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Peyton Skipwith

(b London, April 14, 1863; d London, Nov 27, 1933).

English decorative artist and painter. He was articled to an architect and studied at Westminster School of Art under Frederick Brown and at the Royal Academy Schools. Later he worked in the studio of Aimé Morot in Paris and travelled to Italy. Bell belonged to the group of artist–craftsmen who brought about the last flowering of the Pre-Raphaelite movement. He painted in oil and watercolour and was among the pioneers of the revival of the use of tempera. He was an illustrator and also worked in stained glass and mosaic. He is best known for a series of bas-reliefs in coloured plaster, a group of which was used in the interior decoration at Le Bois de Moutiers, a house in Varengeville, Normandy, designed by Edwin Lutyens in 1898. Bell’s understanding of early Italian art underpinned his work in mosaic, a medium he used to great effect in three public commissions in London: the ...


Christopher Newall

(b Liverpool, Aug 15, 1845; d Horsham, W. Sussex, March 14, 1915).

English painter, illustrator, designer, writer and teacher. He showed artistic inclinations as a boy and was encouraged to draw by his father, the portrait painter and miniaturist Thomas Crane (1808–59). A series of illustrations to Tennyson’s The Lady of Shalott (Cambridge, MA, Harvard U., Houghton Lib.) was shown first to Ruskin, who praised the use of colour, and then to the engraver William James Linton, to whom Crane was apprenticed in 1859. From 1859 to 1862 Crane learnt a technique of exact and economical draughtsmanship on woodblocks. His early illustrative works included vignette wood-engravings for John R. Capel Wise’s The New Forest: Its History and its Scenery (1862).

During the mid-1860s Crane evolved his own style of children’s book illustration. These so-called ‘toy books’, printed in colour by Edmund Evans, included The History of Jenny Wren and The Fairy Ship. Crane introduced new levels of artistic sophistication to the art of illustration: after ...


(b Upper Norwood, Surrey, Jan 25, 1872; d Kensington, London, March 10, 1945).

English illustrator, painter and designer. She entered the Royal Academy Schools, London, and won a prize for a mural design in 1897. She specialized in book illustration, in pen and ink and later in colour. Among her many commissions were illustrations to Tennyson’s Poems (1905) and Idylls of the King (1911) and Browning’s Pippa Passes (1908). She was particularly popular with the publishers of the lavishly illustrated gift-books fashionable in the Edwardian era. She exhibited regularly at the Royal Academy and the Royal Water-Colour Society. She took up stained-glass design (windows in Bristol Cathedral), which modified her style of illustration to flat areas of colour within black outlines. She also painted plaster figurines and designed bookplates.

Fortescue-Brickdale continued the Pre-Raphaelite tradition, reworking romantic and moralizing medieval subjects in naturalistic and often strong colour and elaborate detail. Her most important oil painting is The Forerunner...


Andrew Greg

(b Newcastle upon Tyne, May 24, 1841; d Falmouth, Cornwall, Sept 30, 1917).

English painter. He was born into a musical family. An early artistic influence was the teaching of William Bell Scott, Headmaster of the Government School of Design in Newcastle. But in the 1850s Hemy’s painting had to compete with his Catholicism and the call of the sea. By the mid-1860s he had settled down and had adopted a Pre-Raphaelite style, exemplified in his early masterpiece Among the Shingle at Clovelly (1864; Newcastle upon Tyne, Laing A.G.). He was inspired by contact with the circles of William Morris and George Pinwell, but criticism of his draughtsmanship led him to study under Baron Henry Leys at Antwerp from 1867 to 1869. This resulted in several religious subjects (e.g. At the Foot of the Cross; exh. RA 1870; untraced).

On his return to London in the 1870s, his maritime subjects were influenced by Whistler and James Tissot, and he became associated with the Grosvenor Gallery, where ...


Peter Cormack

(George Alexander)

(b London, June 17, 1839; d London, April 15, 1927).

English stained-glass artist, painter and illustrator. He studied painting in London at Leigh’s Art School and the Royal Academy Schools, where he was influenced by Pre-Raphaelitism. Contact with Dante Gabriel Rossetti’s circle and the architect William Burges introduced him to the applied arts, and from 1863 he worked primarily as a stained-glass artist, particularly in collaboration with the glass manufacturers James Powell & Sons and Heaton, Butler & Bayne. After visiting Italy in 1867 he abandoned his early Pre-Raphaelite style for one inspired by Classical and Renaissance art, aiming to create a ‘modern’ style of stained glass no longer dependent on medievalism. His memorial window (1868) to the engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel in Westminster Abbey and the complete glazing scheme (1869–75) of St Mary Magdalene, Paddington, London, illustrate the expressive figure drawing and feeling for monumental scale characteristic of all his mature work. In 1891, dissatisfied with the working methods of the commercial stained-glass firms, he established his own workshop in Hampstead, London, and experimented successfully with making pot-metal glass. Many of Holiday’s later commissions were for American churches; his windows (...


(b Sept 30, 1849; d London, Jan 25, 1919).

English painter, draughtsman and collector. He came from a poor family and worked for most of his youth in an engineer’s office in London. When he was in his teens he attracted the attention of Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Philip Webb and William Morris and became an assistant in the studios of Rossetti, Edward Burne-Jones and G. F. Watts. He transferred Burne-Jones’s cartoons on to glass for Morris, Marshall, Faulkner & Co. (from 1875 Morris & Co.) and executed designs for Christina Rossetti’s Goblin Market and Other Poems (1862) and Morris’s The Earthly Paradise (1868–70). He went to Italy to copy Old Master paintings for Ruskin, who described him as ‘a heaven-born copyist’ (examples, after Carpaccio and Botticelli, Sheffield, Ruskin Gal. Col. Guild of St George). In 1867 he began exhibiting at the Royal Academy, London, and after 1877 at the Grosvenor Gallery, London. His paintings (e.g. ...


Annette Blaugrund

(b Philadelphia, PA, Nov 14, 1833; d Newport, RI, Nov 8, 1905).

American painter (see fig.). In 1846–7 he attended the Central High School in Philadelphia, PA, but left before graduating in order to help support his family. He worked full-time as a designer and illustrator of ornamental metalwork from 1850 to 1853 and then part-time until 1858. During this period he studied draughtsmanship and painting with Paul Weber (1823–1916) and probably had some lessons at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia, where he exhibited in 1852. The following year he was elected full Academician there. In 1855–6 he toured Europe with William Stanley Haseltine and Alexander Lawrie (1828–1917), studying for several months in Düsseldorf. Finding contemporary European landscape painting less inspiring than that of America, he returned to Philadelphia.

Richards probably read the first two volumes of John Ruskin’s Modern Painters (London, 1843–6) during the 1850s, for soon after he began to show an interest in geological subjects and spent the summers sketching in the Catskills, the Adirondacks, and the mountains of Pennsylvania (...


Julian Treuherz

(b Hartlepool, March 14, 1833; d Merton, Surrey, Feb 26, 1911).

English painter, illustrator and designer. Shields was brought up in extreme poverty and as a young man was employed on hack-work for commercial engravers. He briefly studied drawing at evening classes in London and Manchester, where he settled c. 1848. From 1856 he achieved local success with watercolours of rosy-cheeked children in the manner of William Henry Hunt. In the 1860s his style changed under the influence of the Pre-Raphaelites, whose work he encountered at the Manchester Art Treasures Exhibition of 1857. His technique became more minute, as seen in the watercolour One of Our Breadwatchers (1866; Manchester, C.A.G.), which shows a child sitting under a snowy shelter, scaring the birds from newly sown corn, and, inspired by Moxon’s edition of Tennyson (1857), he also worked in black-and-white. His subjects often reflected his puritanical religious faith. His illustrations to The Pilgrim’s Progress include a manically detailed Vanity Fair...


Jenny Elkan

[Stillman, Mrs William James]

(b London, 1844; d London, March 1, 1927).

English painter and model. She was a member of a wealthy Greek family living in London and was introduced to the Pre-Raphaelite circle through another Greek family, the Ionides, known for their patronage of the arts. Swinburne described her as ‘so beautiful that I want to sit down and cry’. She posed mainly for Dante Gabriel Rossetti but also for Edward Burne-Jones and Whistler, and she was photographed repeatedly during the later 1860s by Julia Margaret Cameron (prints in London, N.P.G.). From 1864 for a period of five or six years, Spartali was a pupil of Ford Madox Brown, working in his studio with his children, themselves aspiring artists. She painted mostly in watercolour, creating an oil-like density of colour. She was influenced by the work of Rossetti and produced a number of copies after his watercolours. Like him, she depicted women at leisure in idyllic settings or chose themes suggested by medieval literature, such as ...


Julian Treuherz

(b Cannon Hall, Yorks, Jan 20, 1829; d Bellosguardo, nr Florence, Aug 2, 1908).

English painter. The second son of Yorkshire landed gentry, he was educated at Rugby and Christ Church, Oxford. In 1850 he studied in London with G. F. Watts, through whom he entered the artistic circle at Little Holland House, where he met D. G. Rossetti and Edward Burne-Jones. In 1857 Rossetti invited him to paint at the Oxford Union (Sir Gawaine and the Damsels at the Fountain), and in 1858 Stanhope occupied a studio next to Rossetti’s at Chatham Place, Blackfriars (London), where he painted Thoughts of the Past (London, Tate); a modern-life subject indebted to Rossetti, it shows a prostitute recalling her former life. Stanhope’s close friendship with Burne-Jones proved a more decisive influence on his work that, in the 1860s, consisted of dreamlike poetic and mythological subjects often set in quaint, enclosed spaces, as in I Have Trod the Winepress Alone (c. 1864; London, Tate)....


T. A. J. Burnett

(b London, April 5, 1837; d London, April 10, 1909).

English poet and critic. His letters and critical writings reveal him as unusually learned about, and sensitive to, the visual arts. His interest in painting was stimulated in 1857 when he met Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Edward Burne-Jones and William Morris at Oxford and, under their influence, adopted Pre-Raphaelite ideals. The effect on his poetry was transitory, but it was important for his prose and criticism. His Poems and Ballads (London, 1866), revolutionary in technique and in emphasis on erotic subject-matter, caused a sensation. William Blake (1868), an influential work of Victorian art criticism and Swinburne’s most important contribution in that field, not only promoted Blake’s re-evaluation but was also a powerful manifesto of Art for Art’s Sake and of Symbolist Aestheticism. For Swinburne the only correct response to a work of art was another work of art; hence his poetic, impressionistic and highly subjective prose criticism, with many synaesthetic comparisons (in ...


Jenny Elkan

(b London, Feb 21, 1830; d Croydon, Surrey, Dec 20, 1916).

English painter, writer and collector. He first studied at F. S. Cary’s academy and in 1848 entered the Royal Academy Schools, London. He is also thought to have trained in Paris at some time in the late 1840s or early 1850s, first in Charles Gleyre’s atelier and subsequently at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. He specialized in portraits of literary figures and scenes from the lives of past writers, as in Dr Johnson at Cave’s, the Publisher (1854; untraced). His first great success was the Death of Chatterton (London, Tate), which he exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1856. The impoverished late 18th-century poet Thomas Chatterton, who while still in his teens had poisoned himself in despair, was a romantic hero for many young and struggling artists in Wallis’s day. He depicted the poet dead in his London garret, the floor strewn with torn fragments of manuscript and, tellingly, an empty phial near his hand. The painting was universally praised, not least by John Ruskin who described it as ‘faultless and wonderful’, advising visitors to ‘examine it well, inch by inch’. Although Wallis was only loosely connected with the Pre-Raphaelite movement, his method and style in ...