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date: 28 October 2020

Ruscha, Ed born Edward Joseph Ruschafree

Updated in this version

updated and revised

American, 20th–21st century, male.

Born 16 December 1937, in Omaha (Nebraska).

Painter, engraver, film producer, photographer. Artists’ books.

Conceptual Art.

RUSCHA, Edward Joseph, called Ed: signature or monogram (Copyright www.ArtistsSignatures.com)

RUSCHA, Edward Joseph, called Ed: signature or monogram (Copyright www.ArtistsSignatures.com)

Ed Ruscha was born in Nebraska and his family later settled in Oklahoma City in 1942. Ruscha trained as a commercial artist at the Chouinard Art Institute (currently known as the California Institute of the Arts) from 1956 to 1960. He then settled in Los Angeles and started working at Carson-Roberts Advertising Agency as a layout artist.

Ruscha started painting in the mid-1950s in a style close to Abstract Expressionism. As his practice evolved, he became associated with the Pop Art movement and was later defined as a Conceptual Artist. Ruscha was greatly influenced by Jasper Johns, Kurt Schwitters, and Marcel Duchamp. Consequently, his work draws heavily on graphics, typography, and cinematography. In addition to his typographical paintings, Ruscha paints and photographs scenes from the American West, Hollywood, suburbia, and the highways and gas stations that accompany them.

In 1961, Ruscha spent a summer in Europe, including two months in Paris. While in Europe, he produced several small oil paintings on paper that focused on names (Annie, 1965), emblems, street signs (Métropolitain, 1961, and Boulangerie, 1961), and pictograms. From then on, his drawings, paintings, and engravings fell into two categories: object-images and word-images. Ruscha’s word-images would later be explored in his ‘wet words’ series, where he’d use the trompe l’oeil technique to paint seemingly meaningless words in impressive clarity and translucency.

Arguably Ruscha’s fascination with the interplay of image and text was first triggered when he road-tripped from Oklahoma City to Los Angeles in 1956. There he noticed the extraordinary standardisation of buildings, such as petrol stations and restaurants, and their logos. In solid, flat colour and a crisp aesthetic, Ruscha has reworked the ‘commonplace’ scenes that he saw along the highway, pairing them with divisive text or signage to produce ironic and at times sinister imagery. This stylistic formula is evident in works like Stardust (1966), Murder (1974), and Here (1983).

Ruscha also published several photography books. The first, Twenty-Six Gasoline Stations, was published in 1962 and set the tone for his later publications, which would be photographic collections of everyday things. Many of the books, such as Some Los Angeles Apartments (1965), Every Building on the Sunset Strip (1966), Thirty-Four Parking Lots in Los Angeles (1967), A Few Palm Trees (1971), and Hard Light (1978), share similarities with work by other conceptual artists, most notably that of Douglas Huebler.

From 1969, bored with the traditional materials used in paintings and drawings, Ruscha began to experiment with a variety of organic materials, some edible – such as chocolate, caviar, egg yolk, and tea – and some inedible – such as gunpowder and blood. In 1970, Ruscha made his first film, Premium, and from 1982 to 1983, the San Francisco MoMA organised a major travelling retrospective of Ruscha’s work. Throughout this period, Ruscha worked on a number of commissioned projects, including his 1985 mural for the Miami Dade Public Library entitled Words Without Thoughts Never to Heaven Go.

During the 1980s, Ruscha’s work became more nuanced. He worked on a series of drawings that incorporated dried vegetable pigments to a subtle motif, like 99% DEVIL, 1% ANGEL (1983). By the 1990s, Ruscha was creating larger paintings of light projected into empty rooms, some with ironic titles such as An Exhibition of Gasoline Powered Engines (1993). Later painting series, like the Psycho Spaghetti Western series in 2010, were void of text and instead focused on meticulously painted detritus in surreal dystopian landscapes. Ruscha’s more recent work, such as Inner-City Make Scream (2014), began to isolate and pair these images of detritus and roadside debris with emotionally loaded texts; and his 2015 series shifted again towards the pairing of serene landscapes with seemingly conflicting phrases, as evidenced in Sponge Puddle (2015).

Group Exhibitions

1962, New Painting of Common Objects, Pasadena Art Museum

1966, Los Angeles Now, Fraser Gallery, London

1967, 1972, Paris Biennale

1972, São Paulo Biennale

1972, Documenta V, Kassel, Germany

2001, Family Spirit (L’Esprit de famille), Villa du Parc, Annemasse, France

2002, The 1970s: Art in Question (Les Années 70: l’art en cause), CAPC Musée d’Art Contemporain, Bordeaux

2002, Without Common Measure: Image and Text in Contemporary Art (Sans commune mesure. Image et texte dans l’art actuel), Musée d’Art Moderne, Lille Métropole, Villeneuve d’Ascq, France

2003, It Happened Tomorrow (C’est arrivé demain), Lyons Biennale

2004, 100 Artists See God, Contemporary Jewish Museum, San Francisco (travelling exhibition)

2005, Venice Biennale

2006, Los Angeles 1955–1985, Birth of an Art Capital (Los Angeles 1955–1985, Naissance d’une Capitale Artistique), Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris

2007, L’Horizon Chimerique, Ed Ruscha et Jean-Marc Bustamante, Musée d’Art Moderne et Contemporain, Strasbourg

2008, Colour Chart: Reinventing Colour, 1950 to Today, Museum of Modern Art, New York (a travelling exhibition addressing the impact of mass-produced colour)

2009, Inside/Out: 20th Anniversary Exhibition, Armory for the Arts, Pasadena

2010, R S T W, Manarat Al Saadiyat, Abu Dhabi

2010, Crash: Homage to JG Ballard, Gagosian Gallery, Britannia Street, London

2010, Summer Exhibition 2010, Royal Academy of Arts, London

2010, Beauty is Diamond, Laleh June Galerie, Basel

2010, Meet Me Inside, Gagosian Gallery, Beverly Hills

2011, Noli Me Tangere, Vanmoerkerke Collection, Oostende

2012, The Ancients Stole All Our Great Ideas, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna

2012, Rarely Seen Contemporary Works on Paper, Art Institute of Chicago

2012, Writing is a Journey, Louis Vuitton, Paris

2012, Regarding Warhol: Sixty Artists, Fifty Years, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

2013, Station to Station, Train, Winslow

2013, Some Dreamers of the Golden Gream, Greene Naftali, New York

2014, The City Lost and Found: Capturing New York, Chicago, and Los Angeles, 1960–1980, Art Institute of Chicago

2014, Literary Devices, Fisher Landau Center for Art, Long Island City

2014, American Scene Photography: Martin Z. Marguiles Collection, NSU Museum of Art, Fort Lauderdale

2015, Double Standard: Ed Ruscha and Mason Williams, 1956–1971, Alden Projects, New York

2015, The Mini Show, The Lodge, Los Angeles

2015, La Vie Moderne, Lyons Biennale

2015, Ce fabuleux monde modern, Musée d'Art Contemporain, Lyons

2016, Desire, Moore Building, Miami

2016, I still believe in miracles, Inverleith House, Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh

2016, Aspects of Minimalism, Guild Hall, East Hampton

Solo Exhibitions

1963, Ferus Gallery, Los Angeles

1972, Minneapolis Institute of Arts

1976, Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford, CT; Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, NY

1978, Graphic Works by Edward Ruscha, Auckland City Art Gallery

1982, I Dont Want No Retro Spective: The Works of Edward Ruscha, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art (travelling retrospective)

1989, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris; Museum Boymans van Beunigen, Rotterdam; Fundacio Caixa de Pensions, Barcelona; Serpentine Gallery, London; Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles (retrospective)

1990, Ed Ruscha Prints, Richard Green Gallery, Santa Monica

1990, Galerie Trisorio, Napoli

1990, Thomas Segal Gallery, Boston

1990, Barbara Krakow Gallery, Boston

1990, Ed Ruscha/Prints from the 1960s & 1970s, Judith Goldberg Gallery, New York

1990, Galerie Ghislaine Hussenot, Paris

1990, Edward Ruscha/Obra Sobre Paper, Galeria Joan Prats, Barcelona

1990, Edward Ruscha/Obra Gravada, Galeria Joan Prats, Barcelona

1990, Centre Cultural de la Fundació la Caixa, Barcelona

1992, Edward Ruscha: Stains, Robert Miller Gallery, New York

1992, Edward Ruscha: New Paintings & Drawings, Galerie Thaddaeus Ropac, Salzburg

1992, Edward Ruscha and Dennis Hopper/New Works, Tony Shafrazi Gallery, New York

1992, Edward Ruscha/Cameo Cuts, Edition Julie Sylvester, New York

1993, Edward Ruscha: Romance with Liquids, Gagosian Gallery, New York

1993, Edward Ruscha: Standard Stations, Amarillo Art Center, TX

1993, Edward Ruscha: New Work, Space Gallery, Casino Knokke, Brussels

1994, Clockworks, Laura Carpenter Fine Art, Santa Fe

1995, New Editions, Remba Gallery, Los Angeles

1995, Anamorphic Paintings, Leo Castelli Gallery, New York

1995, Recent Drawings and Prints, Offshore Gallery, East Hampton

1995, Sayings, Leo Castelli Gallery, New York

1995, The End, Close Range Gallery, Denver Art Museum

1996, Kantor Gallery, Los Angeles

1996, VOWELS: Paintings on Book Covers, Gagosian Gallery, Beverly Hills

1997, Spaghetti Westerns, Milwaukee Art Museum

1997, Edward Ruscha: Cityscapes/O Books, Leo Castelli, New York

1998, J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles (retrospective of works on paper)

1999, Edward Ruscha – The Complete Editions 1959–1999, Walker Art Center, Minneapolis

2000, Sprengel Museum, Hanover

2001, Museum of Modern Art, Oxford (retrospective)

2002, Edward Ruscha. Made in Los Angeles, Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofia, Madrid

2004, Cotton Puffs, Q-tips®, Smoke, and Mirrors: The Drawings of Ed Ruscha, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York; Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles; National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC (drawing retrospective)

2004, Museum of Contemporary Art, Sydney; Museo Nazionale delle Arti del XXI Secolo, Rome; Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art, Edinburgh

2005, Ed Ruscha: Books, Bernier/Eliades, Athens

2005, Ed Ruscha: THEN & NOW, Gagosian Gallery, Beverly Hills

2005, Ed Ruscha: New Drawings, Gagosian Gallery, Rome

2005, Ruscha: Pools, Parking Lots, Gas Stations, Yancey Richardson Gallery, New York

2005, Ed Ruscha: Selected Works, Edward Tyler Nahem, New York

2005, Ed Ruscha: Course of Empire, US Pavilion, 51st Venice Biennale

2005, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York

2005, Ed Ruscha: Paintings and Works on Paper from 1964–2002, Fisher Landau Center for Art, Long Island City

2006, Edward Ruscha: Photographer, Jeu de Paume, Paris; Kunsthaus, Zurich; Museum Ludwig, Cologne (organised by the Whitney Museum of American Art, New York)

2006, Ooo: Early Prints by Ed Ruscha, Norton Simon Museum, Los Angeles

2006, Ed Ruscha: Signs+Streets+Streets+Signs, Crown Point Press, San Francisco

2006, Ed Ruscha: La mirada distanciada, Museo Tamayo Arte Contemporáneo, Mexico City

2006, Ed Ruscha: Drawings, Gagosian Gallery, New York

2006, Ed Ruscha: Insect Portfolio (1972), Griffin Contemporary, Los Angeles

2006, Ed Ruscha, Photographer, Jeu de Paume, Paris (travelled to Kunsthaus Zurich; Museum Ludwig, Cologne)

2007, Ed Ruscha: Busted Glass, Gagosian Gallery, London

2008, Ed Ruscha: Industrial Strength, Fabric Workshop and Museum, Philadelphia

2008, Ed Ruscha, Works on Paper, David et Marcel Fleiss, Paris

2008, Ed Ruscha: Paintings, Gagosian Gallery, London

2009, Galerie Beyeler, Basel

2009, Ed Ruscha: 50 Years of Painting, Hayward Gallery, London

2010, Drawings from 1961 to 1975, Sprüth Magers, Berlin

2010, Wetterling Gallery, Stockholm

2011, Ed Ruscha: On the Road, Hammer Museum, Los Angeles

2011, Ed Ruscha: Psycho Spaghetti Westerns, Gagosian Gallery, Beverly Hills

2011, Ed Ruscha: Road Tested, Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth

2012, Ed Ruscha: Standard, Los Angeles County Museum of Art

2012, ARTIST ROOMS on Tour: Ed Ruscha, Tate, London

2012, Reading Ed Ruscha, Gagosian Gallery, New York

2013, In Focus: Ed Ruscha, The Getty Museum, Los Angeles

2013, Ed Ruscha Books & Co., Gagosian Gallery, New York

2013, Ed Ruscha: Books and Paintings, Brandhorst Museum, Munich

2013, Ed Ruscha: Los Angeles Apartments, Kunstmuseum, Basel

2014, The Letter kills, but Spirit gives life!, Galerie Gradiva, Paris

2014, Ed Ruscha: Paintings, Gagosian Gallery, Rome

2014, Ed Ruscha: Prints and Photographs, Gagosian Gallery, New York

2015, Ed Ruscha: Prints and Photographs, Gagosian Gallery, Paris

2015, Ed Ruscha: Mixmaster, Pinacoteca Giovanni e Marella Agnelli, Turin

2016, Ed Ruscha: Extremes and In-Betweens, Gagosian Gallery, London

2016, Ed Ruscha: Books & Co., Gagosian Gallery, Beverly Hills

2016, Ed Ruscha; Mountain Prints, Gagosian Gallery, Geneva

2016, Ed Ruscha: Ribbon Words, Edward Tyler Nahem Fine Art, New York

2016, Ed Ruscha and the Great American West, MH de Young Museum, San Francisco

2018, Ed Ruscha: Archaeology and Romance, Harry Ransom Center, University of Texas, Austin

2018, Ed Ruscha: Course of Empire, National Gallery, London

2019, Ed Ruscha: Artist Rooms, Tate Modern, London

2020, Ed Ruscha: Drum Skins, Blanton Museum of Art, Austin

Museum and Gallery Holdings

Cologne (Mus. Ludwig): A Blvd. Called Sunset (1975, blackcurrant juice on moiré)

Eindhoven (Van Abbe Mus.): Pure Ecstasy (1974)

Geneva (Mamco)

Hanover, NH (Hood MA, Dartmouth College): Standard Station Amarillo Texas (1963)

Lyons (MAC): The Back of Hollywood (1977, oil on canvas)

Marseilles (Mus. Cantini): Here (1983)

New York (Whitney Mus. of American Art): Large Trademark with Eight Spotlights (1962, oil on canvas)

Paris (MNAM-Centre de Création Industrielle): Industrial Strength Sleep (1980, acrylic and varnish on canvas)

Puteaux (FNAC): Thirty-Four Parking Lots (1967, 30 black-and-white photographs)

Richmond (Virginia MFA): Noise, Pencil, Broken Pencil (1963, oil on canvas)

San Diego (MA): Eternal Amnesia (1982, oil on canvas); End (1983, oil on canvas); Please... (1985, oil on canvas)

San Francisco (MoMA): Hey (1968–1969, oil on canvas)

Santa Monica (Broad Art Foundation): Heavy Industry (1962, oil on canvas)

Washington, DC (Hirshhorn Mus. and Sculpture Garden): The Los Angeles County Museum on Fire (1965–1968, oil on canvas)

Auction Records

London, 1 July 1976: Flash Fried (1973, powder/paper, 11½ × 29¼ ins/29 × 74 cm) GBP 480

New York, 21 Oct 1976: Keychain Music (1974, pastel/paper, 23 × 28 ins/58.5 × 71 cm) USD 1,500

Los Angeles, 27 Sept 1977: Mocha Standard (1969, brown silkscreen print, 19½ × 37 ins/49.7 × 93.9 cm) USD 800

New York, 2 Nov 1978: 20th Century Fox with Searchlights (1962, oil on canvas, 67 × 132 ins/170 × 335 cm) USD 57,500

New York, 18 May 1979: LA (1971, pastel and powder/paper, 11½ × 29 ins/29 × 73.5 cm) USD 1,800; Noise, Pencil, Broken Pencil, Cheap Western (1966, acrylic/canvas, 71¼ × 67 ins/181 × 170 cm) USD 44,000

Los Angeles, 25 Sept 1979: Cheese Mold Standard with Olive (1969, silkscreen print in colour, 19¾ × 37 ins/50 × 93.8 cm) USD 1,200

New York, 13 May 1981: Peeler (1972, gunpowder/paper, 11½ × 29 ins/29.3 × 73.7 cm) USD 1,900

Los Angeles, 3 Feb 1982: Hollywood (1969, grey lithograph, 4¼ × 17 ins/10.5 × 43.2 cm) USD 2,000

New York, 2 May 1983: Hollywood with Observatory (1969, pale blue and black lithograph, 12½ × 29½ ins/32 × 75 cm) USD 1,400

New York, 2 Nov 1984: Chili Draft (1974, gunpowder/paper, 14 × 22¾ ins/35.7 × 57.6 cm) USD 2,200; Just an Average Guy (1978, oil on canvas, 22 × 80 ins/55.8 × 203.2 cm) USD 16,000

New York, 6 Nov 1985: Dimple (1964, tempera and ink/paper, 11½ × 15 ins/29.3 × 37.2 cm) USD 2,500

New York, 6 May 1986: Mint (1968, acrylic/canvas, 60 × 55 ins/152.5 × 139.7 cm) USD 29,000

New York, 6 May 1987: Protein (coloured chalks and powder/paper, 23 × 29 ins/58.4 × 73.7 cm) USD 6,200

New York, 4 Nov 1987: Strange Catch for a Freshwater Fish (1965, oil on canvas, 59 × 55 ins/149.7 × 139.6 cm) USD 72,500

New York, 8 Oct 1988: Went Out for Cigarettes (1985, varnish and oil on canvas, 64 × 64 ins/162.5 × 162.5 cm) USD 77,000

New York, 10 Nov 1988: Strength (1983, gunpowder and chalks/paper, 60 × 40 ins/152.3 × 101.8 cm) USD 33,000

New York, 2 May 1989: The Future (1981, oil on canvas, 22 × 79¾ ins/55 × 202.5 cm) USD 209,000

Paris, 21 June 1989: Pressurized Diabolics (1976, pastel/paper, 22½ × 28¼ ins/57 × 72 cm) FRF 300,000

New York, 5 Oct 1989: Jr. 1988 (dry pigment and acrylic/paper, 60 × 40 ins/152.5 × 101.5 cm) USD 60,500

New York, 9 Nov 1989: Honey…I Twist Through More… (1984, oil on canvas, 72 × 72 ins/183 × 183 cm) USD 297,000

New York, 23 Feb 1990: Flash Fried (1973, gunpowder/paper, 11½ × 29 ins/29.2 × 73.7 cm) USD 38,500

New York, 27 Feb 1990: You Know the Old Story (1975, gunpowder and pastel/paper, 13 × 22¾ ins/33 × 57.7 cm) USD 41,250

New York, 7 May 1990: Squeezing Dimple (1964, oil on canvas, 28 × 29¾ ins/71.2 × 75.5 cm) USD 165,000

New York, 5 Oct 1990: Halloween 1977 (oil on canvas, 22 × 80 ins/55.6 × 203.2 cm) USD 165,000

New York, 1 May 1991: Artificial Park (1988, acrylic/canvas, 54 × 120 ins/137 × 305 cm) USD 187,000

New York, 12 Nov 1991: Not a Bad World, Is It? (1984, oil on canvas, 99¼ × 79¾ ins/251.8 × 202.5 cm) USD 132,000

New York, 5 May 1992: Days of the Week (1979, oil on canvas, 22¼ × 80 ins/56.2 × 203.2 cm) USD 77,000

New York, 18 Nov 1992: The Study of Friction and Wear on Mating Surfaces (1983, oil on canvas, 83¾ × 124 ins/213 × 315 cm) USD 71,500

New York, 23–25 Feb 1993: Light (Part I) (acrylic/canvas, 62 × 138 ins/157.5 × 350.5 cm) USD 112,500

Frankfurt am Main, 14 June 1994: Two Glasses (1993, acrylic/paper, 14¾ × 11½ ins/37.3 × 29 cm) DEM 10,000

New York, 15 Nov 1995: City (1961, oil on paper/card, 8¾ × 7¼ ins/22.2 × 18.5 cm) USD 31,050

New York, 8 May 1996: Untitled (1987, acrylic and oil on canvas, 60 × 60 ins/152.7 × 152.4 cm) USD 51,750

New York, 9 Nov 1996: Hollywood (1968, colour lithograph, 12½ × 40¾ ins/31.8 × 103.7 cm) USD 11,500

New York, 20 Nov 1996: The Funneling of You-Know-What (1985, acrylic and dry pigment/paper, 40 × 60 ins/101.6 × 152.4 cm) USD 18,400

New York, 21 Nov 1996: Dream 1 (1987, acrylic/paper, 17¼ × 46¼ ins/43.5 × 117.5 cm) USD 39,100

London, 6 Dec 1996: PM (1988, dry pigment and acrylic/paper, 30 × 40¼ ins/76.5 × 102.25 cm) GBP 27,600

New York, 6 May 1997: Untitled (Window) (1984, colour chalks/paper, 23 × 40¼ ins/58.4 × 102.2 cm) USD 6,325

New York, 8 May 1997: Little White Girl (1986, pigment/paper, 58 × 38 ins/147.3 × 96.5 cm) USD 70,700

London, 27 June 1997: These Are Brave Days (1989, dry pigment/paper, 40 × 60 ins/101.5 × 152.5 cm) GBP 13,800

New York, 19 Nov 1997: Ripe (1967, oil on canvas, 59¼ × 54¾ ins/150.3 × 139.1 cm) USD 167,500

New York, 6–7 March 1998: Brews (1970, colour lithograph, 18 × 26¾ ins/45.7 × 68.2 cm) USD 2,587

New York, 17 Nov 1999: Lisp (1968, oil on canvas, 59 × 55 ins/150 × 139 cm) USD 420,000

Los Angeles, 7 June 2000: House on 38th St (1965, oil on canvas, 20 × 22 ins/51 × 56 cm) USD 130,000; Honk (1962, oil, black ink, and pencil on paper laid on board, 16 × 16 ins/40 × 41 cm) USD 220,000

New York, 14 May 2001: Truth (1973, oil on canvas, 54 × 60 ins/136 × 153 cm) USD 240,000

New York, 14 Nov 2001: Untitled (1989, acrylic on canvas, 60 × 112 ins/152 × 284 cm) USD 620,000

New York, 13 May 2002: Untitled (1963, oil on canvas, 67 × 72 ins/170 × 183 cm) USD 2,300,000

New York, 14 May 2002: Talk About Space (1963, oil on canvas, 71 × 67 ins/181 × 170 cm) USD 3,200,000

New York, 11 Nov 2003: Mind – Red (1968, oil on canvas, 60 × 55 ins/152 × 140 cm) USD 1,400,000

New York, 12 Nov 2003: Not Only Securing the Last Letter But Damaging It as Well, Boss (1964, oil on canvas, 59 × 55 ins/150 × 140 cm) USD 1,700,000

New York, 11 May 2004: News (1990, acrylic on canvas, 96 × 72 ins/244 × 183 cm) USD 550,000; The Uncertain Trail (1986, acrylic on canvas, 47 × 120⅛ ins/119.4 × 305 cm) USD 550,000; Damage (1964, oil on canvas, 72 × 67 ins/183 × 170 cm) USD 3,200,000

New York, 10 Nov 2004: Romance (1980, oil on canvas, 54¾ × 57½ ins/139 × 146 cm) USD 1,000,000; Irresistible Singles Win Incredible Dates (1989, oil on canvas, 84 × 84 ins/213.4 × 213.4 cm) USD 800,000; Wild Cats of the World (1985, oil on canvas, 64 × 64 ins/162.5 × 162.5 cm) USD 680,000

New York, 10 May 2005: Mysteries (1988, acrylic on canvas, 46 × 80 ins/116 × 203 cm) USD 700,000

New York, 11 May 2005: The Amazing Earth (1984, oil on canvas, 64 × 64 ins/162.5 × 162.5 cm) USD 700,000

London, 22 June 2005: Averages (1987, acrylic on canvas, 32 × 120 ins/81.3 × 304.8 cm) GBP 400,000

New York, 8 Nov 2005: Flag (1999, acrylic on canvas, 37¾ × 126¾ ins/95.9 × 321.9 cm) USD 1,400,000

New York, 10 May 2006: Hell, Heaven (1989, acrylic on canvas, 72 × 96¼ ins/183 × 244.5 cm) USD 1,100,000; Travel Agency (1983, oil on canvas, 79⅞ × 116⅛ ins/203 × 295 cm) USD 950,000

New York, 14 Oct 2005: Cheese Mold Standard with Olive (1969, screen print in colour, 26 × 40 ins/65 × 102 cm) USD 22,800

New York, 2 May 2006: Mocha Standard (1969, screen print in colour, 20 × 37 ins/50 × 94 cm) USD 54,000

New York, 26 Feb 2007: Four Artist's Books (c. 1965 -1969, offset, 9 × 6 ins/22 × 15 cm) USD 10,800

New York, 2 Nov 2007: Hollywood (colour screen print, 12 × 40 ins/32 × 104 cm) USD 133,000

Los Angeles, 4 Nov 2009: Standard Station (E.5) (1966, colour screen print, 20 × 37 ins/40 × 94 cm) USD 170,000

Stockholm, 3 May 2010: Well (1971, oil and caviar on canvas, 20 × 24 ins/51 × 61 cm) USD 1,383,049

New York, 11 Jan 2011: Vowel No. 73 (O) (1996, acrylic on book cover and book, 10 × 8 ins/25 × 20 cm) USD 32,500

New York, 31 Oct 2012: Mint (1969, colour lithograph, 17 × 24 ins/43 × 62 cm) USD 16,250

New York, 11 May 2006: Metro, Petro, Neuro, Psycho (1989, acrylic and pencil on paper, 42½ × 56½ ins/108 × 143.5 cm) USD 1,000,000

London, 7 Feb 2007: Here and Now (1997, acrylic on canvas, 72 × 72 ins/183 × 183 cm) GBP 550,000

New York, 16 May 2007: Dynamo (1986, oil on canvas, 59¼ × 145¾ ins/150.5 × 370.2 cm) USD 1,160,000 (premium)

London, 20 June 2007: Pain Killers, Tranquilizers, Olive (1969, oil on canvas, 20 × 24 ins/50.8 × 61 cm) GBP 692,000 (premium)

London, 14 Oct 2007: Large and Small Balls (1972, oil on canvas, 19¾ × 24 ins/50.2 × 61 cm) GBP 714,900 (premium); Amphetamine, Pencil (1969, oil on canvas, 20⅛ × 24 ins/51 × 61 cm) GBP 748,500 (premium)

New York, 13 Nov 2007: Burning Gas Station (1965–1966, oil and graphite on canvas, 20½ × 39 ins/52.1 × 99.1 cm) USD 6,985,000 (premium); Ship Talk (1988, acrylic on canvas, 55 × 133 ins/139.7 × 337.8 cm) USD 1,777,000 (premium)

London, 6 Feb 2008: The Mountain (1998, acrylic on canvas, 76 × 72 ins/193 × 183 cm) USD 3,010,805 (premium)

New York, 15 May 2008: I Dont Want No Retro Spective (1979, pastel, 23 × 29 ins/58.4 × 73.7 cm) USD 3,961,000 (premium)

New York, 13 May 2009: Hell, Heaven (1989, acrylic on canvas, 72 × 96¼ ins/183 × 244.5 cm) USD 1,010,500 (premium)

London, 29 June 2009: That Was Then This Is Now (1989, oil on canvas, 42 × 96 ins/106.7 × 243.8 cm) GBP 713,250 (premium)

New York, 13 May 2010: Angry Because It’s Plaster, Not Milk (1965, oil on canvas, 55 × 48 ins/139.7 × 121.9 cm) USD 3,218,500 (premium)

New York, 8 Nov 2010: Sex at Noon Taxes (2002, acrylic on canvas, 64 × 76 ins/162.6 × 193 cm) USD 4,338,500 (premium)

New York, 11 May 2011: Our Flag (1987, oil on canvas, 54 × 120 ins/137.2 × 304.8 cm) USD 3,442,500 (premium)

New York, 8 Nov 2011: Strange Catch for a Fresh Water Fish (1965, oil on canvas, 59 × 55 ins/149.9 × 139.7 cm) USD 4,114,500 (premium)

London, 14 Feb 2012: Ship Talk (1988, acrylic on canvas, 56 × 134⅛ ins/142.3 × 340.5 cm) GBP 769,250 (premium)

New York, 15 Nov 2012: Black Hollywood (1984, acrylic on canvas, 22 × 80 ins/55.8 × 203.2 cm) USD 1,142,500 (premium); 99% Angel, 1% Devil (1983, oil on canvas, 36 × 40 ins/91.4 × 101.6 cm) USD 1,022,500 (premium)

New York, 14 May 2013: Baltimore Oriole Securing Freshwater Fish (1965, oil on canvas, 59 × 55 ins/150 × 140 cm) USD 4,757,000

New York, 15 May 2013: Mint (Red) (1968, oil on canvas, 60 × 55 ins/152.5 × 139.8 cm) USD 4,827,750 (premium)

New York, 12 Nov 2013: Untitled (1985, oil on canvas, 59¼ × 145½ ins/150.4 × 369.5 cm) USD 4,197,000 (premium)

New York, 12 May 2014: Inferno (1987, acrylic on canvas, 72 × 72 ins/182.8 × 182.8 cm) USD 2,965,000 (premium)

Paris, 29 Oct 2014: Home with Complete Electronic Security System (1982, pastel on paper, 50 × 38⅛ ins/127 × 97 cm) EUR 313,500

New York, 12 Nov 2014: Radio on Royal Blue (1963, oil and ink on paper, 15 × 12 ins/38.1 × 30.5 cm) USD 3,301,000; Smash (1963, oil on canvas, 71¾ × 67 ins/182.2 × 170.1 cm) USD 30,405,000

New York, 12 May 2015: OK (1990, acrylic on canvas, 72 × 72 ins/182.9 × 182.9 cm) USD 5,402,000 (premium)

New York, 13 May 2015: Whiz Kids (1987, acrylic on canvas, 66⅛ × 66⅛ ins/167.9 × 167.9 cm) USD 4,197,000 (premium)

London, 30 June 2015: Woman on Fire (1990, acrylic on canvas, 36 × 48 ins/91.4 × 121.9 cm) GBP 1,370,500

New York, 11 Nov 2015: Extreme (1973, gunpowder on paper, 14½ × 23 ins/36.8 × 58.4 cm) USD 377,000

New York, 12 Nov 2015: Sunset to Pico (1999, acrylic on canvas, 60 × 112 ins/152.4 × 284.5 cm) USD 2,770,000 (premium)

New York, 28 Sept 2016: Busted Glass #28 (2008, acrylic on paper, , 12⅛ × 9¼ ins/30.8 × 23.5 cm) USD 35,000

London, 8 March 2017: Wha… (2013, acrylic and dry pigment on paper, 11 × 15⅜ ins/ 28 × 38 cm) USD 60,950

Bibliography

  • Ruscha, Edward: Twenty-Six Gasoline Stations, Cunningham Press, Alhambra (CA), 1969.
  • Hickey, Dave/Plagens, Peter: The Works of Edward Ruscha, exhibition catalogue, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, San Francisco, 1982.
  • L’Art moderne à Marseille. La Collection du Musée Cantini, Musée Cantini, Marseilles, 1988.
  • Cueff, A.: ‘Edward Ruscha: un monde éloigné’, in Parkett, Zurich, December 1988.
  • Hulten, Pontus/Cameron, Dan/Blistène, Bernard: ‘Edward Ruscha’, in Contemporains, exhibition catalogue, Éditions du Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, 1989.
  • Bois, Yve Alain: Edward Ruscha, Romance with Liquids: Paintings 1966–1969, exhibition catalogue, Rizzoli, New York, 1993.
  • Engberg, Siri: Edward Ruscha. Editions, 1959–1999: catalogue raisonné, 2 vols, exhibition catalogue, Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, 1999.
  • Ruscha, Edward: They Called Her Styrene, Phaidon, London, 2000.
  • Sprüth, Monika, and others: Ed Ruscha: Gunpowder and Stains, exhibition catalogue, Monika Sprüth Philomene Magers Galerie, Munich, 2000.
  • Fréruchet, Maurice, and others: Les Années 70: l’art en cause, exhibition catalogue, CAPC Musée d’Art Contemporain, Bordeaux, 2002.
  • Schwartz, Alexandra (ed.): Leave Any Information at the Signal: Writings, Interviews, Bits, Pages, MIT Press, Cambridge (MA), 2002.
  • Marshall, Richard D.: Ed Ruscha, Phaidon, London, 2003.
  • Poncy, Pat (ed.): Edward Ruscha: Catalogue Raisonné of the Paintings, 3 vols, Gagosian Gallery, New York, 2003.
  • Ruscha, Edward: Then & Now, Steidl, Göttingen, 2005.
  • Rowell, Margit, and others: Ed Ruscha: Photographer, exhibition catalogue, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, 2006.
  • Richards, Mary: Ed Ruscha, Tate Publishing, London, 2008.