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Stephen Deuchar

(b Geneva, March 24, 1767; d London, Dec 27, 1849).

English painter of Swiss birth. Born into a wealthy and politically influential Huguenot family, Agasse spent his early childhood at the country estate of Crévin, where he may have developed the interest in animals and natural history that was to guide his later career as an artist in England. Agasse trained first at the Ecole du Colibri in Geneva and subsequently in Paris under Jacques-Louis David (beginning in 1787) and possibly under Horace Vernet. His early artistic output consisted chiefly of unpretentious silhouette ‘cut-outs’ in the style of Jean-Daniel Huber. At this time he also undertook a serious study of dissection and veterinary science.

Agasse first visited England in his early 20s, at the invitation of the Hon. George Pitt, 1st Baron Rivers (?1722–1803), whom he had met in either Geneva or Paris c. 1790. He stayed briefly at Rivers’s home, Stratfield Saye, Hants, before returning to Europe for another decade, then emigrated permanently to England in ...



Anna Bentkowska

Park near Łowicz, Poland. The best-preserved 18th-century Romantic landscape park in Poland, it was founded in 1778 by the patron and collector Princess Helena Radziwiłł (1749–1821). She competed as a patron with Princess Izabela Czartoryska, and Arkadia was a response to the latter’s park (destr.), also called Arkadia, at Powązki, outside Warsaw. Princess Helena Radziwiłł conceived the literary and philosophical idea of the park, and in order to realize her project she employed Simon Bogumił Zug as designer.

The park covers c. 30 ha on the banks of an artificially formed lake, with the Isle of Sacrifices and the River Łupia. An area of wild, unimproved nature, the Elysian Fields, is laid out on the west bank. An English-style park, complete with pavilions, classical ruins, tombs, altars and grottoes, is situated on the east bank. The park is so designed and landscaped that the footpaths, lined with trees and shrubs, lead the visitor to its main feature, the Neo-classical Temple of Diana, from where there is a panoramic view of the lake and the park. The temple, designed by ...


Marie-Claude Chaudonneret

(b Paris, March 24, 1775; d Paris, May 15, 1835).

French painter . After studying in Jacques-Louis David’s studio, at the age of 18 Auzou exhibited a Bacchante and a Study of a Head in the Salon of 1793. She exhibited regularly at the Salon until 1817. She was awarded a Prix d’Encouragement for Departure for a Duel in 1806 and a medal for Agnès de Méranie (untraced) in 1808. In 1810 Vivant Denon drew the Emperor Napoleon’s attention to the ‘genre anecdotique’, which he maintained was unique to the French school. Denon cited Auzou as well as Pierre-Nolasque Bergeret, Jean-Antoine Laurent, Fleury-François Richard and Adolphe-Eugène-Gabriel Roehn (1780–1867) among the practitioners of this distinctive genre.

Auzou’s oeuvre consists of portraits (e.g. Portrait of a Musician; Manchester, NH, Currier Gal. A.) and genre scenes, a great many of which still belong to the artist’s descendants. In the early genre scenes she took her inspiration from history and Greek mythology or used playfully erotic subjects in the style of Louis-Philibert Debucourt. Later she sought inspiration in the history of the French kings (e.g. ...


Nathalie Volle

(b Laon, March 5, 1743; d Paris, March 1, 1811).

French painter and draughtsman. In 1764 he entered the studio of Noël Hallé, whose work strongly influenced his early paintings. Alexander Cutting the Gordian Knot (Paris, Ecole N. Sup. B.-A.), with which he won the Prix de Rome in 1767, is a brilliant exercise in the grand academic style as conceived by the followers of François Boucher. After a period at the Ecole Royale des Elèves Protégés he completed his training at the Académie de France in Rome from 1771 to 1774. Although he impressed the then director of the Académie, Charles-Joseph Natoire, and formed friendships with the painters François-Guillaume Ménageot, François-André Vincent and Joseph-Benoît Suvée and the architects Pierre-Adrien Pâris and Jean-Jacques-Marie Huvé (1742–1808), his artistic activity during his years in Rome is obscure. A number of spectacular drawings in red chalk, such as those of the Villa d’Este, Tivoli (Orléans, Mus. B.-A.) and the Villa Colonna and Villa Negroni...


Swiss, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 27 February 1767, in Geneva; died 21 February 1830, in Geneva.


Bertz was the son of Jeanne Françoise Marguerite Esther. In 1789 he was romantically linked with Madeleine-Thérèse Rouz, wife of Louis Barette.


David Bindman

(b London, Nov 28, 1757; d London, Aug 12, 1827).

English printmaker, painter and poet. His reputation as a visual artist increased during the 20th century to the extent that his art is as well known as his poetry (see fig.). Yet in his own mind Blake never completely separated the two, and his most original work is to be found in hand-printed books of prophecy, which developed a personal mythology of limitless intellectual ambition. In these books, text and design are completely integrated in what he called ‘illuminated’ printing. He also made many pen and watercolour drawings, prints in various media and a small number of tempera paintings, but even in these his broader aims were primarily theological and philosophical: he saw the arts in all their forms as offering insights into the metaphysical world and therefore potentially redemptive of a humanity he believed to have fallen into materialism and doubt.


Dominique Vautier


(b Lierre, June 10, 1778; d Brussels, March 3, 1859).

Belgian painter. The son of a manufacturer, he studied under Pierre Denis at Lierre, then the sculptor Walter Pompe at Antwerp and finally Andries Cornelis Lens at Brussels, between 1795 and 1800. The suave Neo-classicism of Lens had a decisive influence on Cels’s first drawings and such paintings as Hercules Putting on the Tunic of Nemea (ex-art market, Brussels, 1985; see 1985–6 exh. cat., pl. IX). In 1800 Cels continued his training in Paris with Joseph-Benoît Suvée and entered the Prix de Rome but decided against competing in the final stage.

In 1801 Cels visited Italy and stayed there for seven years, financed by his parents. In Rome he painted Cincinnatus, Dictator of Rome (untraced), which took the Grand Prix at the Salon in Ghent in 1802. During his long stay Cels made many drawings, both copies from the Antique and studies of his own (mostly in Brussels, Bib. Royale Albert 1er, Cab. Est., S.V. 65.111–65.275). In ...



Glenn F. Benge

[Michel, Claude]

(b Nancy, Dec 20, 1738; d Paris, Mar 28, 1814).

French sculptor. He was the greatest master of lyrical small-scale sculpture active in France in the later 18th century, an age that witnessed the decline of the Rococo, the rise of Romanticism and the cataclysms of revolution. Clodion’s works in terracotta embody a host of fascinating and still unresolved problems, questions of autograph and attribution, the chronology of his many undated designs, the artistic sources of his works, and the position of his lyric art in the radically changing society of his time. Little is known of the sculptural activity of Clodion’s brothers (see 1992 exh. cat., nos 90–93): Sigisbert-Martial Michel (b13 Jan 1727); Sigisbert-François Michel (b Nancy, 24 Sep 1728; d Paris, 21 May 1811; see 1992 exh. cat., p. 29, nos 11 and 12); Nicholas Michel (b17 Nov 1733); and Pierre-Joseph Michel (b2 Nov 1737).

Clodion trained in Paris with his uncle ...


Michael Rosenthal

(b East Bergholt, Suffolk, June 11, 1776; d Hampstead, March 31, 1837).

English painter and draughtsman. His range and aspirations were less extensive than those of his contemporary J. M. W. Turner, but these two artists have traditionally been linked as the giants of early 19th-century British landscape painting and isolated from the many other artists practising landscape at a time when it was unprecedentedly popular. Constable has often been defined as the great ‘naturalist’ and deliberately presented himself thus in his correspondence, although his stylistic variety indicates an instability in his perception of what constituted ‘nature’. He has also been characterized as having painted only the places he knew intimately, which other artists tended to pass by. While the exclusivity of Constable’s approach is indisputable, his concern with local scenery was not unique, being shared by the contemporary Norwich artists. By beginning to sketch in oil from nature seriously in 1808, he also conformed with the practice of artists such as Thomas Christopher Hofland (...


Simon Lee

(b Brussels, ?1752; d Batignolles, Paris, Jan 24, 1829).

French painter. He went to Paris at the age of 12 after the death of his father, who had been in Brussels as an officer in the service of the Emperor of Austria. Having spent eight years studying history painting with Gabriel Briard (1729–77), he entered the Prix de Rome in 1772 and 1774 but failed to win. Thereafter he concentrated on landscape and genre painting, in which he was greatly influenced by such 17th-century Dutch masters as Aelbert Cuyp, the van Ostade brothers, Adriaen van de Velde and Karel Dujardin, all artists enjoying a tremendous vogue and high prices in Paris at that time. Demarne was made an associate (agréé) of the Académie Royale in 1783 but did not become a full member. He seems to have cared little for official honours and later, in 1815, was unwilling to seek membership of the Institut de France. He was, however, awarded the Légion d’honneur at the Salon of ...


Marie-Claude Chaudonneret

(b Versailles, July 14, 1775; d Paris, March 3, 1847).

French painter. Around 1795 he entered the studio of Jacques-Louis David, where he was a member of the group of artists from southern France known as the ‘parti aristocratique’ (Pierre Révoil, Fleury Richard, Comte Auguste de Forbin and François-Marius Granet), who were among the first to paint small-scale pictures of French history. Ducis remained a friend of Granet throughout his life (e.g. Portrait of Mme Granet, Aix-en-Provence, Mus. Granet). He exhibited regularly in the Salon between 1804 and 1838, winning a medal for history painting in 1808. He rapidly acquired a considerable reputation with scenes of sentimental mythology such as Orpheus and Eurydice (exh. Salon 1808; untraced), in part due to his links with the poet Jean-François Ducis (his uncle) and with his brother-in-law, the actor François Joseph Talma. (He exhibited Talma’s Débuts (Paris, Mus. Comédie-Française) at the Salon of 1831.) Josephine and her daughter Hortense were among his patrons; at Malmaison the Empress owned four portraits by Ducis of children, probably the two youngest sons of Hortense and the elder daughters of her son, Eugène Beauharnais (untraced). For ...


Susan B. Taylor

French landscape garden near Senlis, at the edge of the forest of Chantilly, Oise. Laid out by its owner, Louis-René Marquis de Girardin, between 1766 and 1776, it became one of the most influential examples of the Picturesque garden in 18th-century France. In contrast to the flat terrain of many French parks, Ermenonville (approx. 850 ha) was varied and had an abundant water supply. Girardin made a large lake to the south of his modernized château; this flowed into two cascades, becoming a meandering stream north of the château. The lake and stream together defined the central north–south axis. The park itself he divided into four areas, in order to maintain the distinctly varied character of Ermenonville’s topography: the farm, east of the château, was essentially a ferme ornée, whereas the Désert, to the west, was a rocky landscape of sandhills, pine trees and boulders. The fine views to the north and south of the château, improved by the lake and stream, encouraged Girardin to exploit his domain—recomposing the landscape so as to resemble the scenery to be found in the works of celebrated landscape painters. Consequently, southerly views from the château—an area that included an ‘Arcadian’ field framed by the woods surrounding the lake, cascade and grotto—suggested paintings by Claude Lorrain; those to the north, a flat, marshy area containing a rustic mill, canal and windmill, evoked in the spectator’s imagination ‘northern, meditative’ landscapes. This latter area also included the Tower of Gabrielle (destr.), a Gothick tower dedicated to the mistress of Henry IV. Elsewhere, the views recalled the types of scenery associated with paintings by Hubert Robert, Salvator Rosa and Jacob van Ruisdael....


Jens Christian Jensen

(b Greifswald, Sept 5, 1774; d Dresden, May 7, 1840).

German painter, draughtsman, and printmaker. Along with Phillip Otto Runge, he was the leading artist of the German Romantic movement, notable especially for his symbolic and atmospheric treatment of landscape (see fig.).

After receiving a general education with a private tutor, Friedrich studied drawing and etching from 1790 to 1794 with Johann Gottfried Quistorp (1755–1835), drawing teacher at the university in Greifswald. From 1794 until 1798 he studied at the Akademi for de Skønne Kunster in Copenhagen, where his most important teachers were Nicolai Abraham Abildgaard, Jens Juel, Christian August Lorentzen (1749–1828), and Johannes Wiedewelt (1759–1802). The influence of Danish painting, especially that of Juel and Abildgaard, was strong and is evident even in his later years; Juel’s landscapes were notable for their clarity of composition and Abildgaard encouraged Friedrich’s enthusiasm for the mythology and history of the Scandinavian and Germanic peoples. Friedrich swiftly developed a confident and disciplined manner, as seen in the pen-and-wash drawing ...


British, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 25 December 1771, in London; died 1843, in Devon, in a lunatic asylum.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtsman, architect. Religious subjects, landscapes, architectural views.


Joseph Michael Gandy studied architecture at the Royal Academy of Art. He was sent on a study trip to Rome but returned to London in ...


(b Paris, Aug 24, 1759; d Paris, Nov 15, 1849).

French painter. Although he was given a sound Classical education to prepare for the magistrature, he found a painter’s career more alluring. Despite his late start, he had an impeccable record of success in competition with the pupils of Jacques-Louis David, whose influence he mostly resisted. Trained by Louis-Jacques Durameau, Gabriel-François Doyen and Joseph-Marie Vien, he won second place in the Prix de Rome competition in 1787 with Death of Sedecius (Le Mans, Mus. Tessé) and first place in 1788 with a strenuously rhetorical Death of Tatius (Paris, Ecole N. Sup. B.-A.). Although his stay in Italy was abruptly ended by the Roman crisis of 1793, he completed before his return to Paris the course work and other pictures, including an academic study of St Jerome (Troyes, Mus. B.-A. & Archéol.) and several Classical subjects.

While in Italy, Garnier began work on his masterpiece, the Family of Priam, for which he completed a painted sketch (Mâcon, Mus. Mun. Ursulines) in ...


Paul Spencer-Longhurst

(b Rome, May 4, 1770; d Paris, Jan 11, 1837).

French painter and illustrator.

He spent most of his childhood in Rome. His talent as an artist revealed itself early and during this period he acquired a love of Italian painting and music, which he never lost. In 1782 his family returned to Paris, where, through the connections of his father’s employer Louis-Auguste le Tonnelier, Baron de Breteuil, Minister of the King’s Household, Gérard was admitted to the Pension du Roi, a small teaching establishment for young artists which had been founded by the Marquis de Marigny. After 18 months he entered the studio of the sculptor Augustin Pajou, where he remained for two years, before transferring to that of the painter Nicolas-Guy Brenet. He became a pupil of David in 1786 and quickly found special favour with his master.

In 1789 Gérard competed for the Prix de Rome and his entry, Joseph Revealing himself to his Brethren (Angers, Mus. B.-A.), was placed second; the winner was Girodet. He did not submit in ...


Susan Morris

(b London, Feb 18, 1775; d London, Nov 9, 1802).

English painter, draughtsman and printmaker. With his rival, J. M. W. Turner, he extended the technical possibilities of watercolour and in doing so demonstrated that watercolours could have the visual impact and emotional range of oils. Although close in style throughout the 1790s, by 1800 Turner and Girtin were beginning to diverge: whereas the former dissolved forms to express his idea of Nature in a state of flux, the latter sought out a landscape’s underlying patterns to convey his awe of Nature’s permanence as well as its grandeur. Girtin’s reduction of landscape to simple and monumental forms, his panoramic compositions, his bold palette of browns and blues, and his sensitivity to natural effects such as cloud formations, were to influence watercolour painters as diverse as John Varley, Cornelius Varley, Peter De Wint and John Sell Cotman.

Girtin was the son of a brushmaker of Huguenot descent. In 1788 he was apprenticed to the topographical watercolour painter ...


(b Frankfurt am Main, Aug 28, 1749; d Weimar, March 22, 1832).

German writer, statesman, scientist, historian and theorist. By virtue of his prodigious literary output, his writings on art (notably in collaboration with Friedrich Schiller), his patronage as chief minister of Weimar, the extraordinary variety of his interests, and his sheer longevity, he had a profound influence on European culture.

Goethe began writing in the late 1760s, when the Romantic reaction against Neo-classicism had already started. The Rococo view of the Classical heritage, which stressed the formal elegance and rationality of the Greeks, was being dismantled by such writers as Johann Gottfried Herder, Johann Joachim Winckelmann and Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, all of whom influenced Goethe. Herder’s study of folk art, Homer and the Bible concurred with Goethe’s celebration of Shakespeare—in Rede zum Shäkespears Tag (1771)—and of Gothic art—in Von deutscher Baukunst (1772)—in acknowledging the role of passion and daemonic energy in art. These elements, it was claimed, were also present in Classical art; this contrasted with the Neo-classical emphasis on its rationality. This period of Goethe’s life produced such characteristically Romantic poems as ...


(b Fuendetodos, March 30, 1746; d Bordeaux, April 16, 1828).

Spanish painter, draughtsman and printmaker. The most important Spanish artist of the last quarter of the 18th and first quarter of the 19th centuries, he served three generations of Spanish kings. Stylistically his work spans the period from the late Rococo to Romanticism and, at the last, presages Impressionism. During his six active decades he produced some 700 paintings, 900 drawings and almost 300 prints, which reflect his rapidly changing world: the Bourbon Spain of Charles III and the reign of Charles IV, the Enlightenment, the French occupation, the turmoil of the Peninsular War, the despotic reign of Ferdinand VII (and the Inquisition) and Spain’s few years of constitutional government. Appreciation of his prints by non-Spaniards even during his lifetime soon ensured his reputation abroad. Known by 1801 as the ‘Apelles of Spain’, he has been regarded since as a major master of international stature and as the first ‘modern’ artist....


John Leighton

(b Aix-en-Provence, Dec 17, 1775; d Malvalat, Nov 21, 1849).

French painter and museum official. The son of a master mason, he revealed an early talent for drawing in his copies of his father’s collection of prints after François Boucher and Vernet family, §1. After studying with an unidentified Italian landscape painter, he became a pupil of Jean-Antoine Constantin at the free drawing academy in Aix-en-Provence. One of his fellow pupils was Auguste de Forbin, the painter and future Director-General of the Musées Royaux. In 1793 Granet left Aix with the local Société Populaire to assist in the siege of Toulon. He worked as a draughtsman with the artillery battery; his autobiography provides a vivid account of his experiences during the siege and destruction of the town. On a subsequent tour of duty he was employed to paint republican motifs on ships in the naval base at Toulon.

Granet made his first journey to Paris in 1796. He studied in the Louvre, where he was encouraged by Fragonard, and in his memoirs he recorded his admiration for works of the Dutch and Flemish schools, mentioning in particular how he copied the ...