(b Puławy, June 1756; d Florence, Feb 8, 1841).
Polish architect and writer, also active in Italy. He probably studied in Rome in the late 1770s and returned to Italy in 1785–6 under the aegis of Stanisław Kostka Potocki, a collector and amateur architect with whom he collaborated throughout his life. In 1786 Aigner and Potocki refronted the church of St Anna, Warsaw, using a giant composite order on high pedestals. The political turmoil of the 1790s disrupted Aigner’s career, but during his second phase of creativity (1797–1816) he won fame through his work on the great estate of the Czartoryski family at Puławy, on the Vistula west of Lublin, the most important centre of cultural life in Poland during the Enlightenment. Aigner had already erected the Marynka Palace there in 1790, a variation on the Petit Trianon at Versailles, France, and from 1798 he began to add ornamental buildings to go with the new Picturesque layout of the Puławy gardens: a Chinese pavilion, a Gothick house and a peripheral Temple of the Sibyl with a shallow dome. In ...
Ye. A. Beletskaya
(b Dol’skoye, Kaluzhskaya Province, March 12, 1737; d St Petersburg, Aug 13, 1799).
Russian architect. From his earliest childhood he lived in Moscow, where his father was a minor cleric in one of the Kremlin churches. He studied painting in Moscow under the important architect Dmitry Ukhtomsky, who accepted him into his school of architecture in 1751 and had him enrolled for classes in fine arts and languages at Moscow University in 1754. As one of the most gifted students he was transferred in 1758 to the St Petersburg Academy of Arts. As its curriculum was not then complete, he studied for two years with Savva Ivanovich Chevakinsky (1713–74/80) during the latter’s construction of the naval church of St Nicholas, and with the Academy’s president, Aleksandr Filippovich Kokorinov (1726–72).
In 1760 Bazhenov was sent on a travelling scholarship to study under Charles de Wailly in Paris, where he became acquainted with a wide circle involved in the theoretical disciplines and the study of architecture. He created his own version of a plan for the Hôtel des Invalides and a model of the Louvre, grasping the distinctive character of the nascent French Neo-classicism. As a foreigner he was not entitled to the Prix de Rome upon graduation from the Académie Royale d’Architecture in ...
German family of architects. Markus Cremer (b Poppelsdorf, 1753; d Aachen, 1819) was architect to the city of Cologne until the French annexed the city in 1799. None of his work is now extant. His eldest son, Johann Peter Cremer (b Cologne, 1785; d 1863), studied in Paris (1804–6), where he attended the lectures of Jean-Nicolas-Louis Durand and joined the studio of François-Joseph Bélanger, in whose house he lived. He was a building inspector in Düsseldorf (1806–17) but was promoted to Landbauinspektor in Aachen following the Prussian annexation of the Rhineland, remaining there until his retirement as municipal architect in 1861. His designs were subject to interference from the Oberbaudeputation in Berlin, so much so that his Elisenbrunnen (1822–7) in Aachen has subsequently been attributed to Karl Friedrich Schinkel. Cremer considered the theatre (1822–4) at Aachen his most important work. Modelled on a Greek temple with an Ionic portico, its clarity of design is typical of the work of a pupil of Durand. Other works included government offices (...
Catherine H. Cruft
(b Ancrum, Roxburghshire [now Borders], Aug 1760; d Edinburgh, June 16, 1823).
Scottish architect. He was a successful Edinburgh architect with no formal education. He trained as a joiner and may have worked as a contractor for the building of Castle Mona (1801–6), Isle of Man, designed by George Steuart (c. 1730–1806) for the 4th Duke of Atholl, who later became Elliot’s patron. From 1794 to 1799 he exhibited architectural drawings at the Royal Academy. In 1800 he set up in joint practice with his brother James Elliot (1770–1810), running offices in London and Edinburgh. Elliot cannot be considered an architectural innovator. His usual style for country houses was castellated and derived directly from Roger Morris’s conception at Inveraray Castle (from 1745), Argyll, for the 3rd Duke of Argyll and from the Adam castle style. Loudoun Castle (1804–11; gutted 1941), Strathclyde, for the Marquess of Hastings, is an exercise in post-Adam castellated design, while Taymouth Castle (...
(b Cambridge, bapt Aug 25, 1722; d Cambridge, Sept 14, 1784).
English architect. He was an enthusiastic antiquary as well as a reliable architect; he built in both the classical style of the mid-18th century and the Gothic. He was educated at the grammar school in the shadow of King’s College Chapel; at 18 years old he was already drawing ancient Cambridge buildings, including the castle and Barnwell ‘leper chapel’. On leaving school he joined the family business, which undertook general building work and joinery; when his father died in 1749 Essex took sole control. He received a more academic architectural training from James Burrough (1691–1764), the Caius College don and the city’s leading amateur architect, and soon he became Burrough’s chief assistant and collaborator. In 1753 he married the daughter of a Cambridge bookseller, and in 1756 he was commissioned to build an eleven-bay range along the river front of Queens’ College. Only the south-west pavilion (the present Essex building) was constructed, but it established his reputation as a designer of convenient and well-lit college rooms. During the same period Essex reconstructed the decayed Jacobean ranges of Neville’s Court in Trinity College. He retained the existing structure but modernized it by making the attic into a proper second floor and removing strapwork ornament. His major classical work (his last in association with Burrough) was the new chapel and domed ante-chapel for Clare College in ...
(b Dunblane, Perthshire [now in Central], June 11, 1776; d Edinburgh, March 21, 1855).
Scottish architect. Gillespie added his wife’s surname of Graham to his own on his father-in-law’s death in 1825. In 1800 he was appointed to supervise work on the islands of Skye and North Uist, including schools, churches, piers, inns and a proposed new town at Kyleakin, for Alexander, 2nd Baron MacDonald. His first major commission was for the County Buildings, Cupar, Fife (1810; altered 1835–40). The austere Neo-classicism of this design was repeated at Gray’s Hospital, Elgin, Morayshire (now Highland) (1815), where a Tuscan portico and compound dome terminate the western axis of the town. Blythswood House, Renfrewshire (1818; destr. c. 1929), a Greek Revival mansion on the banks of the River Clyde, had an Ionic tetrastyle portico over a semi-basement. Gillespie Graham’s largest commission was an extension of the Edinburgh New Town, built in the 1820s on land owned by the 10th Earl of Moray. The main elements of the plan, which combined ideas from Bath and John Nash in London, were a crescent (Randolph Crescent), then an ellipse (Ainslie Place) and finally, in Moray Place, a circus 187 metres in diameter, where the classical proportions are enhanced by Doric columns instead of the pilasters used elsewhere. Gillespie Graham laid out the town of ...
Georg Germann, Melissa Ragain, and Pippa Shirley
Term applied to a style of architecture and the decorative arts inspired by the Gothic architecture of medieval Europe. It has been particularly widely applied to churches but has also been used to describe castellated mansions, collegiate buildings, and houses. The Gothic Revival has also been described by many scholars as a movement, rather than style, for in the mid-19th century it was associated with and propagated by religious and political faith. From a hesitant start in the mid-18th century in England and Scotland, in the 19th century it became one of the principal styles of building throughout the world and continued in some huge projects until well into the 20th century (e.g. Episcopal Cathedral, Washington, DC, 1908–90; by G(eorge) F(rederick) Bodley and others). ‘Gothic Revival’ became the standard English term when Charles Locke Eastlake published A History of the Gothic Revival (1872). The word ‘Gothic’ had by then definitely mutated from a depreciatory epithet into the denomination of a style or period of medieval architecture. To distinguish medieval Gothic from modern Gothic, most European languages used the prefix ‘neo-’ (e.g. Dut. ...
Term used in a more or less discriminatory way to identify the 18th-century works of the Gothic Revival in British architecture and interior design. Some historians use the term as a convenient shorthand for the 18th-century phase of the Revival; others intend it to highlight the ways in which the ‘Gothick’ of the 18th century—the fanciful and thinly decorative architecture associated with dilettanti and antiquaries—is manifestly distinct from the more historicist works of the 19th-century ‘Gothic Revival’, whose architects not only drew upon different forms or styles of medieval Gothic but were motivated by liturgical, religious and social concerns rather than by 18th-century Associationist aesthetics. Both spellings were used in the 18th century, but during the 19th century ‘Gothick’ became obsolete: Eastlake (1872) wrote only of ‘Gothic’ and Clark (1928) followed his example. That preference has been maintained by such historians as Macaulay (1975) and McCarthy (...
Catherine H. Cruft
(b Glasgow, May 11, 1768; d Glasgow, Dec 5, 1843).
Scottish architect. The son of William Hamilton, a mason, he was admitted to the Incorporation of Masons in Glasgow in 1800. Little is known of his early architectural training, although he may have been acquainted with Robert Adam (i) and James Adam (i) since he made many copies of their drawings at a time when they were virtually unknown. Hamilton developed a large practice, mainly confined to Glasgow and the west of Scotland. He showed a particular feeling for theatricality in his work, which is seen in his sometimes idiosyncratic employment of styles and the inclusion of carving and statues on his buildings. His earliest recorded building of note is the Neo-classical Hutcheson’s Hall (1802–5), Ingram Street, Glasgow, which incorporates two 17th-century statues from the former Hutcheson’s Hospital. Other commissions included his monument to Lord Nelson (1806), Glasgow Green, which was the first to be erected in Britain in memory of Nelson; it consists of an obelisk (44 m) on a plain plinth. Early residential work included a new front (...
(b Vienna, Feb 7, 1732; d Vienna, Dec 14, 1816).
Austrian architect and teacher. After training as a painter of architecture, he studied architecture itself at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna. He seems to have established contact with the Viennese court early in his career, since his first commission was to redesign the court theatre (from 1766) at the imperial Schloss Schönbrunn in Vienna. In the same year he was ennobled. With the assistance of Prince Wenzel Anton Kaunitz-Rietberg (patron of the Akademie and artistic adviser to Maria-Theresa, Queen of Hungary and Empress of Austria) Hohenberg was appointed in 1770 to teach architecture at the Akademie. He worked in this capacity until his final years, influencing successive generations of students. In 1772 he redesigned the gardens at Schönbrunn (see Vienna, §V, 7, (ii)). His imaginative plan, based on the Antique, was only partially realized in subsequent years, in particular with the Gloriette (1773–5), a triumphal arch flanked by colonnaded screens that closes the view on the height above the parterre, and the Roman Ruin (...
(b Cologne, July 13, 1768; d Cologne, Dec 20, 1844).
German sculptor. He came from a family of sculptors resident in Cologne since the early 18th century. He learnt his craft from his father, Johann Joseph Imhoff (1739–1802), and he probably also studied at the Kunstakademie in Düsseldorf. From the 1790s onwards he produced portrait sculptures (most now untraced), sacred and secular figures, as well as decorative sculpture and reproductions after ancient sculpture, working in both stone and terracotta. Surviving early works include terracotta busts of the collector Johann Wilhelm Baron von Hüpsch (1786–90; Cologne, Stadtmus.) and his housekeeper Eva Mechthild Happerts (1786–90; Darmstadt, Hess. Landesmus.), which show a brilliantly lucid realism emerging from the traditions of Rococo. Around 1800 and for some time afterwards, in striking red sandstone tomb statues and stelae decorated with reliefs, Imhoff evolved a classicizing austerity in the style of Bertel Thorvaldsen (e.g. tombs for Louise Knobel (1823) and ...
(b Kassel, Dec 9, 1754; d Kassel, July 26, 1825).
German architect. He studied architecture from 1778 at the Collegium Carolinum in Kassel under Simon Louis Du Ry. His earliest surviving designs show a close allegiance to the architecture of the Prussian court in Berlin and Potsdam. At about this time he taught architecture under Du Ry. In 1783 Jussow received a bursary from Landgrave Frederick II of Hesse-Kassel (reg 1760–85), which enabled him to stay in Paris until 1785. There he was a pupil of Charles de Wailly, who had produced various designs for a new residential palace and a pleasure palace, both at Weissenstein (later Wilhelmshöhe), for the Kassel court. In de Wailly’s studio Jussow drew up his first scheme for Schloss Wilhelmshöhe, which exhibits the direct influence of Claude-Nicolas Ledoux, who was also working on projects for Landgrave Frederick at the time. Jussow also spent a year in Italy (1785–6) and was one of the first German architects to study and draw the ancient temples at Paestum. Landgrave ...
(b Nov 15, 1726; d London, Jan 8, 1776).
English architect. He was the son of a master carpenter. Nothing is known of his training, but he is said to have been ‘bred to the profession of architecture’. In 1746 he was appointed surveyor of the estates of the Dean and Chapter of Westminster and in 1752 Surveyor of Westminster Abbey, with responsibility for its fabric. He had connections with Ireland that began in the 1750s when he and John Sanderson made the working drawings for the west front of Trinity College, Dublin, designed by the amateur architect Theodore Jacobsen. From 1763 to 1766 Keene is mentioned in Irish records as ‘Architect to the Barrack Board’ in Dublin. Through the patronage of Sir Roger Newdigate (1719–1806), MP for the University of Oxford, Keene obtained a number of commissions there, notably the remodelling of the hall (1766) at University College, the Fisher Building (1768–9) at Balliol College, the Provost’s Lodgings (...
Cinzia Maria Sicca
(b Bridlington, bapt Jan 1, 1685; d London, April 12, 1748).
English architect, painter, landscape gardener and designer. He was the most exuberant and innovative architect and designer active in England in the first half of the 18th century. He was trained as a painter but was not particularly successful or remarkable in this work, showing greater skill as a draughtsman. As an architect he was highly versatile, practising in both the Palladian and Gothick styles, and this versatility extended to his work as a designer, which included interior decoration, furniture and silverware, book illustration, stage sets and gardens.
Kent was born into a poor family in the East Riding of Yorkshire. Nothing is known of his early education, nor of the circumstances that led to his apprenticeship to a coach-painter in Hull at about the age of 15. Kent is first recorded in London in 1709, when he applied for a passport to go to Italy. He was then 24 and, according to ...
(b Twickenham, bapt Sept 14, 1696; d London, March 3, 1751).
English architect and writer. The son of a gardener, he first tried his hand as a landscape gardener in Twickenham and published several books that reveal his practical knowledge of the subject, notably New Principles of Gardening (1728) and Pomona (1729). He deplored the rigid formality of continental horticulture and followed Stephen Switzer in advocating the introduction of the serpentine line into layout and planting. By 1731 he had moved to London, where at different times he ran a drawing school in Soho, manufactured artificial stone ornaments, engaged in polemical journalism and produced a succession of architectural publications.
Langley’s classical pattern books plagiarized an astonishing variety of sources, both Baroque and Palladian, although it is clear from their tone and that of his newspaper articles that he had little sympathy for the prevailing Palladian orthodoxy of Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington, and his followers. This may explain why, despite energetic self-publicity, he never managed to establish himself as a practising architect—his unsuccessful design (...
(fl London, 1760–c. 1770).
English furniture designer and cabinetmaker. He was recorded as working in the Haymarket, London, from 1760 until 1766, but no furniture documented or labelled from his workshop has been identified. In 1760 he contributed 50 designs to Houshold Furniture in Genteel Taste, sponsored by a Society of Upholsterers and Cabinetmakers, and in the same year he published the Carpenter’s Compleat Guide to the Whole System of Gothic Railing, which consisted of 14 plates. There followed the Cabinet and Chair-maker’s Real Friend and Companion in 1765, with designs for 100 chairs in Gothic, chinoiserie, Rococo and Rustic styles. A second edition, virtually unaltered, appeared in 1775. In 1766 he brought out the Chair-maker’s Guide, containing ‘upwards of Two Hundered New and Genteel Designs … for Gothic, Chinese, Ribbon and other chairs’; it includes two plates from William Ince and John Mayhew’s Universal System of Household Furniture and at least six from ...
Ye. I. Kirichenko
(b ?Edinburgh, 1753; d St Petersburg, 1831).
Russian architect of Scottish birth. He moved to Russia in 1784 at the invitation of Charles Cameron and first worked as an assistant to Nikolay L’vov on the construction of the cathedral in Mogilev (1780–98) and a monastery in Torzhok (1785–96). He was a member of the Construction Committee (formed 1812) of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. His independent works are associated with the development in Russia of large landscape parks, whether private urban estates, such as the park (1818) behind the Mikhaylovsky Palace in St Petersburg, or urban public parks, which became popular in Russia in the 1820s, for example the Peter (Petrovsky) Park (1826; destr.; now a sports stadium) on the Peterburgskoye Shosse (later Leningrad Prospect), near Moscow. Most important are his parks for the imperial residences near St Petersburg, which represent a new development in the Romantic synthesis of park and palace. On the site of the former Menagerie at ...