented Queen Anne style (e.g. kettle and stand with lamp, 1713; Oxford, Ashmolean). Commissioned wares are more impressive, as illustrated by a pair of sconces (1713–15; Los Angeles, CA, Gilbert priv. col., on loan to Los Angeles, CA, Co. Mus. A.) in the French Régence style for ...


A.-G. Wahlberg

(b Stockholm, Aug 17, 1695; d Stockholm, March 18, 1786).

Swedish painter and pastellist. He was orphaned early and brought up by his grandfather, the goldsmith Fredrik Richter (1636–1714). In 1710 he was briefly apprenticed to David von Krafft (1655–1724). Against von Krafft’s advice, and at his own expense, he travelled to Paris in 1717. He studied first with Hyacinthe Rigaud, Nicolas de Largillierre and Jean-François de Troy, learning to paint in a Régence style less heavy and serious than that taught by von Krafft in Sweden. He also studied drawing under Pierre-Jacques Cazes at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. In 1720 Rosalba Carriera came to Paris from Italy, bringing with her the fashionable technique of drawing in pastel chalks. Lundberg became her pupil and within a year had mastered the medium, charming the Parisians with his portraits. Until the arrival of Carriera, he had worked only in oils (e.g. the portrait of Gabriel Sack and his Wife Eva Bielke...


Oreste Ferrari

(b Piano del Cilento, Salerno, Feb 9, 1662; d Naples, Jan 26, 1728).

Italian painter and silversmith. He was important to the history of painting in Naples in the transitional period between the 17th and 18th centuries. His elegant art encouraged the movement away from Baroque drama towards a more tender, rocaille style in harmony with the earliest manifestations in Naples of the Arcadian school of poetry and of the Enlightenment. He painted frescoes, altarpieces and allegorical and mythological pictures.

He arrived in Naples while still young and received his first artistic training in the workshop of Luca Giordano. He was in Rome before 1683, where he was the pupil of Giovanni Maria Morandi (1622–1717), a still-life painter, and here he became a protégé of the 7th Marqués del Carpio, Gaspar de Haro y Guzmán, the Spanish Ambassador, who had already begun to form an impressive art collection. In Rome the influence of Giordano was modified by the formal elegance of the painting of Carlo Maratti. De Matteis’s earliest known work, the ...


Elaine Evans Dee

(b Turin, 1695; d Paris, July 31, 1750).

French designer, architect and goldsmith. He was apprenticed to his father Etienne Meissonnier, a sculptor and silversmith of some importance, before making his way to Paris, arriving in 1714. He worked there as a die-cutter and medallist, progressing through the ranks of the metalworkers’ guild. He was variously described as a chaser, a designer and, in 1723, as a maker of watchcases; he worked for ten years at the royal furnishings factory of Gobelins, Paris. In September 1724 Louis XV appointed him by brevet a master of the Corporation des Marchands-Orfèvres Joailliers. It would appear, however, that his main occupation was as a chaser. His mark, a crowned fleur-de-lis, j o m and two grains de remède, has been found on only one piece, a gold and lapis lazuli snuff-box (1728; Geneva, J. Ortiz Patino priv. col., see Snowman, pl. 146). In spite of this scarcity of signed pieces, it is reasonable to assume that he closely supervised the work that he contracted to other goldsmiths. In ...


Gordon Campbell

(b 1803; d c. 1878).

American silversmith. In 1839 he established a workshop in New York; the principal client for his Rococo Revival wares (mostly presentation plate) was Ball, Tompkins & Black. In 1864 Moore joined Tiffany family §1; the family business passed to his gifted son Edward Chandler Moore (1827–91), who subsequently designed and manufactured silverware for Tiffany & Co.,which took over the workshop in ...


Hermann Maué

(b Biberach an der Riss, nr Ulm, March 21, 1705; d St Petersburg, Oct 27, 1763).

German gem-engraver and medallist. He trained as a goldsmith in Biberach and then learnt seal- and gem-engraving in Berne. In 1730 he travelled to Venice to work as a seal-engraver. In 1732 the antiquary Baron Philipp von Stosch set him to copying ancient carved gems in Florence. To improve his skill, Natter drew after the Antique at the Accademia di San Luca in Rome, developing a style based on Classical models that was to become characteristic of his gem- carving, an example of which is his cornelian bust of Livia as Ceres (c. 1730; London, V&A). He also became one of the earliest representatives of the Neo-classical medal style. At the end of the 1730s he moved to London, where he produced several noteworthy medals, such as the portrait bust of Sir Robert Walpole (silver, copper and lead, 1741; London, BM). In 1743 the Danish Court invited him to Copenhagen, where he carved a number of gems, among which were the portrait busts in chalcedony of ...


Jean-Dominique Augarde

(b Canisy, nr Saint-Lô, 1711; d Paris, 1789).

French bronze-caster. He entered his apprenticeship at a late stage and became a master bronze-caster and chaser in Paris on 17 January 1745. From 1764 to 1775 he worked with his nephew, Jean-Baptiste Osmond (1742–after 1790). Robert Osmond was one of the most prolific bronzeworkers of his time and was equally successful in both the Louis XV and the Neo-classical styles, although he rejected the extreme forms of both. His works were highly valued by the connoisseurs of his day and were distributed by clockmakers and marchands-merciers. Although Osmond made all types of furnishing objects, the only extant works are clocks. He specialized in clock cases in the Louis XV style and Louis XVI style, including one depicting the Rape of Europa (Malibu, CA, Getty Mus.) in the Louis XV style and one with a movement by Robert Robin. Two important Neo-classical examples are a vase with lions’ heads (examples in Chantilly, Mus. Condé; Cleveland, OH, Mus. A.) and a cartel-clock with ribbonwork (examples in Stockholm, Nmus.; Paris, Mus. Nissim de Camondo). A remarkable clock decorated with a globe, cupids and a ...