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date: 19 September 2019

Raphael real name: Sanzio or Santi or Sanzi, Raffaello or Raphaellofree

Italian, 16th century, male.

Born 26 or 28 March 1483, in Urbino; died 6 April 1520, in Rome.

Painter, draughtsman, architect. Religious subjects, portraits. Murals, designs for tapestries.

RAPHAEL: signature or monogram

RAPHAEL: signature or monogram

Raphael was the son of the painter and poet Giovanni Santi (the surname Sanzio, adopted by Giorgio Vasari, is a corruption of the Latin form of Santi), who was connected with the celebrated Montefeltro court of Urbino. This refined upbringing no doubt served Raphael well in befriending potential patrons. A prodigy, he was barely sixteen years old when he joined Perugino’s workshop in 1499 and later worked with Bernardino Pinturicchio on the frescoes for the Biblioteca Piccolomini in Siena. He returned to Urbino and then lived in Florence from 1504 to 1509, an extremely important period during which he encountered Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, and Fra Bartolommeo. From 1509 until his death in 1520, he was the most prolific and successful painter in Rome, a favourite of Pope Julius II (Giuliano della Rovere) and his successor, Pope Leo X (Lorenzo de’ Medici). Much sought after during his lifetime, Raphael was required to fulfil a large number of commissions, which he did by running a sizeable and well-organised workshop. He died of a fever at the age of just 37, leaving a great void in the art world of Rome. He was buried with great ceremony in the Pantheon.

As early as 1500, Raphael was commissioned by the church of S Agostino at Città di Castello to paint a Coronation of St Nicholas at Tolentino. At roughly the same time, he worked with his teacher Perugino on the Collegio del Cambio in Perugia, for which he may have contributed the figures Fortitude and Justice. In 1503, again in Perugia, he painted an altarpiece for the high altar of the church of Monteluce. That same year, he painted a Crucifixion for the church of S Domenico in Città di Castello. Soon the princely families of Urbino gave Raphael the opportunity to embark on a career as a portraitist, commissioning the portraits Guidobaldo da Montefeltro, Elizabetta Gonzaga, and Emilia Pia. His Urbino period, already rich in official commissions, was also characterised by experimentation with small-scale paintings in which Raphael worked out a style that, though influenced by Perugino in its sweetness, was quite distinctive. Works such as the Three Graces, St Michael (Louvre), and St George (Louvre) are characterised by a linear style, simple composition, warm colours, and gentle landscapes, features perhaps explained by the taste for Netherlandish painting at the Urbino court. Raphael also made his mark with religious compositions in which the Virgin Mary plays the dominant role, such as the Conestabile Madonna and the celebrated Marriage of the Virgin, or Sposalizio (1504), compositionally similar to Perugino’s Christ’s Charge to Peter fresco for the Sistine Chapel and Marriage of the Virgin altarpiece for the Perugia Cathedral (1503-1504). Though he owed a great deal to Perugino, Raphael’s composition was distinct from that of his master in its broader interpretation of space and firmer, more subtle draughtsmanship. He retained Perugino’s rhythmic precision in the rendering of figures and architectural features and also the idealised beauty of his figures.

At the end of 1504, Raphael settled in Florence, where he was to remain for four years, and made the acquaintance of Fra Bartolommeo, Leonardo da Vinci, and Michelangelo, each of whom influenced Raphael’s subsequent work. While Raphael’s compositions remained simple and open, his figures were placed in sophisticated chiaroscuro as he adopted the sfumato rendering that was peculiar to Leonardo, blending the contours of his volumes with the space around them, and he borrowed poses from Michelangelo’s sculptures. This resulted in a series of Madonnas in which Raphael worked out a notion of pure, sublime beauty, while avoiding sentimentality: the Terranuova Madonna (1505); the Madonna del Gran Duca (c. 1505); the Belvedere Madonna (1506); the Madonna of the Goldfinch (c. 1506); La Belle Jardinière (1507); and the Canigiani Holy Family (c. 1507). In most cases, drawing inspiration from Leonardo, Raphael based his composition on a pyramid, with the Virgin’s head at the apex, eyes lowered to watch the infant Jesus, and St John at the base, sometimes accompanied by St Elizabeth or St Joseph

As well as developing this style with its accent on gentle beauty, Raphael tried his hand at more complex compositions, such as the Entombment painted in 1507 for the Baglioni family chapel in S Francesco al Prato, Perugia. In this case, dramatic intensity is generated by the twisted attitude of the bodies and the tension on the faces; the style is very similar to that of Michelangelo but adapted in pursuit of his own ideal. During his Florentine period, Raphael also made a number of portraits, such as his pendants Agnolo Doni and Maddalena Doni (both 1506). Maddalena’s pose shows Raphael’s familiarity with Leonardo’s Mona Lisa; the landscape background derives from 15th-century Netherlandish portraiture. In the roughly contemporary portraits of women known as La Muta and La Gravida, however, Raphael instead opted for a simple neutral background that was common in his later portraits, such as that of his friend the humanist Baldassare Castiglione (1514–1515). In a letter to the artist, Castiglione claimed that the portrait was a comfort to his wife when he travelled, a testament to its lifelikeness.

In 1509, Raphael moved to Rome, summoned by the papal architect Donato Bramante, also a native of Urbino. At the time, the Vatican was undergoing a complete transformation at the instigation of Julius II, the warrior pope who was also a great lover of the arts. Despite the fact that he was barely 26 years old when he arrived in Rome, Raphael was entrusted with the task of decorating the Stanze (‘rooms’) in the pope’s private apartments in the Vatican Palace. Between 1508 and 1511, he worked on the Stanza della Segnatura, decorating it with scenes of the Dispute Concerning the Holy Sacrament ( La Disputa); the School of Athens; Parnassus; and allegories of Virtues with Tribonian Delivering the Pandects to Justinian; and Gregory IX Receiving the Decretals from St Raymond de Penafort. The subjects represent theology, philosophy, poetry, and jurisprudence, respectively, themes mirrored in allegorical and biblical subjects included on the vault. From 1511 to 1514, he worked on the Stanza d’Eliodoro frescoes: Heliodorus Ejected from the Temple; the Mass at Bolsena; the Liberation of St Peter; and The Meeting between Attila and Leo the Great. The frescoes painted between 1514 and 1517 in the Stanza dell’Incendio were mostly done by Raphael’s assistants, in particular Giulio Romano, Gian Francesco Penni, and Raffaellino del Colle. The last and largest room of the apartments, the Stanza di Costantino, had been only partly designed before Raphael’s death and was later finished by Giulio Romano. The growing use of assistants is a sign of the increasing demand for Raphael’s talents.

During this time, Raphael secured commissions for numerous other fresco cycles, altarpieces, and portraits. In 1512, he painted the Madonna di Foligno altarpiece for S Maria in Aracoeli; slightly later, Pope Julius II commissioned from him an official portrait (National Gallery, London) and the Sistine Madonna, so named because it was intended for the church of S Sisto, Piacenza. Along with the later Transfiguration (1517–1520), the altarpiece shows Raphael’s masterful synthesis of Leonardo’s naturalism and Michelangelo’s power and drama. For Cardinal Bibbiena’s rooms in the Vatican Palace, Raphael decorated a stufetta (bathroom) and loggia in 1516. From 1518–1519, Raphael’s workshop and his associate Giovanni da Udine were engaged in fresco decorations for the Vatican Loggie, commissioned by Leo X. The Loggie are decorated with grotesque in fresco and stucco and scenes from the Old Testament. A portrait of Leo and two Medici cardinals (Uffizi Gallery, Florence) dates from the same period. The portrait of a woman traditionally believed to have been Raphael’s mistress, La Fornarina, although signed, was perhaps finished by Giulio Romano. The same sitter is apparently depicted in La Donna Velata.

Raphael’s pictorial work also included designs for tapestries and engravings. Leo X, who clearly favoured Raphael above all other artists, commissioned from him 10 cartoons depicting Acts of the Apostles (eight of these are preserved in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London). These cartoons were sent to tapestry factories in Flanders and the resulting tapestries were displayed on the lower walls of the Sistine Chapel. Raphael also supplied Marcantonio Raimondi with drawings to be engraved, most notably the Massacre of the Innocents (1511–1512) and the Judgement of Paris (1517–1520). These engravings were very effective in disseminating Raphael’s work outside of Rome. It should also be noted that Raphael left behind a large number of drawings: sketches, preparatory drawings, studies of modern artworks, and, as the papal curator of antiquities, many drawings of ancient Roman sculptures and buildings.

Raphael’s Roman period is also marked by numerous architectural projects. Not long after 1509, he drew up plans for the church of S Eligio degli Orefici in Rome. One of his great admirers was the banker Agostino Chigi, who commissioned from Raphael frescoes of the Triumph of Galatea (1511) and scenes of Cupid and Psyche (1516-1517) for his villa (now known as the Villa Farnesina), and asked Raphael to design stables for it (1512). Raphael also built and decorated a funerary chapel for Chigi in the church of S Maria del Popolo (1512-1513). On Bramante’s death in 1514, Pope Leo X appointed Raphael architect of St Peter’s and curator of antiquities, for which he documented Rome’s antiquities and purchased artefacts for the Pope. He designed domestic buildings as well, including the Villa Madama for Cardinal Giulio de’Medici, which was based on Emperor Hadrian’s villa in Tivoli as well as descriptions of antique buildings by Pliny and Vitruvius. Raphael’s façade for the Palazzo Branconio dell’Aquila (destroyed) was more heavily ornamented than earlier Renaissance palaces and was influential during the Baroque period.

Raphael’s chief contribution to Renaissance artistic theory was his method (which had antique precedents) of creating ideal beauty. Writing to Castiglione, he explained, ‘To paint a beauty, I need to see a number of beauties, but since beautiful women are very rare, I use a certain idea which I have in my head’. Thus Raphael defined his ideal of beauty, which is impossible to find in nature but can be created by a discerning and talented artist. Though the quest for ideal beauty would seem to be fundamental to Raphael’s work, evident, for example, in his Triumph of Galatea fresco, the desire to render human personality with truth and sensitivity is evident in his lifelike portraits Julius II (1511-1512), an old man bent under the burden of his heavy responsibilities, and Leo X (c. 1518), the self-confident epicurean.

Raphael’s achievement lay in his assimilation of the styles of Perugino, Leonardo, and Michelangelo, in the large output of his 20-year career, and in projects that maximized the visibility of his work and its subsequent influence. His style, which played a vital part in the overall development of Western art, has been unreservedly appreciated and admired by traditionalists, and his work has served as the basis for academic study for centuries. He thus played a central role not only in the Renaissance but also in the broader development of Western art.

Group Exhibitions

1987, Drawings by Raphael and His Circle from British and North American Collections, Morgan Library, New York, 1987

1992, Leonardo, Michelangelo, and Raphael in Renaissance Florence from 1500–1508, National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC

2000–2001, Raphael and His Influence across the Centuries, Getty Museum, Malibu (CA)

2002, Tapestry in the Renaissance: Art and Magnificence, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

2003, Raphael and His Age, Palais des Beaux-Arts, Lille, and Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland (OH)

2009, Raphael to Renoir: Drawings from the Collection of Jean Bonna, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

2011–2012, Il Rinascimento a Roma nel segno di Michelangelo e Raffaello, Fondazione Roma Museo, Rome

Solo Exhibitions

1994, Raphael: The Pursuit of Perfection, National Gallery of Scotland, Edinburgh 2001, Staatgalerie, Stuttgart

2001–2002, Raphael: Grace and Beauty, Musée du Luxembourg, Paris

2004–2005, Raphael’s Fornarina, Frick Collection, New York; Museum of Fine Arts, Houston (TX); and Indianapolis Museum of Art, Indianapolis (IN)

2006, Raffaello: da Firenze a Roma, Borghese Gallery, Rome

2009, Raphael and Urbino (Raffaello e Urbino), Palazzo Ducale, Urbino

2010, Raphael: Cartoons and Tapestries for the Sistine Chapel, Victoria and Albert Museum, London

Museum and Gallery Holdings

Angers (MBA): Holy Family (workshop)

Baltimore, MD (Walters AM): Madonna of the Candelabra (workshop, c. 1513, oil/wood)

Bayonne (Mus. Bonnat): Bust of a Woman (c. 1500, lead point drawing)

Bergamo (Accademia Carrara): St Sebastian (c. 1501, oil/wood)

Berlin (Gemäldegal.): Colonna Madonna (c. 1507); ’solly’ Madonna and Child (1501–1502, oil/wood);Terranuova Madonna (1504–1505, oil/wood);Virgin and Child with St Jerome and St Francis (c. 1501)

Bologna (Pinacoteca Nazionale): St Cecilia with Saints (1514)

Boston (Isabella Stewart Gardner Mus.): Pietà; (c. 1503–1505, oil/wood);Count Tommaso Inghirami (c. 1516, oil/wood)

Brescia (Pinacoteca Tosio-Martinengo): Christ Blessing (c. 1505, oil/wood);Angel (fragment of Baronci altarpiece)

Budapest (Szépmuvészeti Múz.): Estherhazy Madonna (c. 1508, oil/wood);Portrait of a Young Man (c. 1506, oil on wood)

Chantilly (Mus. Condé): The Three Graces (1504 or 1505);Orleans Madonna (1507);Madonna di Loreto (c. 1510)

Città di Castello (Pinacoteca Communale): Holy Trinity

Cracow (Muz. Czartoryskich): Portrait of a Young Man (c. 1511, missing since 1939)

Dresden (Gemäldegal.): Sistine Madonna (c. 1512-1513)

Edinburgh (Nat. Gal. of Scotland): Holy Family with a Palm Tree (c. 1507, oil/canvas, transferred from wood);Bridgewater Madonna (c. 1507, oil/canvas, transferred from wood);Holy Family Meeting St John the Baptist (c. 1516, oil/wood);Two Heads;Madonna with a Fish (c. 1512-1514, pen and wash heightened with black chalk, study)

Florence (Palazzo Pitti): Madonna of the Grand Duke (1504-1505);Maddalena Doni (1505 or 1506);Agnolo Doni (1505 or 1506);Portrait of a Woman (La Gravida) (c. 1507);Madonna of the Baldacchino (c. 1507-1508);Tommaso Inghirani (c. 1511-1512);Madonna della Sedia (c. 1512);Lady with a Veil (c. 1514 or 1516);The Vision of Ezekiel (c. 1518);Pope Leo X;The ‘Impanni’ Holy Family;Pope Julius II;Cardinal Donizzi di Bibbiena;Madonna with a Veil;Francesco Maria della Rovere;Portrait of the Duke of Urbino and His Wife

Florence (Uffizi): Portrait of a Boy Holding an Apple (c. 1504);Madonna of the Goldfinch (1506-1507);Pope Leo X between Cardinals Giulio de’ Medici and Luigi de’ Rossi (c. 1518-1519);Self-portrait (1506);Portrait of an Unknown Woman;La Fornarina;Virgin of the Well;St John in the Wilderness;Pope Julius II; Study for the Deposition (c. 1505–1507, pen and ink/pencil/paper)

Geneva (Mus. Ariana): Madonna of the Goldfinch

Glasgow: Madonna with a Lizard

Hanover: Madonna with a Fur Coat

Langres: Madonna with a Veil;Madonna of the Chair

Lisbon (Museu Nacional): Miracle of St Cyril

London (Dulwich Picture Gal.): St Francis of Assisi (c. 1502, oil/panel);St Anthony of Padua (c. 1502, oil/panel)

London (NG): The Procession to Calvary (c. 1502-1505, tempera/wood, predella of Pala Colonna);The Mond Crucifixion (The Crucified Christ with the Virgin Mary, Saints and Angels) (c. 1503, oil/wood);An Allegory (Vision of a Knight) (c. 1504, tempera/wood);The Madonna and Child with St John the Baptist and St Nicholas of Bari (The Ansidei Madonna) (1505, oil/wood);St John the Baptist Preaching (1505, tempera/wood, predella);Ansidei Altarpiece;St Catherine of Alexandria (c. 1507-1508, oil/wood);The Madonna and Child with the Infant Baptist (The Garvagh Madonna) (1509-1510, oil/wood);Pope Julius II (1511-1512, oil/wood);Madonna and Child (The Mackintosh Madonna) (1510-1512, oil on canvas);Madonna of the Tower;Madonna with a Candlestick;Virgin and Child with St John

London (Victoria and Albert Mus.): The Miraculous Draught of Fishes (1514-1515, tempera/sheets of paper glued together and mounted/canvas);Christ’s Charge to Peter (1514-1515);Healing of the Lame Man (1514-1515);Blinding of Elymas or Conversion of the Proconsul (1514-1515);Death of Ananias (1514-1515);Sacrifice at Lystra (1514-1515);St Paul Preaching in Athens (1514-1515)

Madrid (Prado): Holy Family with a Lamb (1507);Portrait of a Cardinal (c. 1511);Madonna with a Fish (c. 1512);Jesus Falls under the Weight of the Cross (c. 1515-1516);Visitation;Madonna with a Rose;Holy Family, Known as the Pearl;Holy Family, Known as the Lizard;The Sicilian Vespers

Malibu, CA (Getty Mus.): Holy Family (c. 1505, oil/wood)

Milan (Pinacoteca di Brera): Marriage of the Virgin (1504)

Montpellier (Mus. Fabre): Portrait of a Young Man

Moscow (Rumiantsev Mus.): Madonna;Virgin Mary and Christ

Munich (Alte Pinakothek): Canigiani Holy Family (c. 1507);Tempi Madonna (c. 1508);La Madonna della Tenda (c. 1513);Baptism of Christ;Resurrection of Christ;Portrait of a Young Man;Head of St John

Naples (Mus. di Capodimonte): Cardinal Alessandro Farnese;Madonna of the Divine Love (Madonna del Divino Amore);God the Father (fragment of Baronci Altarpiece)

Narbonne (MAH): Martyrdom of St Cecilia

New York (Metropolitan Mus. of Art): Virgin and Child Enthroned with Saints (1502 or 1504);Pietà;Agony in the Garden (panel from a predella);Giuliano de’ Medici

Oxford (Ashmolean Mus.): large collection of drawings

Paris (Louvre): St Michael and the Dragon (1504-1505);St George and the Dragon (1505);La Belle Jardinière: Virgin and Child with St John (1507);Madonna with a Veil or Blue Diadem (c. 1511);Baldassare Castiglione (1514-1515);Double Portrait of Raphael and a Friend (c. 1517);St John the Baptist in the Wilderness (c. 1517-1518);The Great Holy Family of Francis I (1518);The Small Holy Family (c. 1518-1519);St Michael Vanquishing the Devil (1518);Portrait of a Young Man;Joan of Aragon, Wife of Prince Ascanio Colonna, Constable of the Kingdom of Naples;Head of St Elizabeth;St Margaret

Pasadena, CA (Norton Simon Mus.): Virgin and Child with a Book (1503-1504)

Perugia (Church of S Francesco): Assumption (predella)

Potsdam: Holy Family

Rome (Gal. Nazionale d’Arte Antica di Palazzo Barberini): La Fornarina (c. 1518-1520)

Rome (Mus. e Gal. Borghese): Lady with a Unicorn (c. 1505);Entombment (1507)

Rome (Palazzo Doria Pamphili): Double Portrait

Rome (Villa Farnesina): Triumph of Galatea (1511–1512); Story of Cupid and Psyche

São Paulo (MA): Resurrection

Sens: Holy Family

St Petersburg (Hermitage): Virgin and Child or Conestabile Madonna (1504);The ‘Madonna’ Holy Family and St Joseph without a Beard (c. 1506);St George;Portrait of an Old Man;St George with Lance;Crucifixion with the Virgin Mary, St John, St Mary Magdalene and St Jerome (triptych)

Strasbourg (MBA): Portrait of a Young Woman (c. 1519-1520)

Toulouse: Head of a Woman

Urbino (Gal. Nazionale Delle Marche): Portrait of a Woman (La Muta) (c. 1507)

Vatican (Mus. Vaticani): Coronation of the Virgin,Annunciation (1503, fragments of Oddi altarpiece);Adoration of the Magi;Presentation in the Temple (1503);Madonna di Foligno (c. 1512);Transfiguration (c. 1518-1520)

Vienna (Kunsthistorisches Mus.): Madonna del Prato (1506);Holy Family

Washington, DC (NGA): Small Cowper Madonna (c. 1505, oil/panel);St George and the Dragon (c. 1506, oil/panel);Niccolini-Cowper Madonna (1508, oil/panel);Alba Madonna (c. 1510, oil/panel transferred to canvas);Bindo Altoviti (c. 1515, oil/panel);drawings

Auction Records

Paris, 1751: Judith with the Head of Holofernes at Her Feet, FRF 2,000

Paris, 1753: Jesus Christ Appointing St Peter as Leader of His Church; St Paul in Athens, on the Verso a Pen Study for the Dispute Concerning the Holy Sacrament (watercolour wash drawing heightened with white) FRF 3,000

Paris, 1776: Study for the Lower Part of the Dispute Concerning the Holy Sacrament (bistre heightened with white) FRF 1,280; Wedding of Alexander and Roxanne (pen and bistre) FRF 1,250

Paris, 1793: The Beautiful Madonna, FRF 45,000; Holy Family with Palm Tree, FRF 30,000; St John in the Wilderness, FRF 37,500

Paris, 1846: Christ Crucified, FRF 60,000

Paris, 1869: The Orleans Madonna, FRF 155,000

Paris, 26 Aug 1873: God Blessing the World (fresco) FRF 207,500

London, 4-5 May 1922: Agony in the Garden, GBP 7,350

London, 2 March 1923: Holy Family (sepia) GBP 84

London, 4 July 1924: Virgin and Child with the Infant St John, GBP 136

London, 12 Feb 1926: St Michael, GBP 147

London, 4 March 1927: Virgin and Child with the Infant St John, GBP 388

London, 16 July 1930: Portrait of a Young Man, GBP 500

Amsterdam, 7 April 1936: Holy Family (sketch) NLG 5,200

London, 10-14 July 1936: Study for the Figure of St John the Baptist (silverpoint) GBP 325

New York, 20 April 1939: Madonna of the Pinks, USD 60,000

London, 18 Jan 1946: Virgin and Child, GBP 420

New York, 2 March 1950: Virgin and Child or Peruzzi Madonna (c. 1505) USD 27,500

London, 28 Nov 1956: Two Prophets with Angels (pen) GBP 2,000

Geneva, 14 June 1960: St Cecilia (pen and sepia wash heightened with gouache) CHF 20,000

London, 13 July 1963: St Jerome Punishing the Heretic Sabinianus, GBP 95,000

London, 11 March 1964: Virgin and Child with St John the Baptist (recto); Study for Prometheus (verso) (red chalk and ink) GBP 32,000

London, 6 Dec 1972: Portrait of a Man in Red, GBP 26,000

London, 29 Nov 1977: St John and Two Apostles (red chalk, 3¼ × 4½ ins/8.4 × 11.6 cm) GBP 26,000

London, 9 Dec 1982: Christ in Glory (black chalk, wash, and white chalk/pale-grey prepared paper, 8¾ × 7 ins/22.3 × 17.7 cm) GBP 190,000

London, 3 July 1984: Study of a Man’s Head and Hand (black chalk, 14¼ × 13½ ins/36.3 × 34.6 cm) GBP 3,300,000

New York, 17 Nov 1986: Five Apostles; St John and Two Apostles (red chalk, two drawings, 3 × 4½ ins/6.7 × 11.5 cm and 3¼ × 4½ ins/8.1 × 11.7 cm) USD 550,000

London, 6 July 1987: Running Soldier and Two Horsemen with Outstretched Arms (1512, red chalk, 12½ × 9½ ins/31.9 × 24.4 cm) GBP 450,000

London, 8 July 1987: Portrait of Valerio Belli (1517, oil on panel, tondo, diam. 4¾ ins/12 cm) GBP 200,000

New York, 11 Jan 1991: St Catherine of Alexandria (oil on panel, 15 × 5¾ ins/38.2 × 14.5 cm) USD 1,650,000

London, 13 Dec 1996: Head and Hand of an Apostle (black chalk, study, 14¼ × 13½ ins/36.3 × 34.6 cm) GBP 5,281,500

New York, 29 Jan 1997: Studies for the Infant Jesus (red chalk, 9 × 6½ ins/22 × 16.7 cm) USD 310,500

New York, 28 May 1999: St John the Baptist (oil on panel, 15 × 13 ins/39 × 34 cm) USD 22,000

New York, 26 May 2000: St Mary of Egypt (oil on panel, 15 × 6 ins/38 × 14 cm) USD 550,000


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  • Shearman, John: The Vatican Stanze: Functions and Decoration, Proceedings of the British Academy, vol 57, 1971.
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  • Bacou, Roseline: Autour de Raphael: dessins et peintures du Musée du Louvre, exhibition catalogue, Musée du Louvre, Paris, Réunion des Musées Nationaux, Paris, 1983.
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  • Redig DeCampos, Deoclecio: Raphaels Fresken in den Stanzen, Urachhaus, Stuttgart, 1984.
  • Raffaello: elementi di un mito, exhibition catalogue, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, Florence, 1984.
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  • Beck, James (ed.): Raphael before Rome, National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, 1986.
  • Morello, Giovanni: Raffaello e la Roma dei papi, exhibition catalogue, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Palombi, Rome, 1986.
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  • Chiarini, Marco: Raffaello a Pitti: ‘La Madonna del baldacchino’: storia e restauro, exhibition catalogue, Palazzo Pitti, Florence, 1991.
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  • Cordellier, Dominique/Py, Bernadette: Raphaël, son atelier, ses copistes, exhibition catalogue, Musée du Louvre, Paris, Réunion des Musées Nationaux, Paris, 1992.
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  • Bell, Janis: ‘Re-visioning Raphael as a “Scientific Painter”’, in Reframing the Renaissance: Visual Culture in Europe and Latin America, 1450-1650, edited by Farago, Claire J., Yale University Press, New Haven (CT), 1995.
  • Lehman, Jürgen M./Tipton, Susan: The Holy Family with the Lamb of 1504, exhibition catalogue, Museum Fridericianum, Kassel, 1996 (text in English).
  • Hall, Marcia (ed.): Raphael’s ‘school of Athens’, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1997.
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  • Strinati, Claudio/De Vecchi, Pier Luigi/Oberhuber, Konrad/Arasse, Daniel: Raphaël: grâce et beauté, exhibition catalogue, Skira, Milan, 2001 (text in French, Italian, and English).
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  • Emiliani, Andrea: Raphaël: la chambre de la Signature, Gallimard, Paris, 2002.
  • Joannides, Paul: Raphaël et son temps, exhibition catalogue, Palais des Beaux-Arts, Lille; Réunion des Musées Nationaux, Paris, 2002.
  • Goffen, Rona: Renaissance Rivals: Michelangelo, Leonardo, Raphael, Titian, Yale University Press, New Haven (CT), 2002.
  • Joost-Gaugier, Christine L.: Raphael’s ‘stanza della Segnatura’: Meaning and Invention, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2002.
  • Shearman, John (ed.): Raphael in Early Modern Sources: 1483-1602, 2 vols, Yale University Press, New Haven (CT) and London, 2003.
  • Chapman, Hugh, and others: Raphael: From Urbino to Rome, National Gallery, London, 2004.
  • Cole, Bruce: Michelangelo, Bramante and Raphael: The High Renaissance in Rome, Westview Press, Boulder (CO), 2004.
  • Pon, Lisa: Raphael, Dürer and Marcantonio Raimondi: Copying and the Italian Renaissance Print, Yale University Press, New Haven (CT) and London, 2004.
  • Hall, Marcia B. (ed.): Cambridge Companion to Raphael, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2005.
  • Coliva, Anna: Raffaello: da Firenze a Roma, exhibition catalogue, Skira, Milan, 2006.
  • Dacos, NicoleBacon, Josephine (trans.): The Loggia of Raphael: A Vatican Art Treasure, Abbeville Press, New York, 2008.
  • Hoeniger, Cathleen Sara: The Afterlife of Raphael’s Paintings, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2011.
  • Kleinbub, Christian K.: Vision and Visionary in Raphael, Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park, 2011.