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Bent Nielsen


Site in Henan Province, China, c. 115 km northeast of Luoyang. Eight tombs of the late Warring States period (403–221 bce) were discovered there. Lavishly furnished with objects of jade, glass, gold, silver, bronze, and similar materials, the tombs were looted by local people from 1928 to 1931. Some 300 items (Toronto, Royal Ont. Mus.) were collected and described by Bishop William Charles White, a Canadian who was stationed at nearby Kaifeng at the time. A selection of about 200 objects from private and public collections all over the world was subsequently published (Umehara 1936). Several of the artifacts contained in the graves were inscribed and thus can be ascribed to specific centuries and feudal states of the Warring States period, leading to some disagreement as to the origin of the tombs: they are considered either to have been constructed by the House of Zhou and to contain presents and tributary objects from the feudal states, or to have been constructed by the state of Qin and to contain war booty....