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Alexandra Wedgwood

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Bazaar  

Mohammad Gharipour

Bazaar, which is rooted in Middle Persian wāzār and Armenian vačaṟ, has acquired three different meanings: the market as a whole, a market day, and the marketplace. The bazaar as a place is an assemblage of workshops and stores where various goods and services are offered.

Primitive forms of shops and trade centres existed in early civilizations in the Near East, such as Sialk, Tepe in Kashan, Çatal Hüyük, Jerico, and Susa. After the 4th millennium BC, the population grew and villages gradually joined together to shape new cities, resulting in trade even with the remote areas as well as the acceleration of the population in towns. The advancement of trade and accumulation of wealth necessitated the creation of trade centres. Trade, and consequently marketplaces, worked as the main driving force in connecting separate civilizations, while fostering a division of labour, the diffusion of technological innovations, methods of intercultural communication, political and economic management, and techniques of farming and industrial production....

Article

Juliana Nedeva-Wegener

(Iliev)

(b Sofia, Aug 11, 1891; d Poland, Oct 10, 1962).

Bulgarian architect, theorist and teacher. He graduated in architecture from the Technische Hochschule, Berlin, in 1920. On returning to Bulgaria he formed a practice with Ivan Danchov (1898–1972). Belkovski espoused the revival of Neo-classicism that was prevalent in much of Europe in the 1930s and actively resisted the modernist trends of Functionalism and Constructivism. Notable examples of his collaboration with Danchov in Sofia are the Bulgaria Hotel and Concert Hall (1934–7), originally with frescoes (destr. 1944), the Balkan Cinema and Hotel (1935–7; from 1944 Youth Theatre) and the Telephone Exchange (1942–7), with sculptures by Lyouben Dimitrov (b 1904). Belkovski and Danchov also designed Kuyumdzhiiski House (1931; now the French Embassy), Oborishte Street, Sofia. From 1943 Belkovski was a professor at the Higher Institute for Architecture and Building, Sofia, and Director of the Institute of Town Planning and Architecture of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, where he published papers in the field of standardized designs and the industrialization of construction....

Article

Christian Norberg-Schulz

Norwegian architectural and furniture design partnership formed in 1922 by Gudolf Blakstad (b Gjerpen, 19 May 1893; d Oslo, 1986) and Herman Munthe-Kaas (b Christiania [now Oslo], 25 May 1890; d Oslo, 5 March 1970). Blakstad was awarded his diploma as an architect at the Norwegian Institute of Technology in Trondheim in 1916. He collaborated with Jens Dunker on the New Theatre, Oslo, from 1919 to 1929. After a preliminary training in Christiania, Munthe-Kaas finished his education at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm in 1919.

From the beginning of their careers Blakstad and Munthe-Kaas played a leading role in Norwegian architecture. After studying in Italy in the early 1920s, they advocated Neo-classicism in architectural projects, furniture designs and writings. In 1922 they won the competition for the new Town Hall in Haugesund (1924–31), a major work of 20th-century Norwegian Neo-classicism. Above a powerfully rusticated basement, the long office wing with its regular fenestration contrasts with the higher City Council Hall, accentuated by pairs of monumental, free-standing columns. In general the effect is of robust strength and an exciting interplay of horizontals and verticals....

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(b Valpiana, Oct 1, 1842; d Milan, May 25, 1907).

Italian architect and engineer. He studied in Pavia and then at the Politecnico in Turin, where he qualified as an engineer (1867). He also studied architecture under Camillo Boito at the Accademia di Belle Arti di Brera, Milan. Among his early designs were the classical octagonal marble fountain (1870), known as ‘La Bollente’, in the spa town of Acqui Terme, and buildings including the four entrance gateways at the Esposizione Italiana (1881), Milan, his first major project. His two most important works are completely dissimilar in style. The Museo Civico di Storia Naturale (1888–93; damaged 1943; restored) on the Corso Venezia, Milan, is in a powerful Romanesque and Gothic style with a hint of Moorish architecture and, though much influenced by the ideas of Camillo Boito, it also has close international parallels in style with other natural history museums, such as that in London (...

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American architectural partnership formed in 1903 by William A(dams) Delano (b New York, 21 Jan 1874; d New York, 12 Jan 1960) and Chester H. Aldrich (b Providence, RI, 4 June 1871; d Rome, 26 Dec 1940). Aldrich graduated from Columbia University, New York, in 1893. After a year with the New York architects Carrère & Hastings he attended the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris (diploma 1900). He returned to Carrère & Hastings until he formed the partnership with Delano. The latter also studied architecture at Columbia University and the Ecole des Beaux-Arts (diploma 1902). After about a year with Carrère & Hastings working as a draughtsman, he became Aldrich’s partner. Their initial commissions were private residences in the stately neo-classical styles fashionable in the early 20th century, for example the John D. Rockefeller House (1906–8), Pocantico Hills, New York, and 925 Park Avenue (...

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Roderick O’Donnell

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Tapati Guha-Thakurta

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Nicholas Bullock

(b Linz, Oct 15, 1889; d Vienna, March 27, 1957).

Austrian architect, furniture designer and teacher. He trained first in Linz and from 1909 at the Technische Hochschule, Vienna, under the Neo-classicist Karl König (1841–1915). He completed a year in Josef Hoffmann’s studio at the Wagnerschule in 1913–14, and after World War I he returned to work with Hoffmann, rising to be his senior assistant and helping with the development of the Wiener Werkstätte. In 1926 he left to work in Clemens Holzmeister’s studio, teaching with him at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste, Vienna. Active in the Österreichischer Werkbund during the 1920s and 1930s, Fellerer built two houses (1932) for the Werkbundsiedlung in Vienna. In 1934 he was appointed Director of the Kunstgewerbeschule and succeeded Hoffmann as head of its architectural section until he was dismissed by the Nazis in 1938. From 1934 he was also in private practice with Eugen Wörle (b 1909) and won a Grand Prix at the Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne in Paris in ...

Article

Molly Dorkin

Place where works of art are displayed. In a commercial gallery, works of art are displayed for the purposes of sale (for information on non-commercial art galleries see Display of art and Museum, §I). Historically, artworks were commissioned by patrons directly from an artist and produced in his workshop. In the Netherlands, the economic boom following the conclusion of the Eighty Years’ War with Spain (1648) led to rising demand for art. Patrons began buying from dealers, some of whom produced illustrated catalogues. Antwerp became the centre of the art world. Galleries for the display and viewing of art appeared in paintings by Teniers family, §2 and Bruegel family, §3, although these were private not commercial spaces, or imaginary constructions.

The Paris Salon, which had been organized by the Académie Royale de Peinture et Sculpture since 1667, was opened to the public for the first time in ...

Article

Georg Germann, Melissa Ragain, and Pippa Shirley

Term applied to a style of architecture and the decorative arts inspired by the Gothic architecture of medieval Europe. It has been particularly widely applied to churches but has also been used to describe castellated mansions, collegiate buildings, and houses. The Gothic Revival has also been described by many scholars as a movement, rather than style, for in the mid-19th century it was associated with and propagated by religious and political faith. From a hesitant start in the mid-18th century in England and Scotland, in the 19th century it became one of the principal styles of building throughout the world and continued in some huge projects until well into the 20th century (e.g. Episcopal Cathedral, Washington, DC, 1908–90; by G(eorge) F(rederick) Bodley and others). ‘Gothic Revival’ became the standard English term when Charles Locke Eastlake published A History of the Gothic Revival (1872). The word ‘Gothic’ had by then definitely mutated from a depreciatory epithet into the denomination of a style or period of medieval architecture. To distinguish medieval Gothic from modern Gothic, most European languages used the prefix ‘neo-’ (e.g. Dut. ...

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Patrick Conner, David Tatham, and Tapati Guha-Thakurta

English family of artists. Daniel Havell (d ?1826) was an engraver and publisher of topographical and architectural works distinguished by a delicacy of line. He worked in London and was for a time in partnership with Robert Havell I (1769–1832), a painter, engraver and publisher. According to their descendants, Robert was undeniably Daniel’s son, though there is evidence to suggest that he may have been his uncle. The family firm engraved work by (1) William Havell, a cousin of Daniel Havell, and a painter and traveller. Robert Havell I later became self-employed and set up in business for a time in Oxford Street with his son (2) Robert Havell jr. In 1839 Robert Havell jr went to the USA at the invitation of John James Audubon, for whom he had engraved many of the plates for Birds of America. (3) Ernest Binfield Havell, a great-nephew of (1) William Havell, seems to have inherited the family love of travel and painting and became a distinguished art teacher in India and a scholar of Indian art....

Article

(Ernst Emil)

(b Darmstadt, July 30, 1852; d Berlin, Nov 11, 1932).

German architect and writer. He attended the Kunstakademie, Kassel (1873), and the Bauakademie, Berlin (1874–9), where his teachers included Johann Heinrich Strack and Richard Lucae, and he won the Schinkel prize. In 1879 he took the government examination in architecture and became a government architect (1884). In 1885 he won a competition, with Peter Dybwad (1859–1921), for the Reichsgericht in Leipzig and a subsequent commission to revise the design; work was carried out on this monumental, neo-classicist law court between 1887 and 1895. In early April 1896 Hoffmann was elected city architect of Berlin, a post he retained until 1924 (see Berlin §I 4.). As city architect he was responsible for all types of public buildings in Berlin: swimming baths, bridges, fountains, monuments, fire stations, hospitals, arts and festival buildings, residential buildings, schools, social facilities, municipal and administration buildings. Notable examples include the swimming baths (...

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Kevin D. Murphy

Domestic architecture in the USA comprises a wide variety of types—including detached single-family residences, row houses or town houses, apartment buildings, and more—as well as structures ranging from impermanent earth-fast dwellings of the seventeenth century to contemporary ‘McMansions’ measuring thousands of square feet in size. What makes housing important are the many ways in which it has deeply touched the lives of all Americans. Because of its diversity, the domestic architecture of the USA has been studied from a range of disciplinary perspectives, from the formal to the anthropological.

The earliest housing in America was built by native populations prior to the arrival of European settlers in the 17th century. While some was substantial, such as Pueblo Bonito (AD 910–1110) in Chaco Canyon, NM, other architecture, such as that constructed by many Native Americans in the Northeast, was transient.

While the subject of housing has sometimes been considered the purview of architectural historians, in fact, at any given historical moment, many (if not most) domestic buildings have not been designed by professional architects but by carpenters, builders, contractors, or home-owners. In the settlement period, the houses of most European Americans were earth-fast, small-scale, one-storey buildings, and were designed by their owners or builders. Given that the earliest housing in the USA was not built on stone foundations, it was perishable and little of it survives; it is known primarily through archaeological evidence. Research has shown that the earliest houses were typically constructed of locally available materials and that regional variations reflected the places of origin of the builders. For example, the 17th-century architecture of the Massachusetts Bay Colony reflected the knowledge on the part of its British settlers of existing traditions in Great Britain, although it was adapted to local circumstances. The Parson Capen House in Topsfield, MA (...

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Kalna  

Walter Smith

Town and temple site in West Bengal, India, about 80 km north of Calcutta. Located on the banks of the Bhagirathi River, it was once an important port and commercial centre, but by the late 19th century its importance had declined owing to the silting up of the river and the opening of the East Indian Railway. It is now best known for several temples built during the 18th and 19th centuries by wealthy landowners, merchants and officers of local governors. Many are dated by inscription. Built of brick, they are decorated with dense arrangements of terracotta reliefs depicting scenes from the Rāmāya ṇa, the Krishna legend and scenes of everyday life, including figures in European dress. A variety of temple types are seen; the most common have squat, curvilinear superstructures, sometimes double-storey, or upper levels consisting of several towers (see Indian subcontinent §III 7., (ii), (d)). The Lalji Temple (...

Article

Lisbet Balslev Jørgensen

(b Abeltoft, Sept 6, 1856; d Frederiksberg, June 27, 1920).

Danish architect, painter and teacher. After technical school and apprenticeship to a bricklayer, he attended the School of Architecture of the Kongelige Danske Kunstakademi in Copenhagen in 1873. He was taught by Hans Jørgen Holm, an advocate of a national style based on the free use of historically associative elements, and Ferdinand Meldahl, who espoused a more ‘correct’ and thus more international architecture. After leaving the Kunstakademi in 1878, Kampmann worked for Holm and Meldahl before going to Paris, where, at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, he learnt the ‘wet’ watercolour technique that he later passed on to his pupils Edvard Thomsen, Aage Rafn, Kay Fisker and his sons Hans Jørgen Kampmann and Christian Kampmann. He was awarded the large gold medal in 1884 and then embarked on a Grand Tour on which he executed travel sketches of Germany, Italy and Greece, capturing in watercolour textures and atmospheres.

In his buildings, logic and legibility informed Kampmann’s approach throughout. For his home town of Hjørring he built a hospital (...

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Nils-Ole Lund

(Theodor)

(b Slagelse, Sept 10, 1894; d Copenhagen, Dec 22, 1984).

Danish architect. He trained at the Kunstakademi in Copenhagen, graduating in 1921. His early buildings of the 1920s were neo-classical in style, but by the beginning of the 1930s he had become a leading exponent of Functionalism. Lauritzen successfully combined the latter with a refined use of materials and detailing, designing Functionalist buildings that were both elegant and intimate in scale. Such qualities were apparent in his airport building on Amager, outside Copenhagen (1937–9). Its wave-shaped concrete roof was very advanced for the time; the plan also was unusually detailed and well developed for this type of building.

Lauritzen’s Radiohuset (1937–45), the broadcasting complex in Copenhagen, was built according to the principles of Functionalism. Offices with continuous bands of windows, studios and the concert hall were housed in separate, tile-covered blocks. The concert hall was covered with a shell-like roof. Its largely windowless volume reflects the interior space of the hall. During the 1950s his designs became more systematic and less experimental. In ...

Article

Asko Salokorpi

(Arvid)

(b Helsinki, May 19, 1867; d Helsinki, May 17, 1939).

Finnish architect. He studied architecture (1884–8) at the Polytechnic Institute, Helsinki, and with F. A. Sjöström (1840–85), an architect who designed several important Neo-classical buildings in Helsinki and elsewhere in Finland. Sjöström’s influence is clearly evident in Lindqvist’s student projects and early independent designs. His first important work, the Merkurius Building (1888–90), 33 Pohjoisesplanadi, Helsinki, was designed when he was 21. The façade of this building, a residential block with shops and offices on the ground and mezzanine floors, demonstrates Lindqvist’s assured handling of Neo-classical forms. It is also notable for the use of modern construction techniques, whereby the upper storeys are supported on cast-iron pillars that allow the office storeys below to be fronted with large plate-glass windows. It is not clear whether this innovation, which represented a completely new approach in Finnish architecture, was the work of Lindqvist or the master builder ...

Article

Louise Noelle

Mexican family of architects. Nicolás Mariscal (b Mexico City, Sep 10, 1875; d Mexico City, Apr 13, 1964) and his brother Federico Mariscal (b Querétaro, Nov 7, 1881; d Mexico City, Aug 19, 1969) both received a neoclassical architectural education at the Academia Nacional de Bellas Artes in Mexico City, graduating in 1899 and 1903 respectively. Despite this traditional background they showed themselves predisposed to change, especially with respect to a national architecture. Both later became professors at the Escuela Nacional de Arquitectura, Mexico City, of which Federico was also dean between 1935 and 1938. Nicolás Mariscal is particularly notable for his militancy on behalf of his profession in Mexico, which he defended against the privileges of the engineers. This activity culminated in 1919 with the creation of the Sociedad de Arquitectos Mexicanos. From 1899 to 1911 he published the prestigious magazine El Arte y la Ciencia...