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Article

Jens Peter Munk

(b Copenhagen, Sept 11, 1743; d Frederiksdal, Copenhagen, June 4, 1809).

Danish painter, designer and architect. His paintings reveal both Neo-classical and Romantic interests and include history paintings as well as literary and mythological works. The variety of his subject-matter reflects his wide learning, a feature further evidenced by the broad range of his creative output. In addition to painting, he produced decorative work, sculpture and furniture designs, as well as being engaged as an architect. Successfully combining both intellectual and imaginative powers, he came to be fully appreciated only in the 1980s.

He studied at the Kongelige Danske Kunstakademi in Copenhagen (1764–72), and in 1767 he assisted Johan Edvard Mandelberg (1730–86) in painting the domed hall of the Fredensborg Slot with scenes from the Homeric epic the Iliad. In 1772 he was granted a five-year travelling scholarship from the Kunstakademi to study in Rome. During his Roman sojourn he extensively copied works of art from the period of antiquity up to that of the Carracci family. His friendships with the Danish painter Jens Juel, the Swedish sculptor Johan Tobias Sergel and the Swiss painter Johann Heinrich Fuseli placed him among artists who were in the mainstream of a widespread upheaval in European art. In these years Abildgaard developed both Neo-classical and Romantic tastes; his masterpiece of the period is ...

Article

French, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1737, in Valenciennes; died 1820, in Valenciennes.

Sculptor.

Grégoire Adam is not mentioned in artists' records, but Gombert, the architect from Lille who built the Hôtel Merghelynck at Ypres, thought him fit to compete with the best artists of French Flanders in the ornamentation of this supreme expression of 18th-century art. He decorated one of the salons, installing in it medallions of ...

Article

Italian, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 24 July 1742, in Bedano; died 15 or 16 November 1839, in Milan.

Sculptor, designer of ornamental architectural features, draughtsman.

Studied initially at an atelier of sculpture in Parma, then at the academy there and in Rome. His fame as a designer of ornamental features spread rapidly and he was appointed to teach at the Milan academy in ...

Article

Myriam A. Ribeiro de Oliveira and Liliana Herrera

In 

Article

Belgian, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 8 September 1768, in Namur; died 10 June 1826.

Architect, sculptor, engraver, metal worker.

Barbier studied first in Belgium before completing his studies in Antwerp at the studio of J. Verbekt. He was appointed sculptor of the king's buildings and lived for a time at the Louvre. His works include medallions of ...

Article

Ettore Spalletti

(b Savignano, nr Prato, Jan 7, 1777; d Florence, Jan 20, 1850).

Italian sculptor and draughtsman. He was one of the most independent-minded sculptors in Italy in the generation after Antonio Canova. His early work is in the Neo-classical style predominant throughout Europe around the turn of the century. While in the Paris studio of Jacques-Louis David he became interested in the art of the Quattrocento, an interest confirmed when he settled in Florence after 1815. His later works combine Neo-classical and neo-Renaissance elements with, particularly in his portraits, a strong taste for naturalism. In 1812 he held a series of classes at the Florentine Accademia di Belle Arti, astonishing his colleagues by instructing his model to take up a series of instantaneous and casual poses, instead of the customary carefully contrived stance taken from a famous work of art. In 1839 he was made a professor at the Accademia, and again overturned traditional academic notions, this time by presenting the pupils in the life class with a hunchbacked model. (For a detailed discussion of Bartolini’s unusual views on the imitation of nature see ...

Article

French, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 21 June 1750, in Le Havre; died 15 April 1818, in Paris.

Painter, sculptor, draughtsman, designer of ornamental architectural features. Allegorical subjects, portraits. Busts.

A pupil of Pajou, Beauvallet was given the task of creating reliefs to decorate the Salle des Gardes in the Château de Compiègne in ...

Article

Philippe Durey

(b Le Havre, June 21, 1750; d Paris, April 15, 1818).

French sculptor, draughtsman and engraver. He arrived in Paris in 1765 to become a pupil of Augustin Pajou. Although he never won the Prix de Rome, he appears to have travelled to Rome in the early 1770s. About 1780 or 1781 he was involved in the decoration of Claude-Nicolas Ledoux’s Hôtel Thélusson, Paris. From 1784 to 1785 he carried out work at the château of Compiègne, including the decoration of the Salle des Gardes, where his bas-reliefs illustrating the Battles of Alexander (in situ) pleasantly combine a Neo-classical clarity of composition with a virtuosity and animation that are still Rococo in spirit.

Beauvallet was approved (agréé) by the Académie Royale in 1789. During the French Revolution he was a passionate republican and presented plaster busts of Marat and of Chalier (1793–4; both destr.) to the Convention. He was briefly imprisoned after the fall of Robespierre in ...

Article

French, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 12 March 1769, in Villefranche-de-Conflent (Pyrénées-Orientales); died 8 April 1825, in Perpignan.

Painter, sculptor, architect.

Only four paintings by Boher survive. He left descriptions of them, explaining that they represent the principal stages in the lives of Abdon and Sennen, the patron saints of Arles in Roussillon. Boher also sculpted statues for the churches of Perpignan, a ...

Article

Philippe Sorel

(b Chalon-sur-Saône, Aug 30, 1735; d Paris, Dec 9, 1814).

French sculptor, draughtsman and painter. He probably first trained in Chalon, under the sculptor Pierre Colasson (c. 1724–70); later he studied in Paris at the school of the Académie Royale, under Simon Challes. In 1766 he travelled to Italy, remaining there until 1770. The art of Raphael and his school and the Fontainebleau school influenced Boichet’s art (e.g. Agrippina Bearing Germanicus’s Ashes, Lille, Mus. B.-A.) from an early date by giving his work a Neo-classical character. Boichot next worked in Burgundy, where he was responsible for architecture, sculpture and paintings at the château of Verdun-sur-le-Doubs (destr.). He also produced decorative work for the salon of the Académie de Dijon, of which he was a member; for the refectory of the abbey of St Benigne, Dijon, he executed a painting of the Triumph of Temperance over Gluttony (Dijon, Mus. B.-A.). In Paris his studio was in the Passage Sandrier off the Chaussée d’Antin. Introduced by Augustin Pajou, he was approved (...

Article

Italian, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born c. 1744, in Bellinzona, Switzerland or in Asti (Piedmont); died 1820, in Turin.

Stonemason, sculptor (wood/ivory).

Giuseppe Maria Bonzanigo spent most of his life in Turin, where he carved delightful miniatures in wood and ivory.

Paris, 28 May 1936...

Article

Dutch, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 26 March 1758, in Mechelen; died 22 February 1831, in Alost.

Sculptor, architect.

W.E. van Buscom studied with Verhulst, Smet and Van Hursel.

Article

Flemish School, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 11 October 1756, in Antwerp; died 31 January 1821, in Tiflis (now Tbilisi), Georgia.

Sculptor, architect.

Joseph Camberlain studied with F. Schobbens in Antwerp. He worked first in Paris, then in Antwerp, St Petersburg and finally in Tiflis....

Article

Giuseppe Pavanello

(b Possagno, nr Treviso, Nov 1, 1757; d Venice, Oct 13, 1822).

Italian sculptor, painter, draughtsman, and architect. He became the most innovative and widely acclaimed Neo-classical sculptor. His development during the 1780s of a new style of revolutionary severity and idealistic purity led many of his contemporaries to prefer his ideal sculptures to such previously universally admired antique statues as the Medici Venus and the Farnese Hercules, thus greatly increasing the prestige of ‘modern’ sculpture. He was also much in demand as a portraitist, often combining a classicizing format with a naturalistic presentation of features.

Antonio Canova was the son of Pietro Canova (1735–61), a stonecutter of Possagno. He was brought up by his grandfather, Pasino Canova (1714–94), a mediocre sculptor who specialized in altars with statues and low reliefs in late Baroque style (e.g. Angels; Crespano, S Marco). In 1770 or 1771 Antonio was apprenticed to the sculptor Giuseppe Bernardi (d 1774) in Pagnano, near Asolo, later following him to Venice. After Bernardi’s death he worked for a few months in the studio of the sculptor ...

Article

French, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 4 February 1766, in Auberive (Haute-Marne); died 1828, in Chalon-sur-Saône.

Sculptor, painter. Portraits, architectural views.

Jacques François Carbillet founded the École de Dessin at Chalon-sur-Saône, and is thought to have been a relative of Charles-François Carbillet.

Chalon-sur-Saône: Portraits of Children...

Article

British, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1773, in Carlisle; died 1825, in Carlisle.

Watercolourist, draughtsman. Landscapes, architectural scenes.

Robert Carlyle was the son of a sculptor and made his name as an architectural and landscape painter. In 1792 he won a silver medal from the Society of Arts for his drawings of Carlisle Cathedral. He illustrated W. Hutchinson's ...

Article

Italian, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1766, in Siena; died 1839, in Rome.

Sculptor, engraver.

Brother of Barbato and Calgato Cipriani. He was an architect, working under Silini in Siena and Palazzi in Rome. He is best known for his engravings in the collection Monuments of Antiquity...

Article

Anne-Marie de Lapparent

In 

Article

Anne-Marie de Lapparent

[De Seine.]

French family of artists. The brothers (1) Claude-André Deseine and (2) Louis-Pierre Deseine, both sculptors, came from a family of carpenters. Their younger brother, Louis-Etienne Deseine (b 1756), became an architect, and their sister, Madeleine-Anne Deseine (1758–1839), was a painter and draughtsman as well as a sculptor; among her works is a bust of Louis-Pierre Deseine (terracotta, 1807; Paris, Carnavalet).

(b Paris, April 6, 1740; d Petit Gentilly, Val-de-Marne, Dec 30, 1823).

Sculptor. Although deaf and mute, he studied from 1775 at the Académie Royale, Paris. He subsequently pursued a moderately successful career as a portrait sculptor, working in a style that combined Neo-classical sobriety with a personal ability to capture an expressive likeness. Among his earlier works, his bust of Pierre Victor Besenval de Bronstatt (plaster; Paris, priv. col.) and a statuette of Jean-Jacques Rousseau (untraced) were exhibited at the Salon de la Correspondance of ...

Article

Mario Buhagiar

(b March 3, 1768; d Feb 19, 1831).

Maltese sculptor. He was the leading architectural sculptor of the early 19th century in Malta and was for some time Professor of Architecture and Sculpture in the School of Design at the University of Malta, in Msida. His most important public monument is the memorial to Judge Zammit at the Upper Barracca in Valletta, where he was assisted by his cousin, Ferdinando Dimech. His other works include the sculptures for the English Doric Revival temple at the Lower Barracca in Valletta, commemorating Sir Alexander Ball, the first British Civil Commissioner in Malta. He was also responsible for the complete sculptural decoration of the Royal Palace at Corfu. Sir George Whitmore, who was in charge of the project, might have been referring to Dimech when he complained about a ‘Malta mastermason who could not understand working drawings’. He was also in popular demand for devotional wooden polychrome sculptures. His most successful work in this genre is the processional statue of ...