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Brazilian, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active in France.

Born 19 August 1948, in Olinda.

Engraver, sculptor.

José Barbosa da Silva's father was a carpenter and taught him woodwork, which was to prove influential in his later work.

Folklore and the popular and religious art of his country are common features in Barbosa da Silva's engravings and low reliefs. Most typical of his work are small, engraved caskets showing connections with fetishism....


Brazilian, 20th – 21st century, female.

Born 1965, in São Paulo.

Sculptor, engraver, draughtswoman.

Elisa Bracher lives and works in São Paulo.Bracher is interested in ephemeral phenomena which she addresses in the form of liminal drawings, engravings and sculptures. At the Capc-Musée d'Art Contemporain in Bordeaux she installed metal carvings along the walls; these black and white, horizontal and vertical geometric forms of varying thickness talk to each other acquiring density and marking out a barely perceptible path....


Brazilian, 20th – 21st century, female.

Born 16 February 1946, in São Paulo.

Painter, sculptor, engraver.

Carmela Gross began her training in the fine arts in 1969 at the Fundação Armando Álvarez Penteado in São Paulo and completed her studies at university, obtaining a doctorate in ...


Argentinian, 20th – 21st century, female.

Active in France.

Born 24 December 1958, in Buenos Aires.

Engraver, sculptor, illustrator.

Nora Herman worked in Buenos Aires, Madrid and Burgos in various artists' studios. In New York she studied at the Parsons School and in Paris at the American College. She now lives and works in Paris....


Uruguayan, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1949, in Montevideo.

Painter, sculptor, engraver. Figures, genre scenes, interiors.

The son of Basque immigrant parents, Ignacio de Iturria studied design and painting. He married in 1977 and moved to Spain, living in Barcelona in 1982. He returned to live in Montevideo from 1979 to 1982 and permanently in 1984....


Margaret Moore Booker

(b El Paso, TX, Jul 30, 1940; d Hondo, NM, Jun 13, 2006).

Hispanic American sculptor and printmaker. He specialized in larger-than-life, vibrantly colored, fiberglass, and epoxy sculptures that celebrate humanity and reflect his Mexican American heritage. He was also an accomplished printmaker (lithographs and etchings) and draftsman (colored-pencil drawings). As the “Godfather” of Chicano art, the artist of working-class people and mentor to numerous Hispanic artists, he played an important role in bringing Chicano sensibilities into mainstream art.

Born the son of an illegal immigrant, Jiménez grew up in El Paso, TX, where he learned to weld, wire, and airbrush in his father’s neon-sign shop. After receiving a BFA in 1964 at the University of Texas at Austin, and a brief stay in Mexico City, he moved to New York City where he worked with Seymour Lipton (1903–1986) and found success parodying 1960s American pop culture in his work.

In the early 1970s he returned to the Southwest (eventually dividing his time between El Paso and Hondo, NM), where he gained success and controversy as a sculptor of outdoor figures. Drawing inspiration from the social realist Mexican and Works Progress Administration (WPA) murals, he combined large scale, color, and pose to create a dramatic and heroic effect in his work. Like the New Mexican ...


Omar Olivares

(b Goiás, Apr 17, 1943).

Brazilian sculptor, printmaker, and teacher, active in the UK. She studied sculpture and music at the University of Goiás (1960–1964) and the University of Brazil, Rio de Janeiro (1965). Through a British Council scholarship she went to London (1973), where she settled, later being appointed as Head of Fine Art at Norwich School of Art, Norfolk (1985–1989). For her artistic work she drew upon diverse sources: memories of the landscape of her childhood; the troubled and fantastic visions of Spanish art and literature, of Goya, Picasso, and Federico García Lorca. She explored themes of performance and masquerade in sculptural settings of life-size mannequins. Her polychromed woodcarvings, notably The Banquet (1985; artist’s col., see Brighton 1989, pl. 23) and Man and his Sheep (base, Jura marble, 1989; artist’s col.; exh. 1995, Plymouth, City Mus. & A.G., see Brighton 1989, pl. 1), place subjects in claustrophobic situations of entrapment and interrogation. It is perhaps in her extensive series of drypoint etchings, realized with consummate technical mastery, that Pacheco found her most complete expression, for example the playful charade of ...


Jorge Luján-Muñoz

(b Guatemala City, Nov 26, 1944).

Guatemalan draughtsman, painter, sculptor, and printmaker. After studying at the Escuela Nacional de Artes Plásticas in Guatemala City from 1960 to 1964, he attended the Escuela de Arquitectura of the Universidad de San Carlos in Guatemala and in 1976 trained in graphic design at the Universidad Autónoma in Mexico City. He came to prominence as a draughtsman, concentrating on the harsh social and political situation in Guatemala, and published collections of images such as El cantar del tecolote (Guatemala City, 1970), Sobre la libertad, el dictador y sus perros fieles (Mexico City, 1976), and Música para embrujaditos (Guatemala City, 1986).

Ramírez Amaya also produced paintings, sculptures, and prints, in which he combined social criticism with an expressive and ironic depiction of misfortune in strange and often grotesque creatures. In general his work exudes existential anguish and demonstrates a desire for improving the quality of life. His painting ...


Mexican, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active in Italy from 1980.

Born 1954, in San Cristóbal (Chiapas).

Painter, engraver, sculptor, draughtsman, installation artist.

Raymundo Sesma studied painting and silkscreen printing at the Casa de la Cultura in Aguascalientes and xylography in Guadalupe. He also studied painting and design at the university of the Americas in Puebla and in ...


Teresa del Conde

revised by Deborah Caplow

(b Juchitán, Oaxaca, Jul 17, 1940).

Mexican painter, sculptor, textile designer, printmaker, and collector. He grew up in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, an area that was rich in legends, rites, and beliefs springing from a strong Zapotec tradition predating the Spanish conquest of Mexico. He began to draw and paint at a very early age, studying first in Oaxaca, where he produced linocuts in the graphic workshop run by Arturo García Bustos (1926–2017). In 1957 he moved to Mexico City to attend the Escuela de Diseño y Artesanía of the Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes. After holding his first solo shows of gouaches and prints in 1959 in Fort Worth, Texas, and Mexico City, he moved in 1960 to Paris, where until 1963 he studied printmaking under Stanley William Hayter. While continuing to work within Western traditions, he became interested in the art of Asian cultures and in ancient Mexican art, especially in those forms that were not officially sanctioned....


Brazilian, 20th – 21st century, female.

Born 1964, in Rio de Janeiro.

Painter, sculptor, installation artist, mixed media, engraver.

Adriana Varejão was educated at the Escola de Artes Visuais do Parque Lage in Rio de Janeiro from 1981 to 1985. Her paintings are made up of signs and symbols evoking Brazil's history and culture. Influences from other places, particularly Asia, are also introduced into her work. Her 'sculpture-paintings', which are somewhat reminiscent of the decorative tiles of Brazil, are peeled away to reveal oozing and blood-streaked viscera, in reference to the holy martyrs that decorate the Baroque churches of Brazil as well as the colonial heritage of the country. She also creates enigmatic installations, for example she covered six glass bottles with dark paint and placed in each of them texts on different topics like cannibalism. Adriana Varejão is active in Rio de Janeiro, where she lives and she is well known in South America....


Patricia Hills

(b Roxbury, MA, Apr 14, 1922; d Brookline, MA, Jan 22, 2015).

American sculptor, painter, printmaker, and teacher. Raised in Roxbury, a suburb of Boston, Wilson was the second of five children of Reginald and Violet Wilson, immigrants from British Guiana (now the Republic of Guyana). He attended the School of the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston with a full scholarship and received a diploma with highest honors in 1945; a BS degree in art education followed in 1947 from Tufts University. With a fellowship from the School of the Museum of Fine Arts, he spent 1947–1949 in Paris, where he studied with Fernand Léger. Returning to Boston he taught briefly at the School of the Museum of Fine Arts, married Julie Kowitch, and moved to Mexico City with a John Hay Whitney Fellowship. There he became friends with Elizabeth Catlett and her husband Francesco Mora, both active in the graphic workshop organized by leftist artists, the Taller de Gráfica Popular, where he worked. In Mexico he learned the techniques of true fresco, which had been popularized by Diego Rivera, José Clemente Orozco, and David Alfaro Siqueiros, and painted the mural ...