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Alexandra Wedgwood

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Swiss, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 22 December 1769, in Schlinig; died 10 September 1863, in Kerns (Nidwalden).

Sculptor. Animals, groups. Statues.

He initially trained under the sculptor Mathias Punt in Schlinig (Slingia, South Tyrol), then went to work in Strasbourg. After moving on to Switzerland, Franz Abart settled in Lucerne and established a reputation as an accomplished artist. His crucifixes, which are found in several Swiss churches, confirm his talent. At Kerns, he met and married the daughter of an important official: a fortunate circumstance that contributed to his success. Exhibitions in Bern in ...

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British, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1763, in Exeter; died 1851.

Painter, watercolourist, engraver, draughtsman, illustrator. Landscapes with figures, natural history (animals/insects).

John White Abbott took up painting initially as a hobby but became well known for his landscapes with animals and human figures. He was particularly influenced by the lesser Dutch masters, notably Peter de Laes. His work sufficiently impressed contemporaries such as Sir Joshua Reynolds and Benjamin West that they urged him to exhibit at the Royal Academy, and he submitted work to the Academy between ...

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Susan Morris

(b Exeter, May 13, 1764; d Exeter, 1851).

English watercolourist, painter and apothecary. He was nephew of the prominent lawyer John White (1744–1825). An important patron of Francis Towne, he spent his entire career in Exeter as an apothecary and surgeon. Abbot was a keen amateur artist, taking lessons from Towne, but although he was an Honorary Exhibitor of landscape oils at the Royal Academy, London, from 1793 to 1805 and again in 1810 and 1812, he never sold a picture. His oil Fordland (1791; priv. col., see Oppé, pl. xxxii) is a plein-air study of woodland that owes much to Gainsborough’s early work in its naturalism and broken, delicate handling.

In 1791 Abbott toured Scotland, the Lake District, Lancashire, Derbyshire and Warwickshire. He toured Monmouthshire in 1797, and again in 1827, as well as Gloucestershire and Wiltshire. He also made studies of Richmond, Surrey, in 1842, but the bulk of his work was done in the vicinity of Exeter. The ...

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Çigdem Kafesçioglu and Walter B. Denny

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Andrzej Ryszkiewicz

(b Aschach, Aug 22, 1764; d Vienna, Oct 4, 1818).

Austrian painter. He studied at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna under Jakob Matthias Schmutzer (1733–1811) from 1783. On the advice of his mentor, Heinrich Füger, Abel turned from landscape to history painting, winning a gold medal in 1794 for Daedalus and Icarus (Vienna, Akad. Bild. Kst.). He was invited to Poland in 1795 by Prince Adam Casimir Czartoryski, and he produced numerous family portraits for the prince in a variety of media. In 1797 he returned to Vienna, where he taught, as well as undertaking commissions for paintings and for prints (e.g. Portrait of the Artist’s Father, see Aurenhammer, fig.).

Abel had a preference for Classical subject-matter during his early training, and this was reinforced by his stay in Rome from 1801 to 1807. During this period he painted his most important work, F. G. Klopstock in Elysium (1803–7; Vienna, Belvedere), in collaboration with his friend ...

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German, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 22 August 1764, in Aschach; died 1818, in Vienna.

Painter, engraver. Mythological subjects, portraits.

Joseph Abel's remarkable abilities became evident at a very early age. Taken on by Füger, he made such rapid progress that he was soon painting. He caught the attention of the head of the Czartoryski family, who took the young artist to Poland. There he did various works before moving to Rome, arriving in ...

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Swedish, 18th – 19th century, male.

Active still active in 1809.

Born c. 1760, in Sweden.

Sculptor. Statues, busts.

Frédérik Ulrik Aberg was the son of a modeller working at the royal palace in Stockholm. He studied with Johan Tobias Sergel, and also at the Stockholm royal academy of fine arts. His busts and medallions are considered to be more accomplished than his statues....

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Danish, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1743, in Copenhagen; died 1809, in Copenhagen.

Painter. History painting, allegorical subjects, mythological subjects, figures.

Nikolai Abildgaard was first taught by his father, the distinguished draughtsman Søren Abildgaard. He was then sent to the Kongelige Danske Kunstakademi in Copenhagen, where he won the 'great gold medal' (awarded two years after the gold medal). Shortly afterwards he went to Italy, where he spent six years, visiting the major art centres and studying the old masters. He stayed mainly in Rome, where he made copies of Raphael, Michelangelo and Titian, and met Jens Juel, Tobias Sergel, and Henry (Johann Heinrich) Fuseli....

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Jens Peter Munk

(b Copenhagen, Sept 11, 1743; d Frederiksdal, Copenhagen, June 4, 1809).

Danish painter, designer and architect. His paintings reveal both Neo-classical and Romantic interests and include history paintings as well as literary and mythological works. The variety of his subject-matter reflects his wide learning, a feature further evidenced by the broad range of his creative output. In addition to painting, he produced decorative work, sculpture and furniture designs, as well as being engaged as an architect. Successfully combining both intellectual and imaginative powers, he came to be fully appreciated only in the 1980s.

He studied at the Kongelige Danske Kunstakademi in Copenhagen (1764–72), and in 1767 he assisted Johan Edvard Mandelberg (1730–86) in painting the domed hall of the Fredensborg Slot with scenes from the Homeric epic the Iliad. In 1772 he was granted a five-year travelling scholarship from the Kunstakademi to study in Rome. During his Roman sojourn he extensively copied works of art from the period of antiquity up to that of the Carracci family. His friendships with the Danish painter Jens Juel, the Swedish sculptor Johan Tobias Sergel and the Swiss painter Johann Heinrich Fuseli placed him among artists who were in the mainstream of a widespread upheaval in European art. In these years Abildgaard developed both Neo-classical and Romantic tastes; his masterpiece of the period is ...

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German, 18th – 19th century, male.

Active at the end of the 18th and at the beginning of the 19th century.

Born probably in Kempten.

Painter.

He was still working in Ulm in 1812.

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John Ford

[Rudolf]

(b Stollberg, Saxony, April 20, 1764; d Finchley, London, March 30, 1834).

English publisher and patron of German birth. He trained as a carriage designer in Paris and moved to England between 1783 and 1786. He established his own business as a carriage maker, undertaking major commissions in London and Dublin. In 1804 he designed Pius VII’s carriage for the coronation of Napoleon and in 1805 the funeral carriage of Horatio, Viscount Nelson. By 1800 Ackermann had built up a unique business at 101 The Strand, London, known as ‘The Repository of Arts’. This encompassed a drawing school with 80 pupils, the sale and loan of Old Master paintings and watercolour drawings, the publication of decorative prints and illustrated books and the manufacture of watercolour paints including a number of new chemical pigments.

In the early 19th century, Ackermann was an important and regular patron of English watercolour painters, employing William Henry Pyne, Augustus Charles Pugin, Thomas Heaphy, Frederick Mackenzie (1787–1854...

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Italian, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1745, in Forlì; died 1823, in Bologna.

Sculptor.

In his day, Luigi Aquisti was a much-respected artist who worked above all in Rome, Milan and Bologna (reference is made to him as being there as of 1788). While still in Rome, he was responsible for decorating the altar of the S Giuseppe Colasonzio Chapel in the church of S Pantaleone. He also produced reliefs representing scenes from Homer and from Roman history for the staircase of the Braschi Palace. In Bologna, his work includes the decoration of the S Giobbe Oratory and four major statues for the cupola of S Maria della Vita. In ...

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British, 18th – 19th century, male.

Active at the end of the 18th and at the beginning of the 19th century.

Miniaturist.

E. Acres worked in London in 1800, in which year he exhibited 30 miniatures at the Royal Academy.

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British, 18th – 19th century, male.

Active at the end of the 18th and at the beginning of the 19th century.

Painter, engraver. Architectural views.

S. Acton lived in London between 1791 and 1802 and exhibited at the Royal Academy.

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French, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1737, in Valenciennes; died 1820, in Valenciennes.

Sculptor.

Grégoire Adam is not mentioned in artists' records, but Gombert, the architect from Lille who built the Hôtel Merghelynck at Ypres, thought him fit to compete with the best artists of French Flanders in the ornamentation of this supreme expression of 18th-century art. He decorated one of the salons, installing in it medallions of ...

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Swiss, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1766, in Geneva; died 1820, in St Petersburg.

Enameller, miniaturist. Figures.

He worked in Geneva, subsequently in Russia. A miniature by him (a portrait of a man) was sold by René Ch. in 1919 for 520 francs.

Geneva: Adrienne Lecouvreur...

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Swiss, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1768, in Geneva; died 1841, in Geneva.

Miniaturist.

Signed a miniature Portrait of a Woman (1790) with the signature: Adam fils.

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German, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1748, in Vienna; died 1811, in Vienna.

Engraver.

This distinguished engraver established a very considerable reputation, particularly with a series of portraits of well-known Austrians that he carried out in collaboration with his friend Johann Ernst Mansfeld. The best of them is considered to be that of the Empress Marie-Louise. The plates he did in ...