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José Eduardo Horta Correia

(b 1739; d 1816).

Portuguese bishop and patron. He was representative of the Catholic Enlightenment in Portugal during the Pombaline era. In accordance with his training as an Oratorian and his concern for the welfare of his flock, his interests were more pastoral and less doctrinal than those of his friend, Frei Manuel do Cenáculo Villas Boas. His concerns led to the building of seminaries and hospitals, and his spiritual and humanist tendencies led him to write and translate works on both religious and secular subjects, of which his essays on agriculture are an example. He believed that art was a means of human improvement and architecture a manifestation of human and Christian dignity, and his patronage of the arts, to which his visit to Rome must have contributed, was an aspect of his pastoral service. Following Gomes do Avelar’s appointment as Bishop of the Algarve in 1789, he commissioned the Italian architect Francesco Saverio Fabri to build an episcopal palace in Faro and many churches (including S Maria, Tavira) as well as to work on other projects in Faro including the Arco da Vila (...



Charles B. McClendon

Italian former Benedictine abbey near the mouth of the Po River and 45 km north of Ravenna in the province of Emilia Romagna. Although first documented in ad 874, a monastic settlement probably existed there at least two centuries earlier. Pomposa rose to prominence in the 10th and 11th centuries through the support of the Holy Roman emperors. Over the course of the 14th century, a notable series of wall paintings in three different buildings were sponsored despite the monastery’s waning fortunes. In 1663 the monastic community was suppressed by papal decree. The site was secularized in 1802 and became property of the Italian state after 1870.

The proportions of the wooden-roofed basilican church, along with the polygonal outline of its main apse, reflect influence from nearby Ravenna and Classe and suggest a date in the 8th or 9th century. An elaborate pavement of mosaic and cut stone (opus sectile...


José Alberto Gomes Machado

(b Lisbon, 1724; d Évora, 1814).

Portuguese archbishop, politician, collector and scholar. Of humble origin, he became a Franciscan friar and rose to be Provincial of the Order in 1768. He was a prestigious figure in Portuguese intellectual and cultural circles and was particularly associated with the education reforms of Sebastian Carvalho e Mello, 1st Marquês de Pombal, on whose recommendation he was made tutor to the Infante Dom José and was successively appointed President of the Real Mesa Censória (the state board of censorship) in 1770 and of the Junta da Providência Literária (committee for the reform of higher education) in 1772; in the latter capacity he collaborated in the reform of the University of Coimbra.

Cenáculo was the first Bishop of Beja (1770–1802), where he founded the Museu Pacense (1791), one of the first in the country, based on his own collection of antiquities, medals and coins. He was Archbishop of Évora from ...