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French, 19th century, male.

Born 1817, in Paris; died 1887, in St-Germain-en-Laye.

Painter (gouache), watercolourist, engraver. Figures, portraits, genre scenes, still-lifes (including musical instruments), landscapes.


François Bonvin's father was a game-keeper, first in Vaugirard and then in Montrouge. François Bonvin learnt to draw at a free course given in the Rue de l'École de Médecine, and after two years, forced to make his living, he became a type-setter, and then took a job in the Prefecture of Police. In his spare time he toured the museums, especially the Louvre, where he studied the Flemish and Dutch masters. He amassed sketches and watercolours of landscapes from life and portraits of the people he mixed with. In the evening he worked first at the Gobelins studio, and later at l'Académie Suisse. He first exhibited in 1847 with ...


German, 20th century, male.

Born 1942, in Dresden; died 1992, in Wiesbaden.


Preferring etching as a technique, Klaus Böttger has contributed to a revival of Realism, and his reputation in this field led to him being invited to the Biennale in Paris in 1971...


French, 17th century, male.

Born 2 February 1616, in Montpellier; died 8 May 1671, in Paris.

Painter, fresco artist, engraver, draughtsman. History painting, religious subjects, allegorical subjects, mythological subjects, battles, portraits, genre scenes, landscapes, landscapes with figures.


Sébastien Bourdon was the son of Martin Bourdon, master painter and stained glass worker, who gave him a grounding in his craft. At the age of seven Bourdon went to Paris with an uncle and was placed under the tutelage of Jean Barthélemy. At 14, heading South again, he stopped long enough in Bordeaux to paint frescoes on a ceiling of a local château, which suggests a degree of artistic proficiency. However, the young artist did not meet with much success and, after a miserable stay in Toulouse, he became a soldier, a job for which he was ill-suited. He managed to obtain his release and was 18 when he left for Rome. He visited Venice and other large Italian cities. From 1634 to 1637 he lived in Rome from the copies, some say pastiches, he produced of Cerquozzi, Benedetto Castiglione, Lodovico Carracci, Claude Lorraine, Andrea Sacchi, and particularly Bamboccio (Van Laer). He was a Calvinist, had to leave Rome when a colleague, the painter de Rieux, reported him as a heretic to the Holy Inquisition....


Austrian, 20th century, male.

Active also active in France, and in Israel.

Born 4 July 1929, in Vienna.

Watercolourist, painter (gouache), engraver. Figure compositions.

Phantastischer Realismus group.

Erich Brauer studied between 1945 and 1951 at the fine arts academy in Vienna. He spent the years between ...


Swiss, 19th century, male.

Born 15 August 1828, in Feldbrunnen (Solothurn); died 22 November 1890, in Feldbrunnen.

Painter, engraver. Portraits, genre scenes, landscapes.


Buchser travelled widely throughout his life. He studied painting in Italy in 1847. Poverty forced him to join the Pope's Swiss Guard. In 1849, he became a Garibaldian and left for Paris, where he studied under Schnetz. He travelled to Spain and Morocco, where, in 1859, he followed the Spanish-Moroccan war in his capacity as historical painter for Spain. He also lived in England and worked in North America, where he met with great success. Between 1864 and 1871, he crossed the USA from one end to the other, painting portraits and taking notes that he subsequently used in his works. On his return to Europe, he founded the Union of Swiss Painters in 1865. He again travelled widely in southern Europe, visiting in turn Greece, Corfu, Dalmatia and Montenegro....


Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 1914, in Turin; died 1993.


Calandri was an aquatint engraver. His graphic style, even though the subject-matter went beyond reality, had at times the precision of Hyperrealism. His works depicted figures, animals and barely defined beings wandering through a hostile world. He participated in group exhibitions including, in ...


Ukrainian, 19th century, male.

Born 1795, in Yekaterinoslav (now Dnepropetrovsk); died 1828, in Vera Cruz, murdered.

Draughtsman, lithographer.

Choris probably studied in Moscow. He accompanied the naturalist F.A. Marshall de Bierberstein in the Caucasus and between 1815 and 1818, the Captain Otto de Kotzebue in the South Seas. On his return, he was for a while a pupil of Gérard and of Regnault in Paris. In ...


Fronia E. Wissman

(b Paris, July 17, 1796; d Paris, Feb 22, 1875).

French painter, draughtsman and printmaker.

After a classical education at the Collège de Rouen, where he did not distinguish himself, and an unsuccessful apprenticeship with two drapers, Corot was allowed to devote himself to painting at the age of 26. He was given some money that had been intended for his sister, who had died in 1821, and this, together with what we must assume was his family’s continued generosity, freed him from financial worries and from having to sell his paintings to earn a living. Corot chose to follow a modified academic course of training. He did not enrol in the Ecole des Beaux-Arts but studied instead with Achille Etna Michallon and, after Michallon’s death in 1822, with Jean-Victor Bertin. Both had been pupils of Pierre-Henri Valenciennes, and, although in later years Corot denied that he had learnt anything of value from his teachers, his career as a whole shows his attachment to the principles of historic landscape painting which they professed....


British, 19th century, male.

Born 1791, in Norwich; died 1862, in London.

Engraver. Natural history.

John Curtis was a naturalist, known for his representations of natural history subjects.


French, 19th century, male.

Born 26 February 1808, in Marseilles; died 10 February 1879, in Valmondois (Val-d’Oise).

Painter, lithographer, draughtsman, sculptor.


Honoré Daumier was born to a modest Marseilles family who moved to Paris when Daumier was still a child. From bailiff’s errand boy, young Honoré graduated without enthusiasm to bookshop assistant. He was attracted to the Louvre and wanted to draw. His parents turned a deaf ear until Alexandre Lenoir, who created the Musée des Monuments Français and was an acquaintance of Daumier’s father, encouraged him to let his son follow his bent. The first trial, however, proved inconclusive, probably because conventional tutoring was ill-suited to the student’s temperament. Despite this, he managed to get a job under a lithographer named Ratelet. There he drew alphabets, ornaments for the covers of romances, and so on. He went on to work for the publisher Zéphirin Bélliard and then for Achille Ricourt, until he finally made a modest journalistic debut, collaborating on the ...


Michel Melot

(b Marseille, Feb 26, 1808; d Valmondois, Feb 10, 1879).

French graphic artist, painter, and sculptor.

Son of a Marseille glazier, frame-maker, and occasional picture restorer, Daumier joined his father in Paris in 1816. He became a bailiff’s errand boy and was then employed by a bookseller, but his real enthusiasm was reserved for drawing and politics. He studied drawing with Alexandre Lenoir and at the Académie Suisse and then worked as assistant to the lithographer Béliard. Having mastered the techniques of lithography, he published his first plate in the satirical weekly La Silhouette in 1829.

Daumier was 22 when the revolution of July 1830 gave the throne to Louis-Philippe as constitutional monarch and power to the French middle-class business community. On 4 November 1830 the print publisher Aubert and his son-in-law Charles Philipon launched the violently anti-monarchist weekly La Caricature, followed on 1 December 1832 by Le Charivari, the first daily paper to be illustrated with lithographs. In his association with these newspapers and in the company of Republican artists, Daumier found a favourable milieu for developing his vigorous style and progressive ideas....


Geneviève Monnier

(b Paris, July 19, 1834; d Paris, Sept 27, 1917).

French painter, draughtsman, printmaker, sculptor, pastellist, photographer and collector. He was a founder-member of the Impressionist group and the leader within it of the Realist tendency. He organized several of the group’s exhibitions, but after 1886 he showed his works very rarely and largely withdrew from the Parisian art world. As he was sufficiently wealthy, he was not constricted by the need to sell his work, and even his late pieces retain a vigour and a power to shock that is lacking in the contemporary productions of his Impressionist colleagues.

The eldest son of a Parisian banking family, he originally intended to study law, registering briefly at the Sorbonne’s Faculté de Droit in 1853. He began copying the 15th- and 16th-century Italian works in the Musée du Louvre and in 1854 he entered the studio of Louis Lamothe (1822–69). The training that Lamothe, who had been a pupil of Ingres, transmitted to Degas was very much in the classical tradition; reinforced by the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, which he attended in ...


Mark W. Sullivan

(b Long Beach, CA, Nov 4, 1944).

American painter and printmaker. Eddy studied at the University of Hawaii in Honolulu (BFA, 1967, MFA, 1969) and came to prominence in the early 1970s as an exponent of Photorealism, producing airbrushed paintings based on photographs of automobiles (e.g. Untitled, 1971; Aachen, Neue Gal.), the displays in shop windows or still-lifes, as in New Shoes for H (1973; Cleveland, OH, Mus. A.). He treated similar subjects in screenprints and in colour lithographs such as Red Mercedes (1972; see 1973 exh. cat., p. 35). Rather than basing a painting or print on a single photograph, as was the case with other photorealists, Eddy would work from as many as 40 photographs to ensure a consistently sharp focus for his often spatially complex images.

From the 1980s Eddy’s focus shifted away from photorealism towards metaphysics, with images placed in porteic relationships to one another; describing his art as ‘echoing ecosystems’....


Chinese, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active in Beijing and Dali (Yunnan Province), China.

Born 1963, in Handan, China.

Painter, printmaker.

Cynical Realism.

Part of the generation of artists who grew up in China during the Cultural Revolution (1966–1976), Fang Lijun graduated from the printmaking department at the Central Academy of Fine Arts in Beijing in ...


Austrian, 20th century, male.

Born 1930, in Vienna.

Painter, draughtsman, engraver, illustrator, sculptor, collage artist, decorative designer. Scenes with figures, figures. Stage sets.

Groups: Hundsgruppe (Dog’s group), Phantastischer Realismus group.

Ernst Fuchs enrolled at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna in 1945. From 1946 to 1950, he was a pupil of Gütersloh, whom Salvador Dalí considered the most important painter of his time (after himself). In around 1950, he was one of the founders of the Viennese ...


Annie Scottez-De Wambrechies

(b Lille, June 19, 1825; d Paris, Jan 29, 1894).

French painter and lithographer. He began as an apprentice lithographer but displayed such a talent for drawing that in 1845 his parents enrolled him at the Académie in Lille, where he studied under the sculptor Augustin-Phidias Cadet de Beaupré (b 1800). In 1847–50 he worked in the studio of the Neo-classical painter François Souchon (1787–1857). In 1852 he received a scholarship to study at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris with Léon Cogniet. He frequented the Brasserie Andler where he met many of the artists who exhibited at the Salon, particularly the Realists. Gautier himself made his début at the Salon in 1853 with Thursday Promenade. He shared living-quarters with Paul Gachet, a close friend whom he had known from his days in Lille. Gachet, who was a doctor, introduced Gautier to the environment of such hospitals as La Salpêtrière, and this influenced the direction his art was to take. He was authorized to execute a large number of studies of lunatics in the specialized asylum, continuing the tradition begun some 30 years earlier by Gericault with his scientifically realistic series of monomaniacs. Gautier was fascinated by this experience and, as a result, painted his best-known work, the ...


Latvian, 20th century, male.

Born 24 October 1962, in Riga, Latvian SSR (now Latvia).

Painter, graphic artist, multimedia artist. Allegorical subjects, abstraction and portraiture. Sculptural objects, conceptual installations.

Of the generation that came of age during Latvia’s transition from Soviet occupation to political independence, Kristaps Ģelzis distinguished himself as the most cerebral of that nation’s artists while, paradoxically, anchoring his work in intrinsic properties of base materials, the timelessness of simple forms, and labour-intensive craft. The son and younger brother of renowned architects, Ģelzis resolved to pursue another creative vocation, first studying violin while attending Riga’s 50th Secondary School, then taking preparatory classes for the Latvian Art Academy in lieu of attending the art high school. As a student in the academy’s department of graphic art ...


Belgian, 20th century, male.

Born 1939, in Antwerp.

Painter, engraver, illustrator.

André Goezu attended the academies in Brussels and Antwerp. His output, somewhat Symbolist, belongs to Fantastic Realism.

Brussels (Bibliothèque royale Albert Ier, Prints Collection)

Rome (Accademia Belga)

Lokeren, 11 March 1995...


French, 20th century, male.

Engraver, draughtsman, illustrator.

Gaston Goor was active between 1925 and 1952. A traditional artist, his realist style played on the effects of light and shade. He created several book covers, notably for Roger Peyrefitte, and also illustrated books, including: Writers and Artists...


American, 19th–20th century, male.

Born 24 February 1836, in Boston; died 29 September 1910, in Prout’s Neck (Maine).

Painter, watercolourist, etcher, wood engraver, draughtsman. Genre and military scenes, landscapes, seascapes.


Winslow Homer was brought up in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and showed an early interest in art, which was encouraged by his mother, who was an amateur watercolourist. At the age of 19, he went to work for a lithographer in Boston. A few years later Homer was working as a freelance illustrator for ...