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Article

Egyptian, 20th century, female.

Born 1937, in Cairo.

Painter. Landscapes, architectural views.

Sawsan Amer received her diploma from the institute of fine art in Cairo in 1958 and works as a painter at the city's agricultural museum. Her painting is highly 'decorative-illustrative'. She often bases her work on features of traditional Islamic architecture, such as domes and minarets, with which she reconstructs views of imaginary towns, as in her work ...

Article

Bazaar  

Mohammad Gharipour

Bazaar, which is rooted in Middle Persian wāzār and Armenian vačaṟ, has acquired three different meanings: the market as a whole, a market day, and the marketplace. The bazaar as a place is an assemblage of workshops and stores where various goods and services are offered.

Primitive forms of shops and trade centres existed in early civilizations in the Near East, such as Sialk, Tepe in Kashan, Çatal Hüyük, Jerico, and Susa. After the 4th millennium BC, the population grew and villages gradually joined together to shape new cities, resulting in trade even with the remote areas as well as the acceleration of the population in towns. The advancement of trade and accumulation of wealth necessitated the creation of trade centres. Trade, and consequently marketplaces, worked as the main driving force in connecting separate civilizations, while fostering a division of labour, the diffusion of technological innovations, methods of intercultural communication, political and economic management, and techniques of farming and industrial production....

Article

Hasan-Uddin Khan

(b Sousse, Tunisia, Dec 21, 1940).

French architect, active in Morocco. He studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, concentrating his studies on urban development and craft traditions. In 1968 he received his diploma and became a registered architect. He left France in 1969 and travelled in several countries, working in Casablanca before settling in Marrakesh in 1971, where he established his own practice. This remained a small one, allowing him as designer to retain control of every detail of his work. In both layout and design, Boccara’s architecture is rooted in the traditions of Islamic architecture in Morocco (see Islamic art, §II, 7(v)), which is characterized by refined decoration. His built works are not numerous but have been influential in developing a vocabulary for Moroccan architecture. They vary from the small Abtan House (1984), located in a palm grove outside Marrakesh, to the large, incomplete Opera House there (begun 1984...

Article

Mark Dike DeLancey

[Jenne] [Friday Mosque]

Malian mosque that was built in 1906–7 in the Sudanese style under the direction of master mason Ismaïla Traoré. Local historical traditions state that a mosque was first built on this site in the 12th century, replacing the palace of Djenné’s ruler Koi Konboro after he converted to Islam. By the turn of the 20th century the mosque was in ruins.

The mosque’s heavy earthen walls (see fig.) are inset with wooden timbers that act as scaffolding for replastering, while numerous pilasters create a sense of verticality. The horizontal emphasis of the eastern qibla wall is broken by three huge towers, creating a rhythmic alternation of reserved horizontal wall surfaces and projecting vertical towers. Towers in the centre of the north and south walls provide rooftop access for the call to prayer via internal staircases. A monumental entrance on the north side is composed of three projecting pillars enclosing two deep recesses. Seven projections at the top of the portal echo the tops of the pilasters extending beyond the roofline of the mosque walls....

Article

Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom

(b. Tripoli, Libya, 1945).

Libyan painter. He returned to Libya in 1970 after graduating from the Plymouth School of Architecture and Design in England. In 1974 he was appointed consultant to the Festival of Islam in London, and in 1981 he settled in England. He typically uses individual letter forms based on the maghribī style of script typical of North Africa, setting one or two large letters against a richly textured abstract ground with accompanying excerpts from Arabic and world literature that address social and moral issues. His works have been exhibited in more than 60 solo and group exhibitions and can be found in many major museums. Chairman of Muslim Cultural Heritage Center in London, he has also been involved with several other cultural and intellectual institutions there.

A. O. Ermes: Ali Omar Ermes: Art and Ideas: Works on Paper (exh. cat., Oxford, Ashmolean, 1992)A. O. Ermeswith S. Rizvi: Reaching Out: Conversations on Islamic Art with Ali Omar Ermes...

Article

Hasan-Uddin Khan and Jonathan M. Bloom

revised by Sheila S. Blair

(b Alexandria, March 23, 1900; d Cairo, Nov 30, 1989).

Egyptian architect, teacher and writer. He graduated in architecture (1926) from the High School of Engineering, University of King Fuad I (now University of Cairo), and then worked at the Department of Municipal Affairs, Cairo (1926–30). He subsequently began to teach at the Faculty of Fine Arts at the university (1930–46 and 1953–7) while working independently as an architect. Fathy’s work can be considered in five main phases (see Steele, 1988). His early projects (1928–37) reveal his interest in the classical Beaux-Arts tradition, Art Deco and other trends fashionable in Europe at the time. In his second phase (1938–56) he developed the interest in indigenous building that made him internationally known. Starting with villas, the use of mud-brick and a preoccupation with the rural poor, Fathy evolved a new aesthetic that irrevocably linked him to local vernacular building traditions. This new direction was expressed in a series of beautiful gouaches and coloured pencil drawings (see Richards, Serageldin and Rastorfer, pls 1–8) exhibited in Mansoura and Cairo in ...

Article

Walter Smith

(b Oran, Algeria, Sept 15, 1929).

French architect and teacher. She moved to France in 1947 and after study at the Sorbonne and the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, she opened her own practice at Ivry-sur-Seine, near Paris. During the 1970s and early 1980s she was involved primarily with social housing, most of her projects being located in densely populated urban centres. She advocated bringing nature into urban housing, through the use of garden-balconies and courtyards. Many of her projects have been extremely large in scale, such as the social housing and community development (1968–87; with Jean Renaudie) at Ivry-sur-Seine, comprising 800 flats and maisonettes, together with shops, nursery, medical centre and library. Between 1975 and 1986 she designed 180 balcony flats at Saint-Denis, which betray formal ties to Le Corbusier; a severe, planar geometry is relieved only by the outwardly jutting triangular balconies and cylindrical columns raising the flats above a lower level of shops. Gailhoustet later moved away from urban social housing, frustrated with the restrictions of zoning rules and other regulations. In the late 1980s and after she was involved in housing projects outside France. One of the most ambitious is a housing development (...

Article

Isabelle Gournay

(b Oran, Algeria, Jan 24, 1942).

French writer, teacher and architect. He graduated in architecture (1967) from the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, where he was introduced to urban design practice and theory by Eugène Beaudouin. At the same time, he attended Roland Barthes’s courses in linguistics at the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes. During the 1970s Grumbach, who was influenced by the historian Joseph Ryckwert (b 1926), devoted most of his time to theory and criticism. He published extensively in specialized reviews in France, exhibited and sold his drawings and taught at the Unité Pédagogique d’Architecture 6 in Paris, the University of Toronto and Princeton University, NJ; he also lectured throughout the world. From his typological studies of the traditional urban fabric in Paris and his participation in Rome in the international exhibition Roma Interrota (1977), he became convinced that the integration of new architectural projects within the existing urban fabric was an essential prerequisite for high-quality urban design, and he adopted a polemical and theoretical approach to architectural competitions he entered at the time, such as those for the systematization of the Place Napoléon (...

Article

Allan M. Craven

(b Liverpool, March 3, 1942).

English architect. Having studied at the University of Manchester School of Architecture (1961–7), he worked briefly in Montreal, in connection with Expo ’67, and in Tripoli, where he was a housing architect for the Libyan government. From 1968 to 1971 he was an assistant to Arne Jacobsen in Copenhagen, for whom he worked on the design of the Kuwait Central Bank (built 1973–6), Kuwait City. His doctoral dissertation (1979) has Jacobsen’s work as its subject-matter. In 1972 he formed the practice of Rod Hackney & Associates at Macclesfield, Ches, and soon became known for the refurbishment of several brick-built terrace houses (1972–5) around Black Road in the town. Although intended for demolition, the houses were saved and then improved and altered in accordance with the wishes of the inhabitants. The significant contribution of the residents in determining what alterations were made and assisting in the execution of the work meant that the scheme was subsequently seen as one of the pioneering examples of ...

Article

Naomi Stungo

(b Marseille, March 27, 1906; d 1988).

French architect, active in Morocco and Tunisia. He grew up in Morocco and then trained at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris (1928–33), working in the studio of Emmanuel Pontrémoli. From an early stage he was interested in regional styles, and he claimed to have learnt most about architecture from studying the convents on Mt Athos, Greece, which he visited in 1930. He returned to Morocco in 1933, and over the next decade he designed many religious and academic buildings, notably the Saffarin madrasa (c. 1935), Fez, an Islamic college, and the university (1935) at Qarawiyyin, Fez; in this work he was deeply influenced by the style and construction methods of traditional Islamic architecture of the region. His synthesis of European modernism and North African tradition is particularly evident in his Tunisian work. He was invited by Bernard Zehrfuss to join the team working on the reconstruction of Tunisia in ...

Article

Tunisian, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active in France.

Born 1955, in Tunis.

Painter. Figures, landscapes, architectural views, still-lifes.

Marc Perez is the grandson of Moses Levy and nephew of Nello Levy. He lives and works in Paris. Perez captures the mark of time on the city, its walls, and its architecture, working in blurry flat washes in medium tints (beige, grey, pale pink, sky blue) dappled with dark and light. Objects are typically presented in his still-lifes as simplified volumes (cylinders), a style reminiscent of that of the Italian artist Morandi. After working on architectural themes and still-lifes, he turned the same technique and muted range of colours to figures and faces....

Article

Hasan-Uddin Khan

(b Limoges, July 29, 1919).

French architect and urban planner, active in North Africa. His architectural studies were interrupted by the German Occupation in 1940 when he spent four years in captivity in Germany. He continued his studies at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris as a student of Auguste Perret and received his diploma in 1953. Between 1950 and 1953 he worked with a number of different architects and then, after a major earthquake in Greece in 1953, he was sent by the French Foreign Ministry to work on the rehabilitation of two villages on the island of Kefallinia. From Greece he went to Algeria where he stayed until 1976 and produced his best work. In the 1970s he was involved with the urban plans for the city of Orléansville, and he also worked on a number of architectural projects in collaboration with a local architect. In 1962 Ravéreau was appointed Director of Planning for the valley of the M’Zab in the Sahara desert. It was during this period that he became interested in Islamic culture, which is expressed in his buildings. They also express a fine understanding of local traditions of building in earth and stone. Examples of his work include the Post Office at Ghardaia (...

Article

Isabelle Gournay

(b Menknès, Morocco, March 23, 1937).

French architect. He studied architecture at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, and was involved in the review Architecture, Mouvement, Continuité with Philippe Boudon (b 1941) between 1967 and 1969. Also with Boudon and Bernard Hamburger, in 1969 he founded the Atelier de Recherche et d’Etude d’Aménagement in Paris and subsequently became its director. His practice focused on housing and small public buildings; examples include the housing development Les Glycines (1977–80), Evry, and the multi-purpose gymnasium Les Régales (1978–82), Savigny-le-Temple. Like other French architects of his generation, he was interested in restoring the traditional hierarchies between private and public spaces that he felt the Modern Movement had lost. He also attempted to re-create fantasy in the drab environment of new towns and suburban communities with a collage of picturesque images that resulted in a diverse assembly of vernacular motives, ordinary building materials such as cinder blocks and high-tech, slender steel staircase handrails and awning frames. He carried out other housing schemes in Nancy and Villeneuve d’Ascq and coordinated the Manin-Jaurés ZAC (Concerted Development Zone; ...

Article

Isabelle Gournay

(b Guyotville, Algeria, Aug 31, 1927; d 1996).

French architect. He studied architecture in Paris and then returned to Algeria where he opened an office in 1952. His first major work, the emergency cité de transit Djenan el-Hassan (1956–8), reflected his concern with the eradication of slum housing; its cellular construction, with individual vaulted roofs, echoed local architectural forms. In 1958 he was appointed to plan the new city of Thamugadi, which borders the famous Roman ruins. After the War of Independence Simounet moved to Paris (1963), but many of his works continued to address the problems of design for warm climates through the suitable expression of materials, massing and openings; examples include the student housing (1962–70) for the University of Tananarive, Madagascar, and a series of holiday homes in Corsica. Simounet became one of the most prolific museum builders in France in the 1970s and 1980s. His new buildings for the ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b Trendelburg, May 12, 1920).

German glass painter. After military service and imprisonment by the British in Egypt, he trained in Stuttgart as a glass painter and mosaicist. Thereafter he specialized in architectural stained glass. His glass, which is usually figurative and narratorial, has been installed in more than 100 churches around the world and in secular buildings (e.g. the library extension of Pembroke College, Cambridge, ...

Article

Mark Dike DeLancey

Term used to refer to architecture from the western Sudan, generally understood as encompassing Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, and northern regions of Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Togo, and Benin. The term ‘Sudanic’ is derived from the Arabic phrase ‘Bilad al-Sudan’, or ‘Land of the Blacks’, used historically to denote sub-Saharan Africa. References to Sudanic architecture were first employed in the late 19th century, particularly by French colonial administrators and adventurers, to refer to the architecture of French West Africa. These commentators frequently likened the architecture of the region to that of Egypt, thereby endowing the French colony with a degree of prestige, particularly in the wake of waves of Egyptomania that washed across Europe in the 19th century.

Perhaps more controversial are the much more common references to the Sudanese style of architecture. While focused primarily in the regions referenced above, this interpretation may also incorporate works from surrounding regions such as Guinea, Senegal, and Nigeria. What exactly constitutes the Sudanese style has been the subject of extensive debate. The ...

Article

Hasan-Uddin Khan

(b Cairo, Aug 7, 1943).

Egyptian architect. He graduated from Ain-Shams University in Cairo in 1965. Between 1965 and 1970 he lectured at the university whilst studying and working with his mentor Hassan Fathy, the well-known proponent of indigenous architecture. In 1971 he went into private practice, eventually establishing offices in Cairo, Jiddah and Ashford, Kent. From 1993 he was based in Miami, Florida. He acted as an adviser to the Ministry of Tourism in Egypt (1972) and as consultant to UNESCO (1979–80). In 1980 he won the Aga Khan Award for Architecture for the Halawa house in Agamy, Egypt, completed in 1975. The two-storey house was built around a courtyard, and the articulation of space was handled with great sensitivity and simplicity. Openings in the white walls filter light to the interior through carved wooden screens (Arab. mashrabiyyas), and much of the courtyard remains in shadow, staying cool during the heat of the day. From this small vacation house El-Wakil went on to design larger houses such as the spectacular Al Sulaiman Palace in Jiddah, which uses the same principles but on a more lavish and larger scale. For a short time the architect toyed with other expressions of form but quickly returned to his exploration of tradition. El-Wakil’s most convincing designs have been those for mosques (for illustration ...

Article

Isabelle Gournay

( Louis )

(b Angers, Oct 20, 1911; d 1996).

French architect . He studied architecture at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris (1928–39), winning the Premier Grand Prix de Rome in 1939. In 1942 he went to Tunisia as a volunteer in the Free French Army. From 1943 to 1948 he practised there as Chief Government Architect, directing a team involved in modernization; they designed housing projects, markets and schools, which were notable for their respect of local traditions. Although he returned to private practice in Paris (1948), he still received large public commissions from the Tunisian government (for example buildings for the University of Tunis, 1960–64). In Paris he was instrumental in the implementation of the Camus process, a prefabrication method that he used in the housing complex at the Pont de Sèvres, Boulogne-Billancourt (1949–52). The Renault industrial complex, Flins (1950–55), is in a straightforward International style, although its façades are enlivened by a polychrome composition by the painter ...