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date: 29 September 2023

Rembrandt real name Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn, or Van Rynfree

Rembrandt real name Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn, or Van Rynfree

Updated in this version

updated 02 October 2012

Dutch, 17th century, male.

Born 15 July 1606? , in Leiden; died 8 October 1669 , in Amsterdam.

Painter, draughtsman, printmaker (etching, drypoint, burin). Portraits, group portraits.

Leiden School, Amsterdam School.

Rembrandt: Self-portrait, oil on canvas, 845×660 mm, 1659 (Washington, DC, National Gallery of Art, Andrew W. Mellon Collection); image courtesy of the National Gallery of Art, Washington

REMBRANDT: signature or monogram

REMBRANDT: signature or monogram

REMBRANDT: signature or monogram

REMBRANDT: signature or monogram

REMBRANDT: signature or monogram

REMBRANDT: signature or monogram

REMBRANDT: signature or monogram

REMBRANDT: signature or monogram

REMBRANDT: signature or monogram

Rembrandt’s date of birth is uncertain. According to his marriage contract drawn up on 10 June 1634, in which he stated he was 27, he would have been born in 1608; other sources indicate 1607 or 1606. Rembrandt was the sixth of seven children of the miller Harmen or Hermann Gerritsz. van Rijn (from the Rhine region, on whose banks stood the mill) and his wife, Neltje, daughter of the baker Willems de Suydtbroeck. Harmen Gerritsz. owned two houses near the White Gate or the West Gate in Leiden. His family was comfortable and well connected. It was decided to give the young Rembrandt a good classical education, and on 25 May 1620, he entered Leiden University. He stayed there about a year before abandoning his studies to enter the studio of Jacob van Swanenburgh, a local painter married to an Italian. He spent three years with this teacher. He met a number of young artists, including Jan Lievens, with whom he became friends. It was probably at the instigation of Lievens, who was already a frequent visitor at Pieter Lastman’s studio in Amsterdam, that, in 1624, Rembrandt became his pupil too. (Lastman, as a result of his stay in Rome, adhered to some of the Italian academic concepts, even though he had associated with the painters in Adam Elsheimer’s group in Amsterdam, whose ‘night pieces’ were rooted in the Caravaggio tradition.) After a six-month stay, Rembrandt left Amsterdam to return to Leiden in 1625.

In association with Lievens, Rembrandt set up a studio in Leiden, where they began to receive pupils. This studio, in which both paintings and etchings were produced, became the meeting place for many young artists from Leiden, including Gérard Dou. The first dated painting by Rembrandt is probably a portrait of a young girl signed ‘ Rem’ and dated 1625. Tradition has it that once Rembrandt had finished his painting St Paul in Prison (Stuttgart) in 1627, he was advised by his friends to submit it to Constantin Huygens, an art lover from The Hague, who was secretary and adviser to Stadhouder Frederic-Henri of Orange-Nassau. The canvas apparently changed hands for 100 florins and Huygens sat for his portrait (Hamburg) in 1630.

Rembrandt settled in Amsterdam in 1631 after the death of his father. The period from 1630 to 1642 is arguably distinguished by the dominance of the ‘Baroque’ in Rembrandt’s work. He was staying with his friend and picture dealer Hendrick van Uylenburch and producing compositions, portraits, and etchings. In the years 1631 and 1632, he produced in excess of 40 works, including The Anatomy Lesson (The Hague). Between 1633 and 1639, Rembrandt painted a series of compositions on the life of Christ for the Prince of Orange, including Christ on the Cross, Raising of the Cross, and Descent from the Cross (1631 - 1633); the Ascension and Entombment (1639); and the Resurrection (Munich). On 22 June 1634, Rembrandt married Saskia van Uylenburch, the niece of his friend and dealer, who brought with her a dowry of 40,000 florins. Rembrandt had known Saskia over a long period: two portraits of her are dated 1632 and three others 1633; in addition, in the same year he painted a portrait of Saskia’s sister. During the eight years of their union the image of the young woman animated his work both as a painter and engraver. In 1635, the young pair had their first child, a son, who did not live. A daughter was born in 1638 and died shortly afterwards. In 1639, he bought the house in the Sint Anthonisbreestraat (now Jodenbreestraat, which now houses the Rembrandt House Museum (est. 1911). A second daughter was born in July 1640 and died within a month. Finally, in September 1641, a second son was born and was called Titus. These numerous pregnancies exhausted the young woman; she died at the age of 30 in 1642. Rembrandt interpreted the different phases of her long illness in numerous drawings and etchings of this period.

After the loss of Saskia, Rembrandt often left his home to go on long walks in the countryside, and about this time, the conventional classical decorative style in his paintings gave way to the great horizons of the Dutch countryside and the many sketches from nature of Amsterdam and its environs.

Saskia’s will stipulated that Rembrandt would have the free and complete enjoyment of her fortune unless he remarried. In this case, half her capital would be allocated to Titus. The friendship between Rembrandt and the art patron Jan Six developed at this time. Six was 12 years younger than Rembrandt and may have been the adviser Rembrandt contacted over the disagreements with Saskia’s family at this time. In 1647, Rembrandt engraved the famous drypoint Portrait of Six. In 1654, he painted his portrait.

During the 1640s, Rembrandt’s financial situation had appreciably altered and he faced difficulties. In 1649, Titus’ nurse, Geertje Dirckx, who had posed for Rembrandt, brought an action against him for breach of promise. It appears that the arrival at Rembrandt’s house of a young woman, Hendrickje Stoffels, who at first was his servant, then his friend and possibly his wife, sparked this off. She had a child in 1652 and a second one in 1654, a girl called Cornelia whom Rembrandt recognised. On 17 May 1656, a court order appointed a guardian for Titus. The house in the Jodenbreestraat was sold, and Rembrandt went to live in the Rozengracht. In 1658, Stoffels set herself up as an art dealer with Titus’ help. Rembrandt was commissioned by the Drapers’ Guild to paint its syndics in 1661; the painting is now in Amsterdam Museum. In 1668, Stoffels died. The same year Titus married his cousin Magdelena; the union was short-lived. The young husband died in September of the same year. In March 1669, Magdelena gave birth to a daughter who was called Titia. Eight months later, Rembrandt died. His death certificate mentioned that he left two children; the generally accepted supposition is that he was referring to the daughter of Stoffels and Titus’ young widow.

Apart from the young painters who to various degrees were influenced by him in Leiden, such as Lievens, Backer van Vliet, and Dou, from his arrival in Amsterdam and up to the period of his ruin, Rembrandt had an ever-increasing number of pupils. These include Ferdinand Bol, Govaert Flinck, Van Vliet, Willem de Poorter, Jan Victors, Gerbrand van den Eeckhout, Philips de Koninck, Jacobus Levecq, Jürgen, Ovens, Christopher Paudiss, Adriaen Verdoel, Hendrik, Heerschop, Willem Drost, Carel Fabricus, Samuel van Hoogstraten, Nicolaes Maes, Constantijn van Renesse, Heiman Dullaert, Willemans Mayr, Franz Wulfhagen, Gerrit van Uylenburch, and Art de Gelder. From 1675, Joachim von Sandrart recalled his ‘Amsterdam house full of countless children of good family who came to improve their knowledge and learn from him’. Research has exposed the consequences of Rembrandt’s intense activity as the teacher of so many disciples. Right up until the 19th century, the first priority of a master was to teach his pupils his own style. Moreover, in Rembrandt’s era, it was accepted practise that once the disciples were trained, they would participate in the master’s work, which could include copies, variations, or even original creations in the master’s tradition; creations that the master could have eventually authenticated, notably by the formulaic ‘after Rembrandt’. So, even before the intervention of forgers, of the thousand or so paintings that over a long period were attributed to Rembrandt, modern scientific investigation has led to the rejection of three-quarters of them.

After his first hypothetical portrait of a young girl dated 1625, in 1626, Rembrandt painted The Ass of Balaam Talking before the Angel (Paris) after a theme explored by Lastman and inspired by his style and his acid yellows and greens (in addition to Tobias and the Angel [1626, Amsterdam]). In 1627, he painted a Flight into Egypt (Tours), a theme, which was often explored by Elsheimer, whose night pieces he was likely to have known through Lastman. The flight takes place in moonlight, in a chiaroscuro, a particular light effect destined to dominate Rembrandt’s entire body of work to come: paintings, washes, and engravings.

From the beginning of his career, Rembrandt’s choice of themes indicates his fidelity to the Bible. His desire for personal involvement often led him to invest figures from the Old Testament or the Gospels with the characteristics of his close relations. The prophetess Anna in The Presentation of the Infant Jesus in the Temple (1627, Hamburg) borrows characteristics from his mother, as seen when compared with The Mother of the Painter Reading the Bible (1630) and Rembrandt’s Mother as the Prophetess Anna (1631).

From 1624 to 1630, in the Leiden period, he executed many compositions depicting religious subjects, bearing witness to a multidimensional period of research already influenced by the exploitation of chiaroscuro. Rembrandt explored the subject of The Presentation of the Infant Jesus in the Temple in two different ways, four years apart. The 1627 Hamburg version still shows Lastman’s influence, with imposing figures, expressions rendered in a theatrical way, and a definite linear structure. The second version (in The Hague), painted in 1631, bestows an imposing character upon the architecture, with gigantic vaults over enormous pillars; however space and volume are no longer rendered by drawing outlines with coloured surfaces but by the modulating effect of light. Alongside these grandiose compositions, he produced small pictures: David and the Head of Goliath (between 1626 and 1628); The Artist in His Studio, also called Self-portrait with Easel, in which the easel lit from behind occupies the foreground, making the painter recede; Supper at Emmaus (1629), in which the powerful contrast is accentuated by a diagonal composition; Old Man Sleeping (1629), which heralded The Prophet Jeremiah Mourning over the Destruction of Jerusalem (1630). Judas Bringing Back the 30 Pieces of Silver (1629) belongs to the same period.

From the tousled young man in Portrait with Easel dated around 1625 (Boston), Rembrandt painted self-portraits, which were eventually to number 60 or so in total, sometimes disguising himself either for his own amusement or out of vanity. In 1631, he settled in Amsterdam near the Jewish quarter, where he gleaned figures from the Old Testament. He met Saskia in 1632 and married her the following year; this can be called a ‘Saskia period’ in his work, probably the happiest. It includes the Portrait of Saskia dated 1633 (Dresden), which shows an attractive young woman under a huge hat, and Saskia as Flora dated 1634 (St Petersburg). Until the death of Saskia in June 1642, her radiant presence dominated his painting and engraving. Rembrandt became bolder and tackled more important formats and painted full-sized figures. In 1632, his first group portrait, a flourishing genre in Holland, was commissioned: The Anatomy Lesson of Doctor Tulp. His reputation as a portraitist earned him numerous commissions.

In the 1630s series of paintings about the life of Christ commissioned by the Prince of Orange, which is the essential element of his Baroque period, not an influence but an assimilation of Rubens’ work can be deduced, though, to the dynamic power and chromatic brilliance of Rubens, Rembrandt brought his tight lines and intense treatment of the chiaroscuro effect. In the 1630s and 1640s, encouraged by the pervading Baroque trend, Rembrandt seemed to concern himself with the expression of movement, particularly in choosing the moment within the action, the instant at which there is the most intense tension. From then on, he increased his production of ‘grand subjects’, exploring the treatment of their most dramatic moment: Sacrifice of Isaac (1635, Hermitage, St Petersburg), where the angel grasps Abraham’s arm; The Abduction of Ganymede (1635), in which the eagle seizes the child in its wide-open beak. In the same vein are the four compositions telling the story of Samson (1635- 1641), include the agonising Blinding of Samson dated 1636 (Frankfurt). His work is articulated in different registers: The Angel Raphael Leaving Tobias dated 1637 (now in Paris) belongs to the religious genre; Lia Waiting for Jacob (1636, St Petersburg) is in the sensuality genre – in it we can still feel the presence of Saskia in the form of the nude woman who waits, resting on deep-filled cushions. This was an exceptionally voluptuous element in Rembrandt’s work compared to his output in 1654, in the same way as the cruelty depicted in The Blinding of Samson was exceptional.

In some of his early compositions, the landscape featured in the background. From the 1630s, the landscape occasionally became the subject of the painting, as in Stone Bridge dated c. 1638 (Amsterdam), in which he dramatised a very banal landscape through chiaroscuro. The same process can be detected in his engravings, which often depict trees on a plain and sketches of the area around Amsterdam, from which Rembrandt hardly ever strayed. In 1638, he painted The Storm (Brunswick), a vision of a landscape different from the previous works in which fantastical elements are reminiscent of the disturbing visions by Hercule Seghers.

In 1642, at the moment of Saskia’s death, Rembrandt received the commission of a work that has been incorrectly called The Nightwatch and marks the peak and conclusion of the Baroque era. In fact, the painting, commissioned to commemorate Maria de Médicis’ visit to Amsterdam in 1637, represents Seigneur de Purmerlandt, Frans Banning Cocq, Giving Lieutenant de Vlaerdingen the Marching Orders for the Company’s Militia. According to some commentators, this group composition is unique in its era, but Frans Hals had achieved a similar effect in a large number of his paintings since 1616, including Meal of Officers of the Corps of the Archers of St George; his second St Joseph’s Banquet (1627); and his Meeting of the Officers of the St Adrian Corps (1633). Admittedly, whereas Hals only exceptionally reached the spiritual depth achieved by Rembrandt, it is very probable that his example wasn’t lost on Rembrandt, who was nearly 25 years his junior.

The death of his mother in 1640, the death of Saskia in 1642, the trouble caused by Titus’ nurse, and the discontent among sponsors marked a new period in the life and work of Rembrandt. Perhaps due to the growing shortage of portrait commissions and compositions during the 1650s, Rembrandt produced more engravings: in 1649, Christ Healing the Sick (also known as the Hundred Guilder Print); in 1652, Faust; in 1653, St Jerome in a Landscape; in 1654, Jesus Shown to the People. There are several records of his engravings, which are proof of his spiritual reflection and his technical research. His 300 or so etchings are dominated by chiaroscuro, synthesized by reducing the work to black and white. At that time, his painting explored familiar subjects in a soothing technique, which could be termed ‘classical’: Susanna Bathing (1647). The Baroque influence faded and chiaroscuro often gave way to a balanced treatment of light within the gentle lines of a sober structure: Supper at Emmaus (1648, Paris). The portraits of this period bear witness to his new interest in Titian, Raphael, and Giorgione. However, in an unexpected way, in this relatively sober era, Rembrandt strongly accentuated the effects his materials could produce, juxtaposing dark tones treated in transparent, resonant glazes with thick applications of paint, thus creating a new light. This final period in which he painted portraits and figures could be termed ‘heroic’. Aristotle Contemplating the Bust of Homer (1653) is reminiscent of Hals. Whereas here the face of Aristotle – in which Rembrandt’s face is combined in its expression of gravity, as if disenchanted – is pure Rembrandt, the incredible sparkling of the interminable gold chain shining against the black clothes is technically pure Hals.

As in all phases of his work, Rembrandt easily switched subjects: the Portrait of Hendrickje as Flora (New York) dates from 1653 to 1656. In 1654, he painted Woman Bathing or Hendrickje Bathing in a River (London) and Bathsheba (now in Paris). The versions of The Flayed Ox date from 1655 (Paris). A new Anatomy Lesson with Doctor Deyman featured a corpse painted with a foreshortening effect, similar to Mantegna’s Dead Christ. In David and Saul (1657) and in Self-portrait in White Turban (1660), the lighting of the scene and of the figure is increasingly of supernatural origin. He continued exploring a number of themes well into his final years. In 1660, one of his last complex compositions was Peter Denying Christ (Amsterdam). In this picture, in addition to the soldier knocked down by his helmet in the half-light, Rembrandt combined chiaroscuro on St Peter’s face as he is shown caught up in his lie and folding his coat, ready to slip away, and the backlighting of the servant woman lighting his way and urging him to speak. Similarly, figures are impetuously sketched in the half-light in the Conspiracy of Claudius Civilis (1661). In a series of representations of the apostles, including St Matthew and the Angel dated 1661 (Paris), Rembrandt himself appeared in St Paul (Amsterdam). In 1662, he painted his last large group portrait commission, Syndics of the Drapers’ Guild (or The Sampling Officials), followed by a strange Family Portrait in 1669 (Brunswick) that is a symphony of reds and golds against a dark background. In the same years as the Woman with a Pink and using the same palette, in 1664 or slightly later, he painted The Jewish Bride. This painting represents the culminating point of his art: the two figures are lit as they would be in the theatre, standing out against a dark background; their clothes shine with the inherent luxury of quality materials with a more discreet effect than the radiant splendour in Hals’ work; the golden yellow tunic of the man, combined with the red dress of the fiancée, reinforces the subdued yellow/red harmony (gold and blood, light and flame) that constitutes the principal chromatic characteristic of his entire work. The faces that avoid eye contact and the hands that feel their way clumsily express a protective tenderness and a total sacrifice.

It would be entirely wrong to reduce all Rembrandt’s work, in spiritual content as well as practical treatment, to the exploitation of chiaroscuro. However, throughout his life’s work, he used this strategy to raise the emotional level of his work, as a symbol of the contrast between light and dark, as a vehicle for his personal thoughts about the human condition, the terrestrial world, and biblical revelation.

The Rembrandt Research Project (RRP), based at the Institute of Art at the University of Amsterdam, was founded in 1968 as an authority on the authenticity of works attributed to Rembrandt. At times it rejected long-standing attributions, such as Philosopher in Meditation at the Louvre or Man in a Gold Helmet in Berlin. The RRP disbanded in 2011, citing funding difficulties and an aging, and seemingly irreplaceable, leadership.

Group Exhibitions

1970–1971, Century of Rembrandt (Le Siècle de Rembrandt), Musée du Petit Palais, Paris

1980, Printmaking in the Age of Rembrandt, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

1988, The Drawings of Rembrandt and His School, Museum Boymans-van Beuningen, Rotterdam

1989, Rembrandt and His School. Drawings from the Musée du Louvre (Rembrandt et son école. Dessins du musée du Louvre), Musée du Louvre, Paris

1991–1992, Rembrandt: The Master and His Workshop, Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam; National Gallery, London; Altemuseum, Berlin

2003, Rembrandt and His School, from the Collection of St Petersburg’s Hermitage Museum (Rembrandt et son école: Collections du musée national de l’Ermitage de St-Pétersbourg), Musée des Beaux-Arts, Dijon

2006, Rembrandt and Co.: Dealing with Masterpieces, Dulwich Picture Gallery, London

2006, Rembrandt and His Circle: Drawings and Prints, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

2006, Rembrandt and the Aesthetics of Technique, Busch-Reisinger Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge (a selection of exhibitions organised to celebrate the 400th anniversary of his birth)

2009, Rembrandt, Vermeer, and the Golden Age of Dutch Art: Masterpieces from the Rijksmuseum, Vancouver Museum of Art, Vancouver (BC)

2011, Rembrandt and His School: Masterworks from the Frick and Lugt Collections, Frick Collection, New York

2011, Rembrandt and Lucas van Leyden, Rembrandthuis, Amsterdam

Solo Exhibitions

1956, Rembrandt, Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam

1956, Rembrandt the Printmaker: 350th Anniversary of His Birth (Rembrandt Graveur: 350e Anniversaire de sa Naissance), Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris

1956, Rembrandt, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen, Dresden (travelling exhibition)

1960, Rembrandt Drawings from American Collections, Pierpont Morgan Library, New York

1969, Rembrandt 1669–1969, Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam

1969, Rembrandt after 300 Years, Art Institute, Chicago

1969–1970, Rembrandt, Experimental Etcher, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston; Morgan Library, New York

1986, Rembrandt, the Etchings. 170 Etchings from the Collection of Eugène Dutuit (Rembrandt, les eaux-fortes. 170 eaux-fortes de la collection Eugène Dutuit), Musée du Petit-Palais, Paris

1988, Art in the Making, Rembrandt, National Gallery, London

1996 Rembrandt/not Rembrandt in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

1999, It Must Not Always Be Rembrandt (Es Muss nicht immer Rembrandt Sein), Haus der Kunst, Munich

1999, Rembrandt by Himself, National Gallery, London

2000, Rembrandt, Engravings and Drawings from the Edmond de Rothschild Collection (Rembrandt, Gravures et Dessins de la Collection Edmond de Rothschild), Louvre, Paris

2001, Rembrandt the Printmaker, British Museum, London

2001, Rembrandt’s Women, National Gallery of Scotland, Edinburgh; Royal Academy, London

2003, Rembrandt, Master Etchings (Rembrandt, Meisterradierungen), Staatsgalerie, Stuttgart

2003, Etchings by Rembrandt, Rijksmuseum Amsterdam Schiphol, Amsterdam

2003–2004, Rembrandt’s Journey, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston; Art Institute, Chicago

2004, Rembrandt’s Late Religious Portraits, National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC

2006, Rembrandt in Rotterdam, Museum Boijmans van Beuningen, Rotterdam

2006, Celebrating Rembrandt: Etchings from the Morgan, Morgan Library, New York

2006, Rembrandt-Caravaggio, Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam

2006, Rembrandt Rarities: Etchings from the Norton Simon Museum, Norton Simon Museum, Los Angeles

2006, Strokes of Genius: Rembrandt’s Prints and Drawings, National Gallery of Art, Washington DC

2006, Rembrandt’s Drawings in the Rijksmuseum, Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam

2007, Rembrandt and the New Jerusalem, Jews and Christians in Amsterdam in the Golden Age (Rembrandt et la Nouvelle Jérusalem, Juifs et Chrétiens à Amsterdam au Siècle d’Or), Musée d’Art et du Judaïsme, Paris

2008, Rembrandt: Three Faces of the Master, Cincinnati Art Museum

2011, Rembrandt and the Face of Jesus, Philadelphia Museum of Art; Louvre, Paris; Detroit Institute of Arts, Detroit (MI)

2011–2012, Rembrandt in America, Minneapolis Institute of Arts, Minneapolis (MN); Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland (OH); North Carolina Museum of Art, Raleigh

Museum and Gallery Holdings

Aachen: Portrait of a Lady; Study for a Christ

Abbeville: Self-portrait in Old Age

Aix-en-Provence: Self-portrait (unfinished); Jewish Wedding; St Jerome in His Grotto; Self-portrait in Old Age

Amsterdam (Rijksmus.): St Paul; The Jewish Bride (or Ruth and Boaz) (1668); Anatomy Lesson of Doctor Jean Dayman (1656); Syndics of the Drapers’ Guild (1662); The Nightwatch (1642); Jeremiah Mourning over the Destruction of Jerusalem (1630); Rembrandt’s Mother as the Prophetess Anna (1631); Portrait of a Young Lady of Quality; Elisabeth Jacobod-Bas; The Toilette; Landscape with a Long-arched Bridge (1638); Peter Denying Christ (1660); Tobias and the Angel (1626); Maria Trip (1639)

Amsterdam (Six Collection): Portrait of Six

Antwerp: The Minister Eleazar Iwalmais; Portait of a Woman

Bagnols-sur-Cèze: The Holy Family

Basel: David and Goliath (1625)

Bayonne (Mus. Bonnat): Head of an Old Man; A Rabbi; Interior of a Cellar, the Tasting; Noli Me Tangere; Portrait of Burgomaster Six; Study for Susanna and the Elders; Christ on the Cross

Bergamo (Accademia Carrara): Gerbrant van den Eeckhout; Portrait of a Lady

Berlin (Gemäldegal.): Bust of Christ (1655-1656, oil on canvas); Hendrickje Stoffels

Berlin (Staatliche Mus.): Samson Threatening His Father-in-Law Who Wants to Keep His Wife; Tobias’ Wife with a Goat; St Joseph’s Dream; Self-portrait; Moses Smashing the Tables of the Law (1660); Saskia Rembrandt; Samson and Delilah (1628); The Good Samaritan; The Abduction of Proserpine; Jacob and the Angel; A Rabbi; Minerva; The Money Changer; Susanna and the Elders; Daniel’s Vision; Joseph Accused by Potiphar’s Wife (a study); St John the Baptist Preaching; The Sermon of the Mennonites; Conversation of Anslo the Mennonite (1641); Portrait (two studies); Old Man; Landscape with a Long-arched Bridge; Tobias and the Angel (1659); Portrait of a Jew; The Sermon of St John the Baptist; Old Man in Red Cap; Head of Christ; Christ and the Woman of Samaria; Self-portrait in Velvet Cap

Bonn: The Angel Raphael Leaving the Family of Tobias

Boston (MFA): The Obelisk; Christ in the Storm on the Lake of Galilee; Gentleman and Lady in Black; Self-portrait

Bourges: Head of an Old Man

Brunswick (Herzog Anton Ulrich-Mus.): Storm; Family Portrait (1669)

Brussels (Mus. royaux): Portrait of a Man; Portrait of an Old Woman; Portrait Presumed to Be François Coopal, Rembrandt’s Brother-in-Law; Man Standing Wearing an Ample Coat and a Tall Hat

Budapest: Old Rabbi; The Holy Family Resting; Joseph’s Dream

Caen: Portrait of a Man

Cambridge, MA (Fogg AM, Harvard University): Portrait of an Officer; Farm on the Amsteldijk (1650-1652)

Châlons-en-Champagne: Abraham Driving out Hagar and Ishmael; Stratonice, Selencus Nicator and Antiochus Soter (attributed)

Chantilly (Mus. Condé): Landscape with Mill in the Centre (View of Dordrecht) (drawing); The Merciless Serf Is Pardoned (drawing)

Chicago (AI): Officer with Gold Chain

Cleveland, OH: Portrait of a Lady

Cologne: Self-portrait (1668); Small Landscape; Story of Tobias

Copenhagen: Christ at Emmaus; Portrait Presumed to Be Titus Rembrandt; Portrait of a Woman (study); Profile of an Old Man

Cracow: Landscape with the Good Samaritan (1638)

Darmstadt: Christ at the Torture Post

Detroit, MI (IA): Head of an Old Man; Death of Lucretia; Bust of Christ; The Visitation (1640); Portrait of an Old Lady

Dijon: Old Man; The Annunciation

Draguignan: Child with Soap Bubble

Dresden: Saskia van Uylenburgh as a Young Girl (Portrait of Saskia) (1633); Willem Burggraef; Abduction of Ganymede (1635); Rembrandt and His First Wife (two); Marriage of Samson (1638); Bittern Hunt; Sacrifice of Manoah; Old Woman; Young Warrior; Burial of Christ; Self-portrait; Portrait of a Man (four); Gentleman in Red Hat; Old Man with His Cane; Man in Hat Decorated with Pearls; The Artist with a Book; Portrait of a Bearded Old Man; The Artist with His Wife Saskia; Saskia with the Red Flower; Saskia van Uylenburgh

Dublin: Head of an Old Man; Shepherds Resting in the Night; Portrait of a Young Man; Portrait of a Young Woman; Interior

Edinburgh (Nat. Gal. of Scotland): Young Woman in Bed (c. 1645-1646, oil on canvas); engravings, landscapes

Eindhoven: Landscape with Two Bridges

Épinal: Portrait of an Old Woman; Christ on the Road to Calvary

Florence (NG): Self-portrait (two); Interior of a House; Landscape

Florence (Palazzo Pitti): Portrait of an Old Man; Self-portrait

Fort Worth, TX (Kimbell AM): Portrait of a Young Jew (1663, oil on canvas)

Frankfurt am Main: Marguerite van Bilderbeecq; David Playing the Harp in Front of Saul; Winegrowers in the Vineyard; Portrait of a Man; The Triumph of Delilah; The Blinding of Samson (1636)

Glasgow (AG and Mus.): Tobias and the Angel; Man with Breast-plate and Helmet, or in Armour; The Abattoir; The Painter’s Studio; Self-portrait; Head (study); Jeremiah Mourning over the Destruction of Jerusalem

Grenoble: Head of an Old Man

Hamburg (Kunsthalle): Portrait of Huygens (1630); The Presentation of the Infant Jesus in the Temple (1627-1628)

Innsbruck (Tiroler Landesmus. Ferdinandeum): Old Man in Cap

Karlsruhe (Staatliche Kunsthalle): Self-portrait

Kassel (Gemäldegal. Alte Meister): Saskia van Uylenburgh; Winter Landscape

Kassel (Staatliche Kunstsammlungen): The Holy Family, Known as the Nativity (1646); The Painter at 20 Years of Age; Artist’s Father; Old Man with a Gold Chain; Portrait Presumed to Be the Calligraphy and Arithmetic Master, Coppenol; The Poet Jan Hermansz. Krul (1633); Portrait of a Woman; Portrait of an Unknown Woman; Landscape with Ruins on the Mountain; Nicolas Bruyningh; Self-portrait; Portrait of a Man Called the Sentry; Portrait of an Architect; Head (four studies); Jacob in the Presence of Joseph and Asnath, Blesses Manasseh and Ephraim (1656); Jacob and His Tribe before the Meeting with Esau

Langres: Self-portrait (copy)

Leiden: Bust of a Middle-aged Man; Harangue of the Consul Cercalis

Leipzig: Head (study)

Leipzig (Mus. der Bildenden Künste): Self-portrait

London: Françoise van Wasserhoven; Jacob Jacobsz.

London (Dulwich Picture Gal.): Jacob III de Gheyn (1632, oil/panel, portrait); Girl Leaning on a Window-sill (1645, oil on canvas); A Young Man, Perhaps the Artist’s Son Titus (1663, oil on canvas, attributed)

London (NG): Anna and the Blind Tobit (c. 1630, oil on canvas); Ecce Homo (1634, oil/paper/canvas); Portrait of Aechje Claesdr. (1634, oil/wood, oval); Portrait of Philips Lucasz. (1635, oil/wood, oval); Saskia van Uylenburgh in Arcadian Costume (1635, oil on canvas); Belshazzar’s Feast (c. 1635, oil on canvas); The Lamentation over the Dead Christ (c. 1635, oil/paper and canvas); Self-portrait at the Age of 34 (1640, oil on canvas); The Woman Taken in Adultery (1644, oil/wood); The Adoration of the Shepherds (1646, oil on canvas); A Woman Bathing in a Stream (Hendrickje Stoffels?) (1654, oil/wood); A Franciscan Friar (c. 1655, oil on canvas); Portrait of Hendrickje Stoffels (c. 1654-1656, oil on canvas); A Bearded Man in a Cap (late 1650s, oil on canvas); An Elderly Man as St Paul (c. 1659, oil on canvas); Margaretha de Geer (1661, oil on canvas, two versions); Jacob Trip (c. 1661, oil on canvas); Portrait of Frederick Rihel on Horseback (c. 1663, oil on canvas); Self-portrait at the Age of 63 (1669, oil on canvas)

London (Royal Collection): An Old Woman: The Artist’s Mother (?) (1629); A Young Man Wearing a Turban (1631); Portrait of Jan Rijcksen and His Wife (The Shipbuilder and His Wife) (1633); Christ and St Mary Magdalene at the Tomb (1638); Portrait of Agatha Bas (Lady with a Fan) (1641)

London (Wallace Collection): Titus, the Artist’s Son (c. 1657, oil on canvas)

Los Angeles (County MA): The Raising of Lazarus (c. 1630, oil/panel); Portrait of Maerten Looten (1632)

Los Angeles (Getty Mus.): The Abduction of Europa (1632, oil/panel); Daniel and Cyrus before the Idol Bel (1633, oil/panel); St Bartholomew (1661, oil on canvas)

Lyons (MBA): The Stoning of St Stephen (1625)

Madrid (Prado): Artemisia Receiving the Cup Containing the Ashes of Her Husband; Self-portrait (1663)

Metz: Self-portrait in Military Costume

Milan (Pinacoteca di Brera): Portrait of the Artist’s Wife

Minneapolis, MN (IA): Lucretia Dying (1666, oil on canvas)

Montreal (MBA): The Death of Jacob (pen and brown ink, sepia wash); Portrait of a Young Woman (c. 1665)

Moscow (Pushkin MFA): Old Man (two); Hermit at Prayer; Head of Pontius Pilate; Assuerus, Haman and Esther; The Exile of Hagar; Self-portrait; Jesus at the Home of Martha and Mary; Head (two studies)

Munich (Alte Pinakothek): Holy Family (1631); Turk with Grey Beard; Lifecycle of Christ: Christ on the Cross, Descent from the Cross, Entombment, Resurrection, Ascension (1633-1639); Adoration of the Shepherds; Sacrifice of Isaac; Portrait of a Young Man; Self-portrait (1654)

Nantes: Portrait Presumed to Be the Artist’s Wife; Portrait of the Artist’s Father (copy)

Naples: Self-portrait (possibly a copy)

New York (Frick Collection): Nicolaes Ruts (1631, oil/panel); Portrait of a Young Artist (c. 1647, oil on canvas); The Polish Rider (c. 1655, oil on canvas); Self-portrait (1658, oil on canvas)

New York (Metropolitan Mus. of Art): Hendrickje Stoffels (1660, oil on canvas); Self-portrait (1660, oil on canvas); Flora (early 1650s, oil on canvas); Man with a Magnifying Glass (early 1660s, oil on canvas); Woman with a Pink (early 1660s, oil on canvas); Man in Oriental Costume (The Noble Slav) (1632, oil on canvas)

New York (Morgan Library): extensive collection of etchings and drypoints, including various states of the Hundred Guilder Print; Three Crosses; Self-portrait by a Window (first and second states)

Nuremberg: Portrait Presumed to Be the Artist; St Paul

Oslo: Descent from the Cross

Ottawa (NG of Canada): Esther at Her Toilette (1633)

Paris (Louvre): Announcement to the Shepherds (1634, etching); Jacob Listening to the Story of His Sons Returned from Egypt (c. 1641, drawing); View of the Singel Canal at Amersfoort (c. 1648, drawing); Christ on the Cross (c. 1649, drawing); The Banks of the Amstel (c. 1650, drawing); Head of an Oriental with a Bird of Paradise (drawing); Hagar Renounced, Crying at the Gate of Abraham (drawing); The Angel Raphael Leaving Tobias (1637); The Good Samaritan; St Matthew the Evangelist (1660); Supper at Emmaus (1648); The Philosopher in Meditation (c. 1631, two); Portrait of an Old Man; Portrait of a Young Man; Portrait of a Man; Hendrickje Stoffels; The Flayed Ox (1665); Woman Bathing; Bathing Woman; Portrait of a Man; Jew in a Fur Hat; Bathsheba Bathing (1654); Self-portrait Bare- headed; Self-portrait in a Hat and a Gold Chain (1634); Self-portrait in a Hat (1637); Self-portrait in Front of an Easel (1660); Hermit Reading; Portrait of Rembrandt’s Brother, Adriaen Harmensz. van Rijn; Doctor Arnold Tholinck; Portrait of Saskia; The Disciples at Emmaus

Paris (Mus. Cognacq-Jay): The Ass of Balaam Talking before the Angel

Paris (Mus. du Petit Palais): Beggars Sitting on a Clod of Earth (1630, etching); Self-portrait (1630, etching); The Rat-poison Seller (1632, etching); The Raising of Lazarus (c. 1632, etching); Joseph and Potiphar’s Wife (1634, etching); View of Amsterdam (c. 1640, etching); The Three Trees (1643, etching); The Bed à la Française (1646, etching); The Three Crosses (1653, etching); The Flight into Egypt (1654, etching); Jupiter and Antiope (c. 1659, etching); The Three Crosses (c. 1661, etching)

Paris (Mus. Jacquemart-André): Supper at Emmaus (1629); Amalia van Solms (1632)

Potsdam (Schloss Sanssouci): Bathsheba Bathing; The Feast of Belshazzar; Portrait of an Old Man

Prague: The Scholar (1634)

Rohrau (Schlossmus., Graf Harrach’sche Familiensammlung): The Niece of the Duke of Weimar; The Artist at 37 Years of Age

Rotterdam (Mus. Boijmans Van Beuningen): Man in a Red Beret (1663-1665); The Unity (Agreement) in the Country (1641); Mother and Child (1646); Portrait of Titus (1655)

St Petersburg (Hermitage): Abraham Receiving the Three Angels; Abraham’s Sacrifice (1635); Jacob’s Sons Showing Their Father Joseph’s Bloodstained Tunic; Joseph Accused by Potiphar’s Wife in Front of Her Husband; Lia Waiting for Jacob (1636); Haman’s Disgrace; Return of the Prodigal Son (1660); Parable of the Vineyard Owner (1637); Peter Denying Christ; Descent from the Cross; Doubting Thomas; Danae (1636); Portrait of an Old Woman (four); Portrait of a Scholar; Pallas; Portrait of an Old Jew; Portrait of a Man; Young Woman with Flowers (Saskia as Flora) (1634); A Turk; A Young Warrior; Portrait of an Old Jew; Young Woman Trying on Earrings; Portrait of an Old Man; Portrait of a Young Woman; Portrait of a Man (two); Hannah Teaching Her Son Samuel to Read; Portrait of an Old Woman; Portrait of an Old Man; Portrait of a Young Man; Girl with a Broom; The Dutch Poet Jerome Dicker; Portrait of an Old Lady; Young Woman in Front of the Mirror; Young Boy; Reconciliation of David and Absalom; Portrait of a Young Man; Christ and the Woman of Samaria

Stockholm (Nationalmus.): The Conspiracy of Claudius Civilis; St Anastase (Learned Old Man Sitting in His Monastery Cell) (1631); Portrait of an Old Man; Portrait of an Old Woman; Portrait Presumed to Be Rembrandt’s Sister; Young Woman Said to Be Rembrandt’s Cook; The Preacher J. Ultenbogaert; St Peter

Stuttgart (Staatsgal.): St Paul in Prison (1627)

The Hague (Mauritshuis): Rembrandt’s Mother (a study, probably copied after the head of his father); The Artist as a Young Man; Portrait of a Young Girl; The Presentation of the Infant Jesus in the Temple (1631); The Anatomy Lesson of Doctor Nicolaes Pietersz. Tulp (1632); The Painter as an Officer; Resting in Egypt; Lady at Her Toilette; Susanna Bathing (1638); Head (study, probably copied after the painter’s brother); Homer (1663); Laughing Man

Tokyo (Bridgestone MA): Peter Denying Christ (1628)

Tours: The Flight into Egypt (1627)

Vannes: Portrait of a Man

Vienna: Portrait of the Artist’s Mother (1639, two portraits by the artist); Young Man Reading; St Paul the Apostle; Portrait of a Man (several); The Artist’s Niece; A Bearded Man; Man in a Hat; Head of a Boy; Large Self-portrait

Washington, DC (NGA): Saskia van Uylenburgh, the Wife of the Artist (oil on panel, probably begun in 1634-1635 and completed in 1638-1640); Man in Oriental Costume (c. 1635, oil on canvas); The Circumcision (1661, oil on canvas); Lucretia (1664, oil on canvas)

Zurich (Kunsthaus)

Auction Records

Amsterdam, 1711: Joseph, Mary and the Infant Jesus, FRF 1,890

Paris, 1756: Jewish Bride, FRF 602

Paris, 1760: The Philosopher in Meditation; The Philosopher in Contemplation, FRF 4,000

Paris, 1764: The Prodigal Child, FRF 6,000

Paris, 1768: The Carpenter’s Household, FRF 5,450

Paris, 1771: St Peter’s Cradle, FRF 8,720

London, 1776: Adoration of the Kings, FRF 10,230

Paris, 1776: Vertumnus and Pomona, FRF 13,700

Paris, 1781: Portrait of a Young Man; Portrait of a Young Girl (matching pair) FRF 5,500

Paris, 1785: Return of the Prodigal Son (pen and bistre wash heightened with white) FRF 500

Paris, 1792: The Cradle, FRF 26,250; The Mill, FRF 12,125

London, 1801: Adoration of the Shepherds, FRF 10,000

Paris, 1807: The Master Carpenter of Ships, FRF 131,200; Adultery, FRF 131,200

Paris, 1809: Adoration of the Three Wise Men, FRF 70,000

Amsterdam, 28 Aug 1820: Portrait of Petronella Buys (1635, oval panel, 31 × 23 ins/79 × 58.5 cm) NLG 180

Paris, 1826: Rembrandt’s Mother (pen, bistre wash) FRF 500

Paris, 1830: Potiphar’s Wife, FRF 14,955

Paris, 1832: Portrait of Admiral Tromp, FRF 17,100

Paris, 1840: Tribute Money, FRF 15,740; The Standard Bearer, FRF 21,000

Paris, 1844: Benjamin Brought Back by the Order of Joseph (pen and bistre wash) FRF 700

Paris, 1845: The Sermon of St John, FRF 77,000

Paris, 1847: Deathbed of the Virgin Mary (drawing) FRF 3,681; The Mill on the Ramparts of Amsterdam (drawing) FRF 3,195

London, 1848: The Ungrateful Servant Girl, FRF 57,740

Paris, 1865: Portrait of a Burgomaster, FRF 34,500

Paris, 1-3 June 1865: The Gilder, FRF 155,000

Paris, 18 April 1868: Portrait of an Old Woman, FRF 55,000; Portrait of a Young Girl, FRF 21,600

Paris, 6-9 March 1872: Portrait of Juste Lipse, FRF 38,500

Paris, 1875: Portrait of the Anatomist Corneille Nicolas Anslo (pen, bistre wash) FRF 7,300

Paris, 1876: Portrait of a Man, FRF 170,000; The Minister Ellison, FRF 65,000; Mrs Ellison, FRF 50,000

Paris, 1881: Lucretia, FRF 146,000

Paris, 1882: Portrait of a Man (drawing) FRF 2,120; Old Woman (pen and bistre) FRF 3,700

Paris, 1888: The Young Scholar, FRF 50,000

London, 1890: Young Lady of the World, FRF 42,260

Paris, 1890: Portrait of an Admiral, FRF 106,500

London, 1892: A Young Woman, FRF 141,250; Portrait of a Young Girl (Hendrickje Stoffels) Getting out of Bed, FRF 131,120

London, 1893: The Wife of Burgomaster Six, FRF 175,940; Burgomaster Six, FRF 144,300

Paris, 1898: Nicolaes Ruts, FRF 131,250

London, 1899: Portrait of Anna Maria Schurman (drawing) FRF 7,875

Munich, 1899: Half-length Bust of an Old Man, FRF 38,750

London, 1900: Stone Bridge over a Canal, FRF 57,200

Paris, 29 May 1900: Portrait of an Old Man, FRF 8,100

New York, 1-2 April 1902: Portrait of an Old Man, FRF 80,000

Paris, 11-15 May 1903: Portrait of a Man, FRF 6,700

New York, 27 April 1906: Portrait of Petronella Buys (1635, oval panel, 31 × 23 ins/79 × 58.5 cm) USD 20,600

New York, April 1910: Portrait of Joris de Boulerié, FRF 172,500; Philemon and Baucis, FRF 160,000; The Raising of Lazarus, FRF 55,500; Portrait of a Rabbi, FRF 257,000

Amsterdam, 23 June 1910: Sketch of Saskia Breast-feeding Her Child (drawing) NLG 3,700; The Prophet Addon Attacked by a Lion (drawing) NLG 2,050

Amsterdam, 28 June 1910: Old Woman Seated (red chalk) NLG 3,420

Paris, 9 June 1911: The Jewish Philosopher, FRF 270,000

Paris, 2-4 May 1912: Old Woman Plucking a Chicken, FRF 475,000

Paris, 30 May-1 June 1912: Portrait Presumed to Be Rembrandt’s Sister, FRF 365,000

Paris, 26-27 May 1919: Portrait of an Old Man, FRF 42,000; Woman Sleeping (pen and sepia wash) FRF 11,800; Stag Hunt (drawing) FRF 9,100; Landscape (pen) FRF 7,500; The Mill (sepia wash) FRF 9,500; An Indian Prince (pen and wash) FRF 10,000

Paris, 8-10 June 1920: King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba (pen) FRF 10,000

London, 11-14 Nov 1921: Head of a Negro, GBP 120

London, 24 Feb 1922: The Falconer, GBP 546

London, 3 March 1922: Old Man in a Brown Coat, GBP 105

London, 8-9 March 1922: Christ between His Parents Returning from the Temple (drawing) GBP 82; The Windmill (drawing) GBP 100

London, 4-5 May 1922: Forest Scene, GBP 115

Paris, 14 Dec 1922: Jesus among the Teachers (pen and wash heightened with red) FRF 17,800

London, 15 Dec 1922: Parable of the Labourers in the Vineyard, GBP 294

London, 23 Feb 1923: Rembrandt, Palette in His Hand, GBP 120

London, 2 March 1923: Group of Houses with Windmill (charcoal) GBP 304; Lion Resting (sepia wash) GBP 962

London, 20 April 1923: Portrait of a Man, GBP 630

London, 4-7 May 1923: Old Jew Seated, GBP 262

London, 7 May 1923: Head of an Old Woman, GBP 157

London, 6 July 1923: Portrait of an Old Man, GBP 12,075; Rembrandt’s Sister, GBP 4,515

Paris, 2 June 1924: Young Girl at the Window, FRF 500,000; Portrait Presumed to Be a Member of the Raman Family, FRF 710,000

Paris, 12-13 June 1925: Zacharias in the Temple, FRF 385,000

London, 26 June 1925: The Artist Painting, GBP 1,417

Paris, 27-28 May 1926: Portrait of Rembrandt’s Son Titus, FRF 620,000; Portrait of the Artist Laughing, FRF 260,000; Head of an Old Man, FRF 300,000; Old Rabbi, FRF 200,000; Diana Bathing, FRF 170,000

London, 29 June 1926: An Oriental Warrior (pen) GBP 115; The Emperor of Hindustan (pen) USD 680; Landscape (pen and wash) GBP 1,550; Lion Stretching (wash) GBP 620

London, 14 July 1926: Hindu Prince (pen) GBP 300

London, 28 July 1926: The Duchess of Lorraine, GBP 3,570; Self-portrait, GBP 3,150

Paris, 20 May 1927: Seated Woman (black chalk highlighted) FRF 22,000

London, 8 July 1927: Portrait of a Man, GBP 31,500

London, 17-18 May 1928: Maurits Huyghens (red chalk, pencil, and wash) GBP 10,500; Portrait of a Young Man, GBP 46,200; Marten Looters, GBP 27,300; Portrait of a Woman, GBP 31,500; Man Carrying the Torah, GBP 50,400

New York, 28 Nov 1930: Portrait of a Rabbi, USD 75,000

Geneva, 7 Dec 1935: Self-portrait, CHF 38,250

Amsterdam, 15 Nov 1938: Maarten Looten, NLG 102,000

Paris, 20 Nov 1941: Hagar Leaving the House of Abraham (pen and bistre wash) FRF 200,000

New York, 4-5 Dec 1941: Portrait of a Young Man, USD 13,000

New York, 5 April 1944: Self-portrait, USD 10,500

New York, 4 Jan 1945: Rembrandt’s Father, USD 11,500

London, 6 Dec 1946: Self-portrait, GBP 13,125

Paris, 15 May 1950: The Arrest of Christ (pen study) FRF 53,500

London, 12 June 1950: Panoramic Landscape, with Windmills, GBP 6,510

London, 19 July 1950: The Flight into Egypt, GBP 10,000

London, 17 Oct 1950: Self-portrait in a Costume Lined with Fur, GBP 21,000

Paris, 7 Dec 1950: Self-portrait at about the Age of 56, FRF 12,500,000; Self-portrait at about the Age of 24, FRF 10,000,000

Paris, 25 April 1951: Portrait Presumed to Be a Member of the Raman Family (1634) FRF 10,900,000; The Trio or Rembrandt and His Family, FRF 7,800,000

Paris, 30 May 1956: Self-portrait (c. 1662) FRF 12,500,000

New York, 12 Dec 1956: Portrait of the Artist’s Father, USD 13,000

London, 26 June 1957: Bust of an Old Man, GBP 3,800

London, 20 Nov 1957: The Madness of Saul (pen and ink) GBP 2,200

Paris, 3 Dec 1957: Two Men Leaning on a Window-sill (pen) FRF 650,000

London, 16 July 1958: Two Oriental Women (brown wash) GBP 450

London, 24 June 1959: Portrait of an Oriental, GBP 2,800

London, 23 March 1960: Portrait of a Man, GBP 40,000

Paris, 14 June 1960: Jesus among the Teachers (pen and red wash) FRF 20,000

London, 10 May 1961: Shah Jahan (pen, ink, wash/Japanese paper) GBP 135,000

Paris, 20 June 1961: King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba (pen and wash) FRF 100,000

New York, Nov 1961: Aristotle Contemplating the Bust of Homer, USD 2,300,000

New York, 1 May 1963: Half-length Portrait Presumed to Be Hendrickje Stoffels, USD 260,000

London, 24 June 1964: An Apostle Reading, GBP 168,000

London, 19 March 1965: Portrait of the Artist’s Son, Titus, GNS 760,000

London, 1 July 1965: View of the Area around Amsterdam (ink) GBP 7,500

London, 7 July 1966: Lot and His Daughters (pen) GBP 16,000

London, 6 July 1967: Study of a Seated Actor (Front); Study of the Head of an Actor (Back) (pen) GBP 23,000

London, 10 Dec 1968: Figures Mocking Christ (pen) GBP 35,000

London, 27 June 1969: Self-portrait (c. 1633-1638) GNS 460,000

London, 4 Dec 1969: Christ and the Woman of Canaan (pen) GBP 30,000

London, 26 Nov 1970: Seated Bearded Old Man Turning towards the Left (red and white chalks, highlighted with white) GBP 55,000

Paris, 15 March 1973: Woman Sitting by a Window (pen and wash) FRF 500,000

London, 21 March 1973: Self-portrait, c. 1640 (1645) GBP 90,000

Paris, 26 Nov 1974: Self-portrait at about the Age of 24, FRF 1,000,000

New York, 10 Nov 1976: Self-portrait (etching, 8 × 6½ ins/20.5 × 16.4 cm) USD 7,500

Amsterdam, 18 April 1977: Nathan Admonishing David (pen, 5 × 5¾ ins/12.6 × 14.9 cm) NLG 90,000

Bern, 8 June 1977: The Great Flight into Egypt (1653, engraving and drypoint - sixth state of seven) CHF 33,000

London, 20 June 1978: Landscape with a House and Small Tower (c. 1651-1652, pen and brown ink, 3¾ × 8½ ins/9.7 × 21.4 cm) GBP 154,000

London, 29 June 1978: Head of an Oriental (etching, 6¼ × 5¼ ins/15.9 × 13.6 cm) GBP 4,000

New York, 30 May 1979: Mother and Child (pen and wash, study, 5½ × 5 ins/14 × 13 cm) USD 22,000

Bern, 21 June 1979: Peter and John Healing an Injured Man at the Gate of the Temple (1659, etching, drypoint, and burin - second state of four) CHF 36,000

Bern, 22 Nov 1979: Portrait of Rembrandt’s Brother, Adriaen van Rijn (oil/panel, 22 × 16¾ ins/56 × 42.5 cm) CHF 170,000

New York, 15 Feb 1980: Self-portrait in Beret, Open-mouthed (etching, single state, 2 × 1¾ ins/5.1 × 4.5 cm) USD 17,000

New York, 22 Oct 1980: Portrait of Petronella Buys (1635, oval panel, 31 × 23 ins/79 × 58.5 cm) USD 900,000

Amsterdam, 18 Nov 1980: Old Man in Fur Hat (c. 1648, black chalk, 5 × 3¾ ins/12.9 × 9.4 cm) NLG 195,000

London, 7 July 1981: Study of a Nude Woman as Cleopatra (c. 1637, red and white chalks/cream paper, 9¾ × 5½ ins/24.8 × 13.7 cm) GBP 300,000

New York, 14 Nov 1981: The Three Trees (1643, etching, drypoint, and burin, 8¼ × 11 ins/21.1 × 28 cm) USD 110,000

Monte Carlo, 13 June 1982: Study of a Man (pen and sepia ink, 2¾ × 2½ ins/6.8 × 6.4 cm) FRF 30,000

New York, 16 Nov 1982: Woman with an Arrow (1661, etching, burin, and drypoint, 8 × 4¾ ins/20.4 × 12.3 cm) USD 60,000

Paris, 22 March 1983: Study of a Man (c. 1635, pen and brown ink, 2½ × 3 ins/6.5 × 7.5 cm) FRF 150,000

London, 21 April 1983: Adam and Eve (1639, etching - second state, 6½ × 4½ ins/16.3 × 11.7 cm) GBP 11,000

London, 27 June 1984: Woman Bathing, a Hat by Her Side (etching and drypoint - last state, 6¼ × 5 ins/15.9 × 12.9 cm) GBP 60,000

London, 3 July 1984: View of the Amstel with Kostverloren Castle (pen and brown wash with touches of gouache/tinted brown paper, 5¾ × 8¼ ins/14.5 × 21.2 cm) GBP 600,000

London, 5 Dec 1985: Jesus Shown to the People (1655, drypoint, 21½ × 17¾ ins/54.8 × 45 cm) GBP 8,000

London, 10 Dec 1986: Portrait of a Young Girl Wearing a Dress Trimmed with Gold (1632, oil on panel, oval, 23¼ × 17¼ ins/59 × 44 cm) GBP 6,000,000

London, 29 June 1987: Abraham and Isaac (1645, etching and drypoint, 6¼ × 5¼ ins/15.9 × 13.3 cm) GBP 120,000

New York, 12 Jan 1988: Adam and Eve (ink, 4¾ × 5 ins/11.9 × 11.8 cm) USD 79,200

Bern, 22 June 1988: Clement de Jonghe (etching) CHF 152,000

Heidelberg, 14 Oct 1988: The Circumcision (etching, 3¾ × 5¾ ins/9.5 × 14.5 cm) DEM 4,300; The Partial Raising of Lazarus (etching, 6 × 4½ ins/15.1 × 11.4 cm) DEM 3,000

Paris, 26 Oct 1988: Abraham Caressing Isaac (1645, etching and burin) FRF 60,000

Bern, 26 Oct 1988: Portrait of a Young Man in a Pearl Chain (oil on panel, 22¾ × 20½ ins/58 × 52 cm) CHF 170,000

Paris, 13 Dec 1988: Doubting Thomas (pen and brown wash/paper, 7 × 10¾ ins/18 × 27.5 cm) FRF 420,000

Monaco, 1 Dec 1989: Three Women on the Doorstep (brush, pen, and brown wash with white gouache corrections, 9¼ × 7½ ins/23.8 × 18.8 cm) FRF 3,108,000

London, 2 July 1991: Two Bearded Men in Conversation (black chalk, 3½ × 2¾ ins/8.6 × 7 cm) GBP 15,400

Munich, 26-27 Nov 1991: Infant Jesus with His Parents Leaving the Temple (1654, etching) DEM 52,900

Heidelberg, 11 April 1992: The Raising of Lazarus (etching, 14½ × 10¼ ins/37 × 26 cm) DEM 3,200

London, 8 July 1992: Portrait of Johannes Uyttenbogaert (1633, oil on canvas, 52 × 40¼ ins/132 × 102 cm) GBP 4,180,000

Heidelberg, 9 Oct 1992: The Windmill (etching, 5¾ × 8¼ ins/14.6 × 20.9 cm) DEM 44,500

Amsterdam, 25 Nov 1992: Joseph Interpreting Pharaoh’s Dreams (brown ink/tinted paper, 7¾ × 7¼ ins/20 × 18.7 cm) NLG 414,000

Paris, 15 May 1993: Strolling Minstrels (etching, 5½ × 5 ins/14.1 × 11.8 cm) FRF 18,000

New York, 11 Jan 1994: Studies of the Heads of Four Bearded Men in Hats or Turbans (ink and wash/brown paper, 5 × 6¼ ins/12.6 × 15.8 cm) USD 332,500

Paris, 19 Oct 1994: Collection of 85 Original Prints (etching) FRF 250,000

Paris, 26 Oct 1995: The Return from Egypt, Jesus Taken from the Temple (1654, etching and drypoint) FRF 115,000

London, 6 Dec 1995: Cupid Blowing Soap Bubbles (1634, oil on canvas, 29½ × 36½ ins/75 × 92.6 cm) GBP 3,851,500

Paris, 7 June 1996: Three Heads of Women, One Asleep (1637, etching, 5½ × 3¾ ins/14.2 × 9.6 cm) FRF 13,200

Paris, 29 Nov 1996: Christ at Emmaus (1634, etching, 4 × 2¾ ins/10.2 × 7.3 cm) FRF 6,000

Paris, 27 Nov 1997: The Draughtsman (c. 1641, etching, 3½ × 2½ ins/9.2 × 6.4 cm) FRF 10,000

New York, Jan 1998: Portrait of a Bearded Man in a Red Coat (1633, oil on oak panel, oval, 25 × 20 ins/63.5 × 50.8 cm) USD 9,077,500

Paris, 8 April 1998: View of Omval (1645, etching and drypoint, h. 8¼ ins/21 cm) FRF 38,000

New York, 28 Jan 2000: The Bulwark De Rose and Windmill De Smeerpot, Amsterdam (pen, brown ink, and brown wash, 5 × 9 ins/13 × 22 cm) USD 3,400,000

London, 13 Dec 2000: Portrait of a Lady Aged 62, Perhaps Aeltje Pietersdr, Uylenburgh, Wife of Johannes Cornelisz. (1632, oil on panel, oval, 29 × 22 ins/74 × 56 cm) GBP 18,000,000

New York, 26 Jan 2001: Portrait of a Bearded Man in a Red Doublet (1633, oil on panel, oval, 25 × 20 ins/63 × 51 cm) USD 11,500,000

Bern, 22 June 2001: Landscape with Three Trees (etching) CHF 350,000

New York, 25 Jan 2002: Landscape with Windmill and Other Buildings (pen, ink, and wash, top corners cut, 4 × 7 ins/11 × 19 cm) USD 300,000

Madrid, 7 Oct 2002: Jonathan Helping David (ink, 8 × 6 ins/20 × 16 cm) EUR 180,000

London, 8 July 2003: Seated Man with Long Hair, Hands Folded (black chalk with framing lines, 5 × 4 ins/13 × 10 cm) GBP 165,000

London, 10 July 2003: Self-portrait with Shaded Eyes (1634, oil on panel, 28 × 22 ins/71 × 55 cm) GBP 6,200,000

London, 30 June 2004: Heads, Landscape and Other Subjects (etching, album of 32, 18 × 12 ins/46 × 31 cm) GBP 40,000; Heads, Landscapes and Other Subjects (etching, album of 78, 18 × 12 ins/46 × 31 cm) GBP 110,000

London, 30 June 2004: Heads, Landscape and Other Subjects (etching, album of 32, 18 × 12 ins/46 × 31 cm) GBP 40,000; Heads, Landscapes and Other Subjects (etching, album of 78, 18 × 12 ins/46 × 31 cm) GBP 110,000

Amsterdam, 2 Nov 2004: Inn on Dyke (wash, brown ink, pen, paper, 4¼ × 8 ins/10.4 × 20.1 cm) EUR 200,000

London, 5 July 2005: Old Man in a Turban Seated in Profile to the Left (black chalk, graphite on paper, 6 × 4½ ins/14.8 × 11.1 cm) GBP 200,000

New York, 26 Jan 2006: Study of an Elderly Woman in a White Cap (oil/panel, 21 × 14¾ ins/53.3 × 37.5 cm) USD 3,800,000

New York, 25 Jan 2007: Young Woman with a Black Cap (oil/panel, 27 × 21¼ ins/68.7 × 53.5 cm) USD 8,000,000; St James the Greater (1661, oil/canvas, 36¼ × 29½ ins/92.1 × 74.9 cm) USD 23,000,000; Vagrant Couple with a Dog (black chalk, pen, brown ink on paper, 6½ × 5¾ ins/16.5 × 14.5 cm) USD 540,000

London, 8 Dec 2009: Portrait of a Man with Arms Akimbo (42¼ × 34¼ ins/107.4 × 87 cm) GBP 18,000,000

New York, 26 Jan 2011: Judas Returning the 30 Pieces of Silver (black chalk, pen, and brown ink, grey wash on paper, 4½ × 5¾ ins/11.3 × 14.6 cm) USD 600,000


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