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date: 09 April 2020

Dongen, Kees van for Cornelis Théodore Mariefree

Dutch, 20th century, male.

Active from 1900 and from 1929 naturalised in France.

Born 26 January 1877, in Delfshaven, near Rotterdam; died 28 May 1968, in Monaco.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtsman, illustrator. Figures, portraits, genre scenes, landscapes, landscapes with figures, flowers.

Fauvism.

Kees van, for Cornelis Théodore Marie DONGEN: signature or monogram

Kees van, for Cornelis Théodore Marie DONGEN: signature or monogram

Kees van, for Cornelis Théodore Marie DONGEN: signature or monogram

Kees van, for Cornelis Théodore Marie DONGEN: signature or monogram

Kees van, for Cornelis Théodore Marie DONGEN: signature or monogram

Kees van, for Cornelis Théodore Marie DONGEN: signature or monogram

Kees van, for Cornelis Théodore Marie DONGEN: signature or monogram

Kees van, for Cornelis Théodore Marie DONGEN: signature or monogram

Kees van, for Cornelis Théodore Marie DONGEN: signature or monogram

Kees van Dongen’s father first placed him in a school of industrial design and decorative art in Rotterdam. Later, in 1894–1895, he became a pupil of J. Striening and J.G. Heyberg at the Academy of Fine Arts in Rotterdam. His first paintings of this period were signed C. van Dongen, and from 1896 he published drawings, often of street women, in local newspapers, notably the Rotterdamsche Nieuwsblad where they created a scandal. After a trip to New York in July 1897, he spent time in Paris, living with Siebe Ten Cate, who introduced him to the art dealers Le Barc de Bouteville and ‘le père Soulier’. However, lack of resources obliged him to resort to menial work as a porter at Les Halles, a furniture mover, a portrait painter on the terraces of cafes, and a professional wrestler. In March 1900, he settled in Paris for good, and in 1901 he married his comrade at the École des Beaux-Arts Augusta Preitinger, called Guus. In 1905, his daughter Augusta was born and nicknamed Dolly. In 1905–1906, he joined up with Picasso, though this friendship had no influence on his own artistic development, and settled at the Bateau-Lavoir where Pierre Mac-Orlan, André Salmon, and Max Jacob also lived and where Apollinaire, who disliked him, and Dérain, Vlaminck, and others were regular visitors. He often went with Picasso to the Médrano circus, where he made pictures of clowns and acrobats. Fernande Olivier, then Picasso’s companion, often modelled for him.

From 1910 to 1912, he made several trips to Spain, Italy, Morocco, Tunisia, and Egypt. In 1916, separated by the war from his wife and daughter, van Dongen set himself up at the Villa Saïd, which soon became the place to be for those who mattered in Paris and, more importantly, the studio where the greatest number of large society portraits were painted. He had been introduced into so-called ‘high society’ by his new companion, Leo Jasmy Jacob. Between 1920 and 1930, van Dongen divided his time and activity between Cannes, Deauville, Venice, and Paris. In 1921, he made a visit to Venice and, in 1922, he settled in a luxurious private mansion in Paris at 5 rue Juliette-Lamber. The studio on the first floor was his working area. He was made a Chevalier of the Légion d’Honneur in 1926. In 1935, he transferred his Paris studio to 765 rue de Courcelles, and in 1938 he entered into a relationship with Marie-Claire Huguen, with whom he had a son, Jean-Marie. His activity was intense up to World War II; it then slowed down. After the war he abandoned large works and painted new portraits, among which was Brigitte Bardot, of the actress. He divided his time between Paris, Deauville, and the Midi, where he set up home with his new companion and their son in Monaco.

The personal difficulties of his youth had put him in a position to understand the social misfortunes brought about by the industrial period, and he dedicated part of his work to representing those excluded from society. On his arrival in Paris he contacted Félix Fénéon, editor of the Revue Blanche, who introduced him to the pointillist painters Maximilian Luce, Edmond Cross, and Signac, who influenced him in his pictorial technique. During this period, in part occupied with making rapid sketches of typical street characters in Paris, he was particularly influenced by the incisive lines of Steinlein, Forain, and Toulouse-Lautrec, influences that contributed to the apparent simplification of his drawing. From 1901 to 1903, he contributed to the illustrated publications of the time: Rabelais; Le Rire; L’Indiscret; Gil Blas; Frou-Frou and of course the Revue Blanche. In 1901, a special issue of L’Assiette au Beurre: Petite histoire pour petits et grands enfants (sic) was given over totally to his drawings, which earned him 800 francs. Between 1895 and about 1912, part of his work, mainly large drawings on paper, seemed completely taken up with denouncing poverty, alcohol, and prostitution.

In spite of all this, it is to his Fauvist period that he owes his place in history. This period was relatively long in his case, covering about eight years, during which he remained indifferent to the Cubist phenomenon. From his Self-portrait and Pipe Dream of 1895, the violence of his palette placed him as a pre-Fauvist. George Duthuit, a historian of Fauvism and son-in-law of Matisse, wrote: ‘Van Dongen has followed the Fauves at a distance; he might even have moved ahead of them from 1895, without noticing it’. During the Fauve period, his sensual nudes, modelled often by ‘Anita, the Gypsy’, drew the attention of critics including Félix Fénéon and Louis Vauxcelles, who inappropriately called them ‘the most radiant, the warmest since Renoir’, with whom he had nothing in common. One of two paintings that figured in 1905 in the Fauvist area of the Salon d’Automne was a Torso based on his wife Guus, ‘bestial and resplendent’ according to Élie Faure. In a nice turn of phrase, Gustave Coquiot wrote that van Dongen had discovered that a woman was the most beautiful of landscapes. During 1905, when he had exhibitions at the Berthe Weill and Druet galleries, the creation of some of these paintings was marked, from 1903, by the separated brushstroke of the Neo-Impressionists: ‘... in a retrospective of Seurat, I was able to copy his style and to add to it’, an influence which he rejected for a long time, only coming back to it in his last years. As well as nudes, he also painted characters in drama, clowns, and dancers, and later, a number of portraits.

After the birth of his daughter in 1905, he created many very tender portraits such as The Birth of Dolly and Guus and Dolly in the Nude. At Venice in 1921, he painted a series of 21 tableaus, among which were An American Woman in Venice and The Gondolier. After 1922, in the studio at rue Juliette-Lamber, he continued the series of large portraits: The Countess of Noailles; President Louis Barthou; President Paul Painlevé; the Aga Khan; King Leopold III; the actors Maurice Chevalier, Jules Berry, and Arletty, whose splendid cheeky humour lent itself particularly to van Dongen’s studies of character types; and many more. He also painted landscapes in Paris, Versailles, Venice, Deauville, Cannes, and Egypt, and flowers. Having given up the stippling brushstroke, he had substituted optical sparkle for the pure, high colour of Fauvism. During the years when he was faithful to Fauvism, using only basic colours, he rejected shading of colours, shaping of forms, and depth of field, and instead favoured violent, chromatic contrasts and drawings partitioned by long, sinuous arabesques. In these extremes of flattened arabesques, and of pure flat colour, van Dongen revealed himself much more violent in his Fauvism than Matisse, who at the same time was engaged in refining his work, starting with his Joy of Life and Luxury. In this period, the observance of Fauvist rules concerning ‘plastic form’ in itself did not prevent him from continuing to be the cutting moralist, heir of Daumier and Toulouse-Lautrec, nor from sometimes casting a sideways glance at Klimt, as in his Portrait of Guus in Blue, Seated in 1910, now in a private collection in Lausanne. It could be said that he was one of the Fauves because Fauvism exactly fitted his earlier, natural inclination. He easily lined up with the Fauves because he was first and foremost an Expressionist, and remained so after Fauvism had become diluted and dispersed in the diversity of its interests.

After his true Fauvist period, van Dongen’s style developed gradually, the colour range becoming more refined, greys appearing, the arabesques in his design drawn out to the point of being Mannerist. From 1918, orders for portraits flooded in from diplomats, political figures, and aristocrats. In 1925, Paul Gsell said of his society portraits: ‘some of these portraits are expressive of ferocious mockery. So much the worse for the sitters, but van Dongen is powerfully ironic and a shrewd moralist...’. In 1920, he painted Anatole France, accentuating the marks of ageing on the academician, and Boni de Castellane, stressing the worn-out man living fast rather than the enduring dandy that Cocteau described as a combination of ‘the pride, the magnificence, and the grandiose shallowness of a twilight of the gods’. He painted his portraits of women with large brushstrokes, spreading the black of the kohl and the blue of the eyelids thickly on skin tones with green and violet shadows, causing breasts, hips, and legs to show through the indiscreet tulle. Nor did he resist the cartoonist’s trick of giving shape to the sparkle of the pearl necklaces worn by his models, by using intense beams of white to contrast with the coloured background, drawn with a single line, and projected far beyond the jewels. Far from flattering his models, he overloaded them, letting vulgarity show through their air of sophistication. The prestige of his name in snobbish Parisian society achieved what his misunderstood talent would not have obtained from his clients: the satisfaction of seeing them ridiculed. At the same period, the Deauville seascapes and Parisian scenes again open a caustic eye on a society as garish as it was doubtful in taste, and have the same pictorial talent and vigour.

In the latter part of his life, van Dongen illustrated three stories by Kipling, and some novels, as well as La princesse de Babylone by Voltaire, Les fleurs du mal by Baudelaire, and all of In Search of Lost Time by Marcel Proust.

Women continued to flock to him to have their portraits painted. He gave them the same enormous eyes, fringed with black lashes, the same sensual mouth slightly open to reveal shining teeth, the same slim body, stretched, moulded, divined through insubstantial garments and set off by gaudy jewels. Mannerism had replaced psychological acuity. Right to the end of a long life he repeated his familiar themes – women, portraits, society scenes, and flowers with less and less conviction and more and more conformity.

He took part in group exhibitions and on his arrival in Paris showed several canvases at ‘le père Soulier’; in February 1904 he showed six paintings at the Salon des Artistes Indépendants which were immediately noticed by the critics; he joined up with Vlaminck and Dérain and in November of the same year exhibited two paintings at the Salon d’Automne. In 1905 he appeared at the Salon d’Automne with two paintings in the famous room devoted to the work that came to be called the Fauves. He signed a contract with Kahnweiler in 1907 and with the gallery Bernheim Jeune, directed by Félix Fénéon, in 1908. Kahnweiler had publicised his painting in Germany, and had introduced him to the painter Pechstein, who in turn introduced him to the painters of Die Brücke. In 1908, he was invited to take part in an exhibition of Die Brücke, probably in Munich, and perhaps in other exhibitions. This was a recognition, apart from his membership of Fauvism, that he belonged, as a man of the north, to Expressionism. He exhibited in 1908–1909 in Moscow with the Golden Fleece group; in 1909–1910, in Odessa, Kiev, St Petersburg, and Riga and at the Salon Izdebsky and at Salon d’Automne of 1913. One of his paintings, innocently entitled Picture (Tableau), was judged obscene by the Prefect of Police and withdrawn from the exhibition. The painting in question was a large nude, modelled by his wife Guus, successively called Nude with Pigeons, Beggar of Love, The Spanish Shawl, and Nude with Yellow Shawl. In 1928, he took part in the exhibition of contemporary French painting in Moscow and up to World War II he continued to exhibit in annual Parisian Salons and to show in numerous countries.

His work benefited most of all from solo exhibitions: in 1904, Ambroise Vollard organised for him a real retrospective exhibition, gathering together 105 works dating from 1892 to 1904, which was probably a success in spite of his exaggerated colouring style; in 1905, solo exhibitions at the Berthe Weil and Druet galleries; 1913, 1921, 1925, Galerie Bernheim Jeune, Paris; 1914, Gallery Cassirer, Berlin; 1918, Galerie Paul Guillaume, Paris. In 1922, he broke with all the galleries and became his own dealer, organising exhibitions in his ground–floor studio, visited by the Parisian elite, a combination of crowned heads, anarchists, hard-up painters, and millionaires. During World War II he held a large retrospective exhibition at the Galerie Charpentier. After the war he began to exhibit all over the world. In 1967, a year before his death, the Museum Boijmans van Beuningen in Amsterdam and the Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris organised a huge retrospective exhibition of the whole of his work.

Group Exhibitions

1979, Paris-Moscow, Centre Georges-Pompidou, Paris, France

1999, Fauvism or ‘Trial by Fire’: The Eruption of Modernity in Europe (Le Fauvisme ou ‘L’Épreuve du Feu’: Éruption de la Modernité en Europe), Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, France

Solo Exhibitions

1990, Museum Boijmans van Beuningen, Amsterdam, the Netherlands (travelled to the Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris)

1997, Van Dongen Rediscovered, Musée des Beaux-Arts, Lyons, France (travelled to the l’Institut Néerlandais, Paris)

2002, Fondation Pierre Gianadda, Martigny, Switzerland (retrospective)

2002, Kees van Dongen. Elegant Lines: Lithos, Pochoirs and Paintings, Kunsthal, Rotterdam the Netherlands (a presentation of all the graphic work in relation to his paintings)

2008, Nouveau Musée National de Monaco (retrospective)

2009, Van Dongen: A Fauve in the City, Musée des Beaux-Arts, Montreal, Canada

Museum and Gallery Holdings

Amsterdam (Rijksmus.): Still-life with Flowers

Amsterdam (Stedelijk Mus.): Old Clown (1910); Portrait of Countess Anna de Noailles (1926)

Angers (MBA): Spanish Dancer

Antwerp (Koninklijk Mus. voor Schone Kunsten): Monsignor Gerassimos Messara

Brussels (French Embassy): Sunday in the Bois de Boulogne

Brussels (Mus. Royaux des Beaux-Arts de Belgique): Louis Barthou

Chicago (AI): Woman in Front of a White Window (1910–1914); Rue de la Paix (1910–1914); Tea in my Studio (1910–1914)

Cologne (Wallraf-Richartz Mus.): Portrait of a Swiss Woman Painter

Copenhagen (Statens Mus. for Kunst): Head of a Woman (1913)

Geneva (Petit Palais): Portrait of D.H. Kahnweiler; Old Clown; Village Square; Beach at Deauville

Grenoble (Mus. de Grenoble): Amusement (1914); Woman with a Fan (1922); Woman at the Hearth

Le Havre (Mus. Malraux): Montmartre (1903); Horseriders in the Bois de Boulogne (1906); Parisian Woman of Montmartre (1910); Bouquet

Lyons (MBA): Woman in Front of a Door

Montpellier (Mus. Fabre): Fernande Olivier (1908)

Montreal (MAC): Drizzle, Normandy; Young Girl

Moscow (Pushkin MFA): Woman with Black Gloves (c. 1910)

Nantes (MBA): Honest Pastime

New York (Brooklyn Mus.): Dr. W.S. Davenport

New York (MoMA): Madame Modjesko, Soprano (1908)

Nice (MBA Jules-Chéret): Blue Man and Red Woman (c. 1918)

Paris (MAM de la Ville de Paris): Two Women (1908); Flowered Bowl (c. 1925); Portrait of Paul Guillaume

Paris (MNAM-CCI): Acrobat with Bare Breasts (c. 1910); Railings of the Elysée Palace (c. 1912); Lake in the Bois de Boulogne (c. 1912); Fellahs (1913); Spanish Dancer (c. 1913); Deauville, Boat for Le Havre and Trouville (c. 1920); Couple (1920); Portrait of the Artist as Neptune (1922); Portrait of Madame Jasmy-Alvin (1925); Portrait of Madame Jenny (1926); Portrait of the Actress Paulette Pax (1928)

Rome (Gal. Nazionale d’Arte Moderna): Woman in White (c. 1910)

Rotterdam (Mus. Boijmans van Beuningen): House at Montmartre (1903); Interior with Yellow Door (1910); Portrait of Dr Charles Rappoport (1913); Finger in the Cheek

San Francisco (California Palace of the Legion of Honor): At the Folies Bergeres (1909, oil on canvas); Portrait of a Young Woman (1920, oil on canvas)

San Francisco (MA): Black Shirt (1906)

St Petersburg (Hermitage): Woman with a Black Hat (before 1910); Red Dancer (c. 1907)

St-Tropez (Mus. de l’Annonciade): Women at the Balustrade (1907–1910); In the Square (1910); Gypsy Girl; Little Donkey on the Beach (c. 1930)

The Hague (Gemeentemus.): Flowers; Harbour Girls (1920)

The Hague (Rijksverspreide Kunstvoorwerpen): Grand Canal in Venice (1921)

Tourcoing: Couple (1912)

Troyes (MAM, Pierre and Denise Lévy donation): At the Moulin Rouge (1904)

Tucson (MA, University of Arizona): Fisherman Mending his Net (1892); Polo Players (1947)

Wuppertal (Von der Heydt Mus.): Portrait of the Baron Auguste von der Heydt; Young Girl on the Beach

Auction Records

London, 30–31 May 1922: Portrait (watercolour) GBP 8; Parting (watercolour) GBP 8

Paris, 12 May 1923: First Sorrow (wash heightened with gouache) FRF 440

Paris, 29 Oct 1927: Terrace, FRF 2,100

Paris, 29 June 1928: Seated Woman in a Black Dress, FRF 3,010

Paris, 27 April 1929: Dreaming, FRF 13,500

Paris, 6 May 1932: Elegant Ladies, FRF 2,850

Paris, 9 June 1933: At the Casino, FRF 4,400; Piazzetta, FRF 4,300

Paris, 4 Dec 1941: La Valence, la belle Valence (watercolour, brush drawing) FRF 2,100; On the Bed (watercolour) FRF 8,000

Paris, 11 May 1942: Seated Nude, FRF 20,100; Woman with a Blue Necklace, FRF 19,500

Paris, 30 Nov 1942: Merry-go-round, FRF 27,100; Tulips, FRF 105,000

Paris, 10 Feb 1943: Millstone (watercolour and gouache) FRF 7,000

Paris, 6 May 1943: Head of a Woman, FRF 5,500; Recumbent Nude, FRF 20,500; Tightrope Walker, FRF 11,100

Paris, 2 July 1943: Souvenir of Dordrecht, FRF 36,000

Paris, 10 Dec 1943: On the Harbour, FRF 64,000

New York, 26–27 Jan 1944: Portrait of a Young Woman, USD 200

Paris, 31 Jan 1944: At Deauville, FRF 15,000

New York, 20 April 1944: Lilacs (1937) USD 1,150

Paris, 10 May 1944: Nude at the Bay Tree, FRF 35,000; Lace Hat, FRF 35,100

Paris, 20 June 1944: Ariane, FRF 75,000

Paris, 16 May 1955: Recumbent Nude, FRF 205,000

Paris, 14 June 1957: Les Planches at Deauville, FRF 2,500,000; Sailing Boats at Cannes, FRF 850,000; Harbour at Cannes, FRF 1,100,000

Paris, 19 March 1958: Supper at the Casino at Deauville (1920) FRF 350,000

Amsterdam, 22 Oct 1958: Antechamber, NLG 24,000

London, 1 July 1959: La Goulue as a Trainer (black ink and pastel) GBP 350

Paris, 1 Dec 1959: Standing Nude (watercolour) FRF 1,300,000

New York, 9 Dec 1959: Thousand Kisses, USD 6,000

Paris, 10 Dec 1959: Dancer, FRF 5,000,000

Paris, 23 June 1960: Arum Lilies, FRF 75,000

London, 23 Nov 1960: Dancers, GBP 9,200

Paris, 14 June 1961: Paris, Place de la Concorde (1922) FRF 43,000

Geneva, 12 May 1962: Portrait of Madame Utrillo-Valore, CHF 120,000

Paris, 12 March 1964: Le Hussard (Holland Night Club), FRF 150,000

London, 31 March 1965: Poppy or Madame Does Not Want a Child, GBP 14,000

New York, 20 April 1966: Lady with a Dark Red Necklace, USD 47,000

Geneva, 28–29 June 1968: Oriental Ladies, CHF 355,000

New York, Oct 1968: Portrait of Anatole France, USD 80,000

Paris, 5 Dec 1968: Acrobat, FRF 185,000

Paris, 12 June 1969: Avenue of Trees, FRF 143,000

Paris, 22 June 1970: Opera, FRF 220,000

Paris, 27 Feb 1973: Arab Woman, FRF 310,000

Paris, 12 Dec 1973: Old Harbour at Cannes, FRF 260,000

London, 4 April 1974: Portrait of a Woman, GBP 4,500

Los Angeles, 10 March 1976: Portrait of Marian Read Barbee (oil on canvas, 36¼ × 29¼ ins/92 × 74 cm) USD 10,000

New York, 11 May 1977: Portrait of a Young Blonde Woman in a Hat (c. 1912, oil on canvas, 25½ × 21¼ ins/64.7 × 54 cm) USD 42,500

London, 5 April 1978: We Are the Gazelles of the Desert (watercolour and gouache, 9½ × 7 ins/24 × 18 cm) GBP 4,500

Versailles, 18 March 1979: Young Female Nude (watercolour, gouache, and wash, 20¾ × 11¾ ins/53 × 30 cm) FRF 14,000

New York, 7 Nov 1979: Portrait of Dolly (1908, oil on canvas, 21½ × 18 ins/54.8 × 45.9 cm) USD 115,000

London, 5 Dec 1979: Opera at The Hague (watercolour and charcoal, 8 × 11 ins/20.5 × 27 cm) GBP 1,650

Hamburg, 12 June 1981: Young Lady with an Umbrella (c. 1910, drawing in wash and watercolour/paper, 21¾ × 14½ ins/55.3 × 37 cm) DEM 35,000

New York, 16 Nov 1983: Portrait of a Young Lady (watercolour and pencil/paper, 14½ × 10¾ ins/37.1 × 27.3 cm) USD 46,000

London, 7 Dec 1983: Portrait of Marie van Dongen (1908, charcoal and pastel, 24½ × 20½ ins/62 × 52 cm) GBP 17,000

New York, 16 May 1984: Actresses at the Fun Fair (1902–1903, watercolour/mounted paper/card, 9 × 10¾ ins/22.6 × 27.6 cm) USD 42,000

London, 4 Dec 1984: At Shepherds Restaurant, Cairo (1928, oil on canvas, 39¼ × 31¾ ins/100 × 80.7 cm) GBP 290,000

Enghien-les-Bains, 23 Nov 1986: Woman in Black Stockings (Indian ink and charcoal heightened with blue chalk, 17¾ × 12¼ ins/45 × 31 cm) FRF 86,000

Enghien-les-Bains, 25 June 1987: Egyptian Woman (1912–1913, gouache and oil on paper, 24¼ × 18 ins/61.5 × 45.5 cm) FRF 850,000

Paris, 20 Nov 1987: Tug Boat (1949, oil on canvas, 18 × 22 ins/46 × 55 cm) FRF 700,000

La Varenne-St-Hilaire, 6 March 1988: Lady of Biarritz (pencil and watercolour, 9¾ × 7¾ ins/25 × 20 cm) FRF 28,000

Paris, 18 March 1988: Around Rotterdam (1949) FRF 115,000; Deauville (oil on canvas, 21¼ × 25½ ins/54 × 65 cm) FRF 2,950,000

Paris, 21 March 1988: Acrobat (1905–1907, oil on canvas, 31 × 20½ ins/79 × 52 cm) FRF 1,780,000

London, 29 March 1988: Venus (oil on canvas, 57¾ × 45 ins/147 × 114 cm) GBP 418,000; Cafe de la Paix (oil on canvas, 19¾ × 28¾ ins/50 × 73 cm) GBP 209,000

New York, 11 May 1988: Woman in a Necklace (oil on canvas, 21¾ × 18¼ ins/55.2 × 46.5 cm) USD 253,000

Versailles, 15 May 1988: Street Singer (c. 1902, Indian ink wash heightened with red, 22 × 14¼ ins/55 × 36.5 cm) FRF 23,500

Paris, 2 June 1988: Mascara (Indian ink and watercolour, 24¾ × 19 ins/63 × 48 cm) FRF 270,000

Paris, 12 June 1988: Female Nude in front of a Clock (watercolour, 25½ × 19¾ ins/65 × 50 cm) FRF 380,000

Versailles, 15 June 1988: Polo Ponies at Deauville (gouache and watercolour, 19¼ × 25¼ ins/49 × 64 cm) FRF 610,000

Paris, 19 June 1988: Woman with a Guitar (oil on canvas, 36¼ × 28¾ ins/92 × 73 cm) FRF 2,600,000

Paris, 22 June 1988: Vase of Tulips (oil on canvas, 39¼ × 32 ins/100 × 81 cm) FRF 1,066,000

London, 28 June 1988: Blonde and Brunette (oil on canvas, 25½ × 39¼ ins/64.8 × 99.7 cm) GBP 93,500; Shawl, Andalusia (oil on canvas, 66¼ × 41 ins/168 × 104 cm) GBP 396,000

Calais, 3 July 1988: Lively Street (Indian ink wash and watercolour, 7½ × 9¾ ins/19 × 25 cm) FRF 60,000

Lokeren, 8 Oct 1988: Racecourse (drypoint, 23½ × 15½ ins/59.5 × 39.5 cm) BEF 140,000

London, 19 Oct 1988: Portrait of Annabella (pencil and watercolour, 18¼ × 12¾ ins/46.5 × 32.5 cm) GBP 12,100

Paris, 20 Nov 1988: Woman in a Flowered Hat (oil on canvas, 35¾ × 23½ ins/91 × 60 cm) FRF 4,500,000; Quarrel (Indian ink, 12 × 15¾ ins/30.5 × 40 cm) FRF 61,000

Paris, 24 Nov 1988: Mill (drawing heightened with watercolour and gouache, 10½ × 17¼ ins/26.5 × 44 cm) FRF 75,000

London, 29 Nov 1988: Notre-Dame de Paris (oil on canvas, 32 × 39¼ ins/81.5 × 100 cm) GBP 187,000

Amsterdam, 8 Dec 1988: Green Scarf (1952, oil on canvas, 24 × 18 ins/61 × 46 cm) NLG 155,250

London, 22 Feb 1989: Coming out of the Opera (pencil and watercolour, 17¾ × 10½ ins/45.3 × 26.5 cm) GBP 11,000

Milan, 20 March 1989: Poverty (1901, ink and watercolour/paper, 25¼ × 19¼ ins/64 × 49 cm) ITL 87,000,000

London, 3 April 1989: Woman with a Pearl Necklace (oil on canvas, 25½ × 21 ins/65 × 53.5 cm) GBP 187,000

London, 5 April 1989: Head of a Woman with Flowers (oil on canvas, 25¾ × 21½ ins/65.6 × 54.5 cm) GBP 220,000

Paris, 9 April 1989: Friends (1922, oil on canvas, 29¼ × 23¼ ins/74 × 59 cm) FRF 4,500,000

Paris, 11 April 1989: Entrance of the Café-Concert (c. 1900–1903, Indian ink wash and stump, 11¾ × 9¾ ins/30 × 25 cm) FRF 65,000

New York, 9 May 1989: Rue de la Paix in Paris (oil on canvas, 39 × 31½ ins/99.2 × 80.2 cm) USD 770,000

Paris, 5 June 1989: The Neighbour, Criquebeuf (1912, oil on canvas, 36¼ × 28¾ ins/92 × 73 cm) FRF 2,100,000

Paris, 17 June 1989: Head of a Woman with Flowers (oil on canvas, 25¾ × 21½ ins/65.6 × 54.5 cm) FRF 2,600,000

London, 27 June 1989: Mother and Child (1925, watercolour/paper, 24 × 19¼ ins/61 × 49 cm) GBP 60,500

New York, 6 Oct 1989: Chateau l’Eveque in the Dordogne (oil on canvas, 21¼ × 25½ ins/54 × 64.8 cm) USD 121,000

New York, 14 Nov 1989: War and Peace (1925, oil on canvas, 76¾ × 51¼ ins/195 × 130 cm) USD 1,045,000

Paris, 19 Nov 1989: Portrait of Jasmy (oil on canvas, 28¾ × 21¼ ins/73 × 54 cm) FRF 1,600,000

London, 28 Nov 1989: Beach (oil on canvas, 15 × 22 ins/38 × 55 cm) GBP 110,000; Little Head of Blonde Woman (oil on canvas, 16¼ × 13 ins/41 × 33.3 cm) GBP 253,000

Paris, 13 Dec 1989: Female Bather at Trouville (oil on canvas, 22 × 13 ins/55 × 33 cm) FRF 1,280,000

London, 3 April 1990: Modelling Couch (oil on canvas, 22 × 18 ins/55 × 46 cm) GBP 440,000

Paris, 24 April 1990: Deauville, at the Casino (watercolour, 24¼ × 18¾ ins/61.5 × 47.5 cm) FRF 670,000

New York, 15 May 1990: Little Horsewoman (oil on canvas, 25½ × 21¼ ins/65 × 54 cm) USD 1,100,000

New York, 16 May 1990: Vase of Flowers (oil on canvas, 29 × 24½ ins/73.7 × 62.3 cm) USD 231,000

London, 25 June 1990: Blonde Nude with Red Ribbon (oil on canvas, 39¼ × 32 ins/100 × 81 cm) GBP 385,000

London, 17 Oct 1990: Little Dog (oil on canvas, 14¾ × 17¼ ins/37.5 × 43.7 cm) GBP 33,000

Paris, 24 Nov 1990: Portrait of a Woman (oil on card, 14¼ × 11½ ins/36.5 × 29.5 cm) FRF 330,000

Paris, 25 Nov 1990: Fall of Icarus (oil on canvas, 85½ × 66¼ ins/217 × 168 cm) FRF 800,000

London, 3 Dec 1990: Femme Fatale (oil on canvas, 32¼ × 24 ins/82 × 61 cm) GBP 1,430,000

Paris, 5 Dec 1990: Luxembourg Gardens (oil on canvas, 39¼ × 32 ins/100 × 81 cm) FRF 1,000,000

Amsterdam, 12 Dec 1990: Houses and a Factory along a Road (c. 1900, oil on panel, 10 × 12¾ ins/25.5 × 32.5 cm) NLG 25,300

Bayeux, 1 April 1991: Gypsy of Toledo (1911, oil on canvas, 39¼ × 31½ ins/100 × 80 cm) FRF 4,350,000

New York, 9 May 1991: Cannes in the Rain (oil/synthetic resin, 14¼ × 10¾ ins/36 × 27.2 cm) USD 88,000

Paris, 17 Nov 1991: Woman with Egret’s Feather (1908, oil on canvas, 22 × 18 ins/55 × 46 cm) FRF 3,100,000

Biarritz, 8 March 1992: Portrait of a Woman (pastel, 15¼ × 11¾ ins/39 × 30 cm) FRF 140,000

New York, 14 May 1992: Thousand and First Night (watercolour, gouache, and Indian ink, 8¾ × 10 ins/22.2 × 25.1 cm) USD 44,000

Lokeren, 23 May 1992: Leda and the Swan (1931, watercolour, 13¼ × 9 ins/33.5 × 23 cm) BEF 130,000

Paris, 24 June 1992: Madame G, the Supposed Artist (gouache/paper/card, 26 × 20½ ins/66 × 52 cm) FRF 350,000

London, 30 June 1992: Woman with a Flowered Hat (1905, oil on card, 18¾ × 14¾ ins/47.5 × 37.5 cm) GBP 159,500

New York, 10 Nov 1992: The Geisha Sada Yacco (oil on canvas, 25½ × 21¼ ins/64.8 × 54 cm) USD 770,000

Paris, 17 Nov 1992: Rose in a Glass (oil on panel, 12¾ × 8¼ ins/32.5 × 21 cm) FRF 160,000

Paris, 23 Nov 1992: Dance at the Moulin de la Galette (oil on canvas, 28½ × 39¼ ins/72.5 × 100 cm) FRF 1,500,000

Amsterdam, 10 Dec 1992: Female Nude (watercolour/paper, 9½ × 19¾ ins/24 × 50 cm) NLG 57,500

Monaco, 14 March 1993: Bouquet of Red Roses (oil on canvas, 28¾ × 23½ ins/73 × 60 cm) FRF 560,000

Amsterdam, 26 May 1993: Young Elegant Woman (oil on canvas, 18 × 15 ins/46 × 38 cm) NLG 362,250

Paris, 3 June 1993: Young Lady in White (oil on canvas, 22 × 18 ins/55 × 46 cm) FRF 755,000

London, 13 Oct 1993: Nude in an Armchair (1896, oil on canvas, 13¾ × 13¾ ins/35 × 35 cm) GBP 40,000

Paris, 22 Nov 1993: Head of a Woman in a Hat, Stella (1907, gouache/tinted paper, 10 × 13½ ins/24.5 × 34 cm) FRF 170,000

Paris, 26 Nov 1993: Lace Hat (oil on canvas, 39¼ × 32 ins/100 × 81 cm) FRF 2,410,000

London, 23–24 March 1994: Towpath (Indian ink and pencil, 6 × 13¾ ins/15 × 35 cm) GBP 2,300

Paris, 25 March 1994: Head of a Woman with Flowers (oil on canvas, 25½ × 21¼ ins/65 × 54 cm) FRF 950,000

New York, 9 May 1994: Farmer Working (black chalk, watercolour, and gouache, 10½ × 18 ins/26.7 × 45.7 cm) USD 5,520

New York, 11 May 1994: Rue de la Paix in Paris (oil on canvas, 39 × 31½ ins/99.1 × 80 cm) USD 530,500

Paris, 13 June 1994: Deauville, the Private Beach (oil on canvas, 23½ × 32 ins/60 × 81 cm) FRF 1,090,000

Paris, 25 Nov 1994: Cannes, le Suquet seen from Palm Beach (oil on canvas, 21¼ × 25½ ins/54 × 65 cm) FRF 1,000,000

Paris, 8 Dec 1994: Profile of a Woman (ink, watercolour, and pencil/paper, 19¾ × 12¾ ins/50 × 32.7 cm) FRF 61,000

Amsterdam, 31 May 1995: Barge (oil on card, 22¾ × 28¼ ins/58 × 72 cm) NLG 37,760

Paris, 12 June 1995: The Nile (oil on canvas, 28¾ × 19¾ ins/73 × 50 cm) FRF 460,000

New York, 8 Nov 1995: Anita in Love (1908, oil on canvas, 76½ × 45 ins/194.3 × 114.3 cm) USD 1,652,500

Le Touquet, 12 Nov 1995: Place Pigalle, Merry-go-round of Pigs (1904, oil on canvas, 22 × 18 ins/55 × 46 cm) FRF 400,000

Paris, 12 Dec 1995: Young Woman with a Hat (oil on canvas, 21¾ × 18 ins/55.5 × 45.5 cm) FRF 1,810,000

New York, 1 May 1996: Woman with Columns or Dancer with Columns, Morocco (1910, oil on canvas, 39¼ × 25½ ins/100 × 64.8 cm) USD 662,500

Paris, 19 June 1996: Rest on the Fortifications (charcoal and Indian ink heightened with gouache/paper, 9 × 12½ ins/22 × 31.8 cm) FRF 10,000

Paris, 28 Oct 1996: Portrait of a Nurse (wash/paper/card, 18½ × 14¼ ins/47 × 36 cm) FRF 18,000

New York, 14 Nov 1996: Standing Female Nude (1902–1903, watercolour/paper, 18 × 11½ ins/46 × 29 cm) USD 48,300

Paris, 24 Nov 1996: Agib and His Mother Sett El-Hosn (1918, Indian ink and blue pencil/paper, 12½ × 10 ins/31.5 × 24.5 cm) FRF 44,000

Paris, 28 Nov 1996: Mother and Child, Deauville (1925, watercolour/paper, 24 × 19¼ ins/61 × 49 cm) FRF 180,000

London, 3 Dec 1996: One-eyed Ballerina and Child (c. 1905, oil on canvas, 32 × 21½ ins/81.5 × 54.5 cm) GBP 133,500

Paris, 9 Dec 1996: Woman in a Flowered Hat (c. 1905–1906, watercolour and Indian ink/paper, 9½ × 13¼ ins/24 × 33.5 cm) FRF 350,000; Lailla (1908, oil on canvas, 51¼ × 38½ ins/130 × 97.5 cm) FRF 4,300,000

Paris, 10 Dec 1996: Deauville (1931, watercolour/copper, book illustrated with 11 engravings, 18 × 12¾ ins/45.8 × 32.5 cm) FRF 20,000

London, 19 March 1997: It Was Genius (1918, ink and blue chalk heightened with white gouache, 12½ × 10 ins/32 × 24.5 cm) GBP 1,380

Paris, 20 March 1997: Village Street in the Rain (oil on canvas, 18 × 15 ins/46 × 38 cm) FRF 125,000

Amsterdam, 4 June 1997: Group of Egyptian Women in France (c. 1928, watercolour and charcoal/paper, 10¼ × 8¼ ins/26 × 21 cm) NLG 50,740

Paris, 5 June 1997: Yellow Tulip (oil on canvas, 18 × 13 ins/46 × 33 cm) FRF 205,000

Paris, 16 June 1997: In the Woods (oil on canvas, 21¼ × 25½ ins/54 × 65 cm) FRF 1,300,000

London, 23 June 1997: Dancer and Clown (c. 1907–1910, oil on canvas, 49¼ × 36¼ ins/125 × 92 cm) GBP 1,046,500

London, 24 June 1997: Woman in a Large Hat (1906, oil on canvas, 39¼ × 32 ins/100 × 81 cm) GBP 2, 201,500

London, 25 June 1997: Women with Plumes (c. 1920–1925, oil on canvas, 51¼ × 35 ins/130 × 89 cm) GBP 243,500

Paris, 10 Oct 1997: Portrait of Madame Davis (1962, drawing, 13 × 9¾ ins/33 × 25 cm) FRF 10,000

Paris, 17 Dec 1997: Portrait of a Young Woman in a Cloche Hat (c. 1920, watercolour, 13¾ × 9 ins/35 × 23 cm) FRF 195,000

Paris, 24 March 1998: Portrait of Sotero (oil on canvas, 28¾ × 23½ ins/73 × 60 cm) FRF 140,000

Paris, 27 March 1998: At Home (drawing) FRF 142,000

New York, 13 May 1998: The Dancers – Revel and Coco (c. 1906, oil on canvas, 36 × 29 ins/92 × 73 cm) USD 1,400,000

London, 30 June 1998: Young Girl with a Hat (c. 1908–1910, oil on canvas, 22 × 18 ins/55 × 46 cm) GBP 620,000

New York, 8 Nov 1999: Comedia, Montparnasse Blues (oil on canvas, 39 × 31 ins/100 × 80 cm) USD 1,200,000

London, 7 Dec 1999: Montmartre (1914–1915, oil on canvas, 39 × 29 ins/100 × 74 cm) GBP 490,000

London, 28 June 2000: Herb Seller (oil on canvas, 46 × 38 ins/117 × 97 cm) GBP 1,200,000

New York, 10 Nov 2000: Young Mother (oil on canvas, 39 × 32 ins/100 × 81 cm) USD 720,000

London, 6 Feb 2001: The Red Flower (c. 1905, oil on canvas, 74 × 39 ins/188 × 98 cm) GBP 700,000

New York, 7 Nov 2001: Nude on a Black Background (1905, oil on canvas, 39 × 32 ins/100 × 81 cm) USD 1,400,000

London, 9 April 2002: In the Bois de Boulogne (1906, oil on canvas, 36 × 24 ins/92 × 60 cm) GBP 320,000

New York, 4 Nov 2002: Woman with a Necklace (c. 1908, oil on canvas, 22 × 18 ins/55 × 46 cm) USD 400,000

London, 23 June 2003: At the Races (c. 1910, oil on canvas, 26 × 21 ins/65 × 54 cm) GBP 400,000

New York, 5 Nov 2003: Large Bouquet of Flowers (c. 1908–1910, oil on canvas, 77 × 51 ins/196 × 130 cm) USD 1,000,000

London, 2 Feb 2004: Dancers with Jewellery (c. 1905, oil on canvas, 51 × 38 ins/129 × 97 cm) GBP 1,300,000

Paris, 9 June 2004: The Postman (1923, oil on canvas, 32 × 26 ins/81 × 65 cm) EUR 347,000

London, 8 Feb 2005: Les Escarpins Mauves (1921, oil on canvas, 39½ × 59 ins/101 × 150 cm) GBP 1,576,000 (premium)

London, 20 June 2005 : Femme au Grand Chapeau (1906, oil on canvas, 39½ × 31¾ ins/100 × 81 cm) GBP 5,048,000 (premium)

London, 19 June 2006: Portraite de Fernande (1905, oil on canvas, 21¾ × 18¼ ins/55 × 46 cm) GBP 2,920,000 (premium)

New York, 7 Nov 2006: L’Equilbriste (c. 1907, oil on canvas, 51¼ × 38 ins/130 × 97 cm) USD 4,384,000 (premium)

London, 6 Feb 2007: Le Chapeau Bleu (1912, oil on canvas, 100½ × 81 ins/255 × 206 cm) GBP 2,484,000 (premium)

New York, 7 Nov 2007: Femme a la Cigarette (Cepue) (oil on canvas, 25½ × 19¾ ins/65 × 50 cm) USD 5,417,000 (premium)

London, 4 Feb 2008: L’Ouled Naïl (1910, oil on canvas, 39½ × 32¼ ins/101 × 82 cm) GBP 5,620,500 (premium)

Paris, 21 May 2008: Le Moulin de la Galette (1904–1906, oil on canvas, 21¼ × 25½ ins/54 × 65 cm) EUR 2,776,250 (premium)

London, 4 Feb 2009: Le Cuirasse d’Or (c. 1907, oil on canvas, 51¼ × 51½ ins/130 × 131 cm) GBP 2,897,250 (premium)

New York, 4 Nov 2009: Jeune Arabe (1910, oil on canvas, 40 × 25¾ ins/102 × 65 cm) USD 13,802,500 (premium)

London, 2 Feb 2010: La Gitane (c. 1910–1911, oil on canvas, 39½ × 32 ins/100 × 81 cm) GBP 7,097,250 (premium)

New York, 5 May 2010: Jeune Fille au Chapeau Fleuri (1907 – 1909, oil on canvas, 38 × 30½ ins/97 × 77 cm) USD 4,002,500 (premium)

London, 9 Feb 2011: The Actress Lili Damita (oil on canvas, 76¾ × 51¾ ins/195 × 131 cm) GBP 3,065,250 (premium)

London, 22 June 2011: Le Clown (Le Clown Rouge) (c. 1905–1906, oil on card/panel, 28¾ × 23½ ins/73 × 60 cm) GBP 2,057,250 (premium)

London, 19 June 2012: Lailla (1908, oil on canvas, 51½ × 38¼ ins/131 × 97 cm) GBP 3,681,250 (premium)

New York, 8 Nov 2012: La Dame au Chien (c. 1920, oil on canvas, 40 × 31½ ins/102 × 80 cm) USD 2,322,500 (premium)

London, 5 Feb 2013: Femme aux Bijoux (1929, oil on canvas, 51½ × 38½ ins/131 × 98 cm) GBP 825,250 (premium)

New York, 7 May 2013: Anita (La Gitane Apprivoisée) (oil on canvas, 39½ × 32 ins/100 × 81 cm) USD 2,965,000 (premium)

New York, 6 May 2014: Trois Femmes (c. 1909–1913, oil on canvas, 89 × 51¼ ins/226 × 130 cm) USD 2,853,000 (premium); Egyptienne au Collier de Perles (1913, oil on canvas, 39½ × 32 ins/100 × 81 cm) USD 1,565,000 (premium)

New York, 6 Nov 2014: Portrait de Erna Cairse (oil on canvas, 57¾ × 38¼ ins/147 × 97 cm) USD 749,000 (premium)

London, 23 June 2015: Anita en Almée (1908, oil on canvas, 76¾ × 44¾ ins/195 × 114 cm) GBP 4,114,500 (premium)

New York, 5 Nov 2015: Femme au Chapeau Vert (1910, oil on canvas, 36¼ × 29 ins/92 × 74 cm) USD 4,338,000 (premium)

New York, 9 May 2016: Leila (1915, oil on canvas, 76¾ × 51½ ins/195 × 131 cm) USD 1,690,000 (premium)

Paris, 1 June 2016: Portrait de Femme (L’Egyptienne) (1909, oil on canvas, 21¾ × 18¼ ins/55 × 46 cm) EUR 555,000 (premium)

Bibliography

  • Dongen, Kees van: Van Dongen raconte ici la vie de Rembrandt et parle à ce propos de la Hollande, des femmes et de l’art, Flammarion, Paris, 1927.
  • Wilenski, R.H.: Watercolours by Kees van Dongen: St George’s Gallery, May–June 1929, exhibition catalogue, St George’s Gallery, London, 1929.
  • Exhibition of Works by Van Dongen: 17th October–16th November 1938, exhibition catalogue, Rosenberg and Helft, London, 1938.
  • Leymarie, Jean: Le Fauvisme, Skira, Geneva, 1959.
  • Chaumeil, Louis: Van Dongen, l’homme et l’artiste, la vie et l’œuvre, exhibition catalogue, Éditions Pierre Cailler, Geneva, 1967 (1961 according to some sources).
  • Malraux, André/Dorival, Bernard: Van Dongen, exhibition catalogue, Musée National d’Art Moderne, Paris, 1967.
  • Diehl, Gaston: Van Dongen, exhibition catalogue, Flammarion, Paris, 1968.
  • An Exhibition of Art Deco: Van Dongen, Vertès, Foujita, exhibition catalogue, Éditions Graphiques Gallery, London, 1974.
  • Kyriazi, J.M.: Van Dongen, après le fauvisme, exhibition catalogue, Harmonies et Couleurs, Lausanne, 1976.
  • Halturin, Aleksandr/Pontus Hulten, Karl Gunar (ed.): Paris-Moscou, exhibition catalogue, Éditions du Centre Georges-Pompidou, Paris, 1979.
  • Osterwalder, Marcus (ed.): Dictionnaire des illustrateurs 1800–1914, exhibition catalogue, Ides et Calendes, Neuchâtel, 1989.
  • ‘Van Dongen’, in Beaux-Arts Magazine, exhibition catalogue, Paris, 1990.
  • Dagen, Philippe: ‘Un fauve impudique et mondain’, in Le Monde, exhibition catalogue, Paris, 22 March 1990.
  • Lemaire, Gérard-Georges: ‘Autoportrait en bleu, l’exhumation de van Dongen’, in Opus international, exhibition catalogue, Paris, May–June 1990.
  • The Van Dongen Nobody Knows, Early and Fauvist Drawings, exhibition catalogue, Museum Boijmans van Beuningen, Rotterdam, 1996–1997.
  • Hopmans, Anita: Kees van Dongen retrouvé, l’œuvre sur papier (1895–1912), exhibition catalogue, Institut Néerlandais, Paris, 1997.
  • Juffermans, Jan: Kees van Dongen, The Graphic work, catalogue raisonné, V+K Publishing, 2002.
  • Van Dongen, exhibition catalogue, Fondation Pierre Gianadda, Martigny, 2002.
  • Juffermans, Jan/Juffermans, Jan Jr.: Kees van Dongen: The Graphic Work: Catalogue of the Prints, Books and Posters, Lund Humphries, London, 2003.
  • Bondil, Nathalie/Bouhours, Jean-Michel: Van Dongen, exhibition catalogue, Hazan, Paris, 2008.
  • All Eyes on Kees van Dongen, exhibition catalogue, Publishers Group UK, Einfeld, 2011.
  • Krebs, Sophie: Kees van Dongen, Paris Musées, Paris, 2011.