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Jens Peter Munk

(b Copenhagen, Sept 11, 1743; d Frederiksdal, Copenhagen, June 4, 1809).

Danish painter, designer and architect. His paintings reveal both Neo-classical and Romantic interests and include history paintings as well as literary and mythological works. The variety of his subject-matter reflects his wide learning, a feature further evidenced by the broad range of his creative output. In addition to painting, he produced decorative work, sculpture and furniture designs, as well as being engaged as an architect. Successfully combining both intellectual and imaginative powers, he came to be fully appreciated only in the 1980s.

He studied at the Kongelige Danske Kunstakademi in Copenhagen (1764–72), and in 1767 he assisted Johan Edvard Mandelberg (1730–86) in painting the domed hall of the Fredensborg Slot with scenes from the Homeric epic the Iliad. In 1772 he was granted a five-year travelling scholarship from the Kunstakademi to study in Rome. During his Roman sojourn he extensively copied works of art from the period of antiquity up to that of the Carracci family. His friendships with the Danish painter Jens Juel, the Swedish sculptor Johan Tobias Sergel and the Swiss painter Johann Heinrich Fuseli placed him among artists who were in the mainstream of a widespread upheaval in European art. In these years Abildgaard developed both Neo-classical and Romantic tastes; his masterpiece of the period is ...

Article

Juan Nicolau

(b Tarazona, 1741; d Madrid, 1816).

Spanish sculptor. He was trained in Saragossa with José Ramirez. In 1765 he went to Rome, where he won a scholarship from the Spanish Academia de Bellas Artes and was appointed Director of the Accademia di S Luca, Rome. Adán’s early work became known in Spain through the drawings and sculptures he sent from Rome, the finest being a Lamentation. He returned to Spain in 1776 and worked in Lérida, Granada and Jaen, finally settling in Madrid in 1786. In 1793 he was appointed court sculptor (Escultor de Cámara) by Charles IV (reg 1788–1808). He made many carvings in wood, such as a St Joseph and a Virgin of the Sorrows, for churches in Madrid. Other characteristic works are the portrait busts of leading contemporary figures such as Manuel Godoy, the Prince de la Paz, and José Monino, the Conde de Floridablanca. The busts of Charles IV and Queen Maria Luisa...

Article

(b Stockholm, Jan 3, 1716; d Stockholm, Feb 26, 1796).

Swedish architect. His father, Göran Josuae Adelcrantz (1668–1739), was a pupil and associate of Nicodemus Tessin (ii) and had studied in France and Italy before assisting in the building of the Kungliga Slott in Stockholm. He became City Architect of Stockholm and created the splendid Baroque cupola (1724–44) on Jean De la Vallée’s Katarinakyrka, but he had been pushed aside during the political crisis that followed the death of Charles XII in 1718. He advised his son not to become an architect but nevertheless let him attend the drawing school at the palace. After his father’s death, Adelcrantz went abroad for architectural study in Paris and Italy, returning in 1743 to assist Carl Hårleman in the interior work on the Kungliga Slott. In 1757 he became Superintendent and in 1767 President of the Royal Academy of Arts, which he reorganized by instituting schools of drawing and painting, sculpture and architecture. He was made a baron in ...

Article

Oscar P. Fitzgerald

(b Aberdeen, 1740; d Philadelphia, PA, March 5, 1795).

American cabinetmaker of Scottish birth. He trained as a cabinetmaker in Edinburgh and London. In 1763 he arrived in Philadelphia on the same boat as John Penn, the new Governor of Pennsylvania and a future client, to join Quaker friends. He opened a shop on Union Street and eventually moved to Second Street in the Society Hill area. He made stylish mahogany furniture (sold 1788; e.g. Philadelphia, PA, Cliveden Mus.; armchair, Winterthur, DE, Mus. & Gdns) for the governor’s mansion at Lansdowne, PA, and many of the most prominent families in the city owned his work, including the Mifflins, the Whartons, and the Chew family at Cliveden. The parlour suite he made for John Cadwalader carved by James Reynolds and the firm of Bernard and Jugiez in 1770–71 was among the most elaborate ever produced in the colonies (pole screen, Philadelphia, PA, Mus. A.).

A Quaker and Loyalist, Affleck refused to participate in the Revolution (...

Article

Carlos Cid Priego

(b Logroño, Dec 26, 1759; d Madrid, 1842).

Spanish sculptor and ceramicist. He moved to Madrid at an early age and was apprenticed to the French sculptor Robert Michel (i), who was employed at the court. He won first prize in a competition at the Real Academia de Bellas Artes, and organized the royal workshop for the carving of precious stones, where he executed two magnificent cameo portraits of Charles IV and Queen Maria Luisa (c. 1796; Madrid, Pal. Real). He was a leading sculptor in the Buen Retiro porcelain factory, for which he produced a large amount of work. In 1797 he entered the Real Academia de Bellas Artes and was promoted until he was finally appointed Director-general in 1821. He was also appointed Honorary Chamber Sculptor to Charles IV. His successful career made him an influential figure in Spanish art. He was one of the leading exponents of Neo-classical sculpture, producing works that were technically accomplished although stylistically rather cold. He executed a large amount of work between ...

Article

(b Belas, 1769; d Lisbon, 1841).

Portuguese sculptor. He was probably trained by his father, a stone mason employed at the Palacio Nacional de Queluz, near Lisbon. In 1784 João Aguiar went to the drawing school of the Casa Pia do Castelo, Lisbon, and in 1785 to Rome on a scholarship from the Intendência with the support of D. I. de Pina Manique (1735–1805). There he studied drawing with Tomaso Labruzzi, modelling with Giuseppe Angellini (1735–1811) and then moved to the workshop of Antonio Canova. Aguiar’s first recorded works made in Rome were Cippus, Aeneas and Creusa (1792–3; Lisbon, Pal. Belém Gdns) and a portrait medallion of Giovanni Antinori (1792; untraced), Professor of Architecture at the Academia de Portugal in Rome, which is known from an engraving (1792) by João Caetano Rivara (studying in Rome, 1788–99).

In 1794 Pina Manique was engaged on a project to erect a monument to Queen Mary I that would also celebrate the achievements of Portuguese artists who had received scholarships to study in Rome. After finding that Canova and the Genoese Nicolò Stefano Traverso would be too expensive, he turned to Aguiar for the statues and bas-reliefs and to ...

Article

Andrzej Rottermund

(b Puławy, June 1756; d Florence, Feb 8, 1841).

Polish architect and writer, also active in Italy. He probably studied in Rome in the late 1770s and returned to Italy in 1785–6 under the aegis of Stanisław Kostka Potocki, a collector and amateur architect with whom he collaborated throughout his life. In 1786 Aigner and Potocki refronted the church of St Anna, Warsaw, using a giant composite order on high pedestals. The political turmoil of the 1790s disrupted Aigner’s career, but during his second phase of creativity (1797–1816) he won fame through his work on the great estate of the Czartoryski family at Puławy, on the Vistula west of Lublin, the most important centre of cultural life in Poland during the Enlightenment. Aigner had already erected the Marynka Palace there in 1790, a variation on the Petit Trianon at Versailles, France, and from 1798 he began to add ornamental buildings to go with the new Picturesque layout of the Puławy gardens: a Chinese pavilion, a Gothick house and a peripheral Temple of the Sibyl with a shallow dome. In ...

Article

(b Salamanca, 1727; d Madrid, 1797).

Spanish sculptor. He was a member of the first generation of sculptors trained at the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de S Fernando, Madrid. He won a scholarship to Rome, which he was unable to take up for health reasons. His knowledge of Classical sculpture won him the nickname of ‘el Griego’, although the influence of the Rococo is also evident in his work. In the Spanish tradition he carved in wood as much as in stone.

Alvarez de la Peña took part in the programme of decoration for the Palacio Real, Madrid, to which he contributed statues of kings (c. 1750) and a relief, Council of War (c. 1760). In 1762–5 he carved three medallions with scenes from the Life of the Virgin and a series of saints and angels, all for the chapel of the Virgin in the church of Nuestra Señora del Pilar, Saragossa. The elegant Fountain of Apollo (...

Article

José Fernandes Pereira

(b Braga, 1748; d Oporto, 1815).

Portuguese architect and military engineer. He was the most distinguished of the late 18th-century architects of northern Portugal, where he introduced the new spirit of Neo-classicism. He was the son of a musician at the episcopal court at Braga, whose protection and influence were valuable to him. Working in Braga during a period of transition, Amarante ended the architectural tradition inherited from André Ribeiro Soares da Silva, and, although he lacked Soares’s creativity, he made an important contribution to the city. Amarante’s later work in Oporto was in a more developed Neo-classical style and was an integral part of the new face of that city.

Though he trained as a military engineer, his first activity was designing rocaille ornament. His source for the new aesthetic forms may have been Jacques-François Blondel’s Cours d’architecture (Paris, 1773), lent to him by the royal archbishop, Dom Gaspar de Braganza (1716–89). His first contract, won in competition with João Bernardes de Silva, was for a design, submitted in ...

Article

(b Quebec, Qué., Aug 10, 1764; d Quebec, Qué., June 3, 1839).

Canadian metalworker. He studied at the Petit Seminaire du Québec from 1778 to 1780 and began his apprenticeship c. 1780 in the silversmith’s shop of his elder brother, Jean-Nicolas Amiot (1750–1821); the tradition that he was apprenticed to François Ranvoyzé is unfounded. In 1782 he travelled to Paris to complete his training and remained there for five years, supported by his family. He absorbed the Louis XVI style, then popular in France, and after his return to Quebec in 1787 he set up a workshop to introduce this into Canada.

Much of Amiot’s work was for the Church, reworking traditional forms in the Louis XVI style. In a sanctuary lamp of 1788 for the church at Repentigny he elongated the standard shape and decorated it with a balanced arrangement of Neo-classical designs. After 1800 his work became formulaic and less innovative, though there are such notable exceptions as the chalice (...

Article

Rosanna Cioffi

(b Santa Giusta degli Abruzzi, Sept 22, 1760; d Naples, June 22, 1853).

Italian draughtsman and painter. He trained in Rome under Marco Caprinozzi and was a pupil of Domenico Corvi at the Accademia di San Luca. The greatest influence on his work, however, was the style of Jacques-Louis David. Angelini soon distinguished himself as a skilled draughtsman and collaborated with the engravers Giovanni Volpato and Raphael Morghen on Principi del disegno tratti delle più eccellenti statue antiche (Rome, 1786), a work that was of fundamental importance in disseminating the Neo-classical style, particularly through the teaching of the academies. About 1790 Angelini travelled to Naples at the request of William Hamilton (i), the British Consul, in order to draw the antique vases in his collection (published Naples, 1791–5). His work was admired by several other collectors in Naples and in 1799 he was commissioned to draw the antique vases of the Marchese Vivenzio (published c. 1900).

With the introduction of French Neo-classicism in Naples, Angelini became the artist best able to respond to the demands of the new taste. In ...

Article

(b Nivelles, Sept 14, 1730; d ?Brussels, end 1771).

South Netherlandish sculptor. He served his apprenticeship at Nivelles with Laurent Delvaux, with whom he collaborated on a series of statues of Apostles in oak for the collegiate church of Ste Gertrude. Between c. 1757 and c. 1761 he made a monumental stone group of Neptune with Aeolus and Amphitrite, commissioned by Claude Lamoral II, Prince of Ligne (1685–1766), for the ornamental lake of the château of Beloeil, Hainaut. In 1761 Anrion was given the title of Court Sculptor by Charles of Lorraine (1712–80), the Austrian Governor of the Netherlands. From 1766 he worked under the direction of the architect Laurent-Benoît Dewez on the decoration of Charles’s new palace in Brussels. Anrion’s most important contribution to the work was 12 low reliefs of the Labours of Hercules (gilt-bronze; untraced) for the main staircase. During the same period he executed sculptures for the high altar of the Benedictine abbey church of Afflighem in Brabant, which was being renovated by Dewez. These included marble statues of ...

Article

Rand Carter

(b Paris, Aug 6, 1733; d Paris, Aug 24, 1801).

French architect. He was the son of a joiner and trained as a builder, becoming a mason and, by the age of 20, a building contractor. He received no formal education and did not undertake the conventional study tour abroad, preferring to pursue theoretical studies on his own, although he did eventually visit Italy in 1777–8. After competing unsuccessfully for the commission for the Halle au Blé (corn exchange) in Paris, which was built (1763–9) by Nicolas Le Camus de Mézières, in 1766 Antoine was appointed architect of the Hôtel des Monnaies (mint), Paris, for which his early rival Etienne-Louis Boullée also submitted designs. His reputation rests almost exclusively on this single prominently sited building

When Anges-Jacques Gabriel’s Place Louis XV (later Place de la Concorde) was begun in 1755 at the western edge of Paris, it was proposed that a new mint be built around two courtyards behind the Hôtel de Coislin (later Hôtel de Crillon). After his appointment as architect of the mint, Antoine must have worked closely with ...

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Claire Baines

In 

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Lucio Franchini

(b Castel Bolognese, Ravenna, 1756; d Bologna, March 11, 1841).

Italian architect, engineer and theorist. He graduated from the University of Bologna in engineering and architecture. From 1775 to 1796 he was in Rome, where his design for the new sacristy of St Peter’s (1775) was admired by Pius VI, although the commission was awarded to Carlo Marchionni. Antolini took part in the scheme to drain the Pontine Marshes (1776–7), but caught malaria and resigned his appointment. Devoting himself to the study and practice of architecture, he became involved in the artistic controversies of the day, including the debate on the use of the Doric order (see Piranesi, Giovanni Battista) and the changing attitudes towards the restoration of ancient monuments, his own position becoming progressively more conservative. He published his first important archaeological work on the Temple of Hercules at Cori in 1785 and began his studies on the Temple of Minerva at Assisi. During this period he also produced schemes for palaces, chapels and other buildings for noble foreign clients, including a design for the façade of the palace and court chapel of the Duke of Courland at Mitau (now Jelgava, Latvia). During the French intervention in Italy (...

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Jesús Gutiérrez Burón

(b Alicante, 1770; d Madrid, 1838).

Spanish painter. He studied at the Real Academia de S Fernando in Madrid (1792–8) and then completed his training as a pensionnaire in Paris with David (until 1807) and in Rome until 1815. Though having didactic and moralizing pretensions, his paintings are, in fact, rhetorical, theatrical and sycophantic, factors that explain his constant success in official circles. His works include his scholarship submission, Godoy Presenting Peace to Charles IV (1796; Madrid, Real Acad. S Fernando); his triumph in the Paris Salon of 1804, Athaliah and Jonah; and his presentation piece to the Accademia di S Luca in Rome, Ransom of Prisoners in the Reign of Charles III (1815). His appointment in 1815 as Pintor de Cámara was marked by his painting of the Glories of Spain. He also achieved popular recognition through such patriotic and nationalistic works as Famine of Madrid (1818; Madrid, Mus. Mun.). His carefully drawn compositions were well suited to engraved reproductions, and this led to their wider circulation. ...

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Fernando Mazzocca

(b Milan, May 31, 1754; d Milan, Nov 8, 1817).

Italian painter and designer. He had been intended to follow his father’s career in medicine but instead entered the private academy of the painter Carlo Maria Giudici (1723–1804). He received instruction in drawing, copying mainly from sculpture and prints. He studied Raphael through the engravings of Marcantonio Raimondi, as well as the work of Giulio, Anton Raphael Mengs and, again from prints, the compositions in Trajan’s Column. He then joined the class of the fresco painter Antonio de’ Giorgi (1720–93), which was held at the Ambrosiana picture gallery in Milan, where he was able to study Raphael’s art directly from the cartoon of the School of Athens and the work of Leonardo’s followers, particularly Bernardino Luini. He also frequented the studio of Martin Knoller, where he deepened his knowledge of painting in oils; and he studied anatomy at the Ospedale Maggiore in Milan with the sculptor ...

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J. J. Martín González

Spanish palace that stands beside the rivers Tagus and Jarama in the province of Madrid, 47 km south of the capital. It was intended as a spring and summer residence for the royal family and is renowned for its gardens and fountains. The summer residence built at Aranjuez in 1387 by Lorenzo Suárez de Figueroa, Grand Master of the Order of Santiago, became royal property under Ferdinand II, King of Aragon, and Isabella, Queen of Castile and León. In the reign of Charles V improvements were carried out by Luis de Vega (from c. 1537) and the palace was extensively enlarged by Philip II. The chapel was designed by Juan Bautista de Toledo and completed by Jerónimo Gili and Juan de Herrera. It was built in a combination of white stone from Colmenar de Oreja and brick, giving a two-toned effect that was adopted for the rest of the palace. In ...

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Andreas Kreul

(b Hamburg, Oct 2, 1757; d Pisa, Aug 18, 1806).

German architect, draughtsman, landscape designer and painter. He studied from 1778 to 1783 at the University of Göttingen and the Royal Danish Academy in Copenhagen, where he was awarded four prizes. His early designs included drawings for the hothouse of the botanic gardens in Copenhagen and a lecture room at Schloss Charlottenburg, Berlin. While visiting Paris in 1784–5 he devoted himself to the study of Revolutionary architecture, and in England and Italy (1786) he studied landscape design and ancient sites. In Rome in 1787 he met Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, who later summoned him to Weimar to rebuild the prince’s Schloss. In addition to a number of designs for the palace at Weimar he produced drawings for various summer-houses. In 1790 he moved to Hamburg, his plans for the Schloss at Weimar still largely unexecuted. By the end of his life he had designed numerous public buildings and private houses in Hamburg, including the house for Bürgermeister ...