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Italian, 16th century, male.

Born 1509, in Gandino near Bergamo; died 1579, in Madrid, in 1569 according to the Larousse Dictionary.

Painter, sculptor, draughtsman (including wash), architect, decorative artist, art restorer. Religious subjects, historical subjects, mythological subjects. Wall decorations, frescoes.

After a study trip to Rome, paid for by his protector Tobia Pallavicini, Giovanni Battista Castello (Il Bergamasco) produced a series of works in Genoa and Bergamo. His best-known works in Bergamo include the fresco ...


Italian, 15th century, male.

Born 5 June 1436, in Lucca; died 12 October 1501, in Lucca.

Sculptor, architect. Religious furnishings (altars).

Florentine School.

Matteo Civitali was a pupil of Antonio Rossellino, then worked with his master in Florence. He was responsible for introducing printing to Lucca. His work as an architect includes the Palazzo Pretorio in Lucca: its plans are attributed to him. He was a humanist, and his first works as a sculptor were representations of humanists of his day: ...


Italian, 16th century, male.

Born 1499, in Rome; died 1 November 1546., in Mantua

Painter (including gouache and fresco), draughtsman, decorative artist, architect, engineer. Historical, mythological, religious and military subjects; battle scenes, portraits, animals. Murals, wall decorations.

School of Rome.

Knowledge of Giulio Romano’s early career stems from Giorgio Vasari, who wrote that Giulio worked as an assistant in Raphael’s workshop, and became a well-loved pupil. By 1516, he was working in the Stanza dell’Incendio in the papal apartments (Vatican Palace, 1509–1517), executing Raphael’s designs for the fresco narratives. Giulio also played a prominent role in painting the adjoining Loggia of Leo X de’ Medici (1518–1519), alongside Giovanni da Udine and other members of Raphael’s workshop. Raphael received commissions to decorate the Villa Farnesina (Rome, 1513) for Agostino Chigi, and design and decorate the Villa Madama for the future Pope Clement VII de’ Medici (Rome, commissioned 1518), and Giulio participated in both projects. When Raphael died in 1520, Giulio inherited Raphael’s workshop, along with Giovan Francesco Penni, and the two completed a number of his unfinished works, most notably the frescoes in the Sala di Costantino (Vatican Palace, 1519–1524), for which Raphael had left drawings that Giulio likely modified. Giulio adapted Raphael’s use of classical forms in his work, borrowing images from ancient sculpture and reliefs, yet he also incorporated greater ornament and a subtle wit that distinguished him from his master....


Italian, 15th – 16th century, male.

Active from 1515 in France.

Born 15 April 1452, in Anchiano, near Vinci; died 2 May 1519, in Clos-Lucé, near Amboise, France.

Painter, sculptor, draughtsman, architect, engineer. Religious subjects, mythological subjects, portraits, topographic subjects, anatomical studies.

Leonardo da Vinci was the illegitimate son of the Florentine notary Ser Piero da Vinci, who married Albiera di Giovanni Amadori, the daughter of a patrician family, in the year Leonardo was born. Little is known about the artist’s natural mother, Caterina, other than that five years after Leonardo’s birth she married an artisan from Vinci named Chartabriga di Piero del Veccha. Leonardo was raised in his father’s home in Vinci by his paternal grandfather, Ser Antonio. Giorgio Vasari discusses Leonardo’s childhood at length, noting his aptitude for drawing and his taste for natural history and mathematics. Probably around 1470, Leonardo’s father apprenticed him to Andrea del Verrocchio; two years later, Leonardo’s name appears in the register of Florentine painters. Although officially a painter in his own right, Leonardo remained for a further five years or so in Verrocchio’s workshop, where Lorenzo di Credi and Pietro Perugino numbered among his fellow students....


Italian, 16th century, male.

Born 6 March 1475, in Caprese, near Arezzo; died 18 February 1564, in Rome.

Painter, draughtsman, sculptor, architect, engineer, poet. Religious subjects, mythological subjects, nudes, portraits.

At the time of Michelangelo’s birth, his father, Ludovico, son of Leonardo Buonarroti Simoni, was resident magistrate for the Republic of Florence in the small, fortified town of Caprese, but soon after the family returned to Florence. Michelangelo lost his mother when he was six years old, and the family’s financial situation was poor, though previous generations of Buonarroti had been rich and powerful and among the ‘priori’, or governing councillors, of Florence. Michelangelo’s father would therefore have preferred a business career for his son, but Michelangelo was encouraged by his friend Francesco Granacci in his artistic ambitions. He prevailed over his father, and on 1 April 1488, at the age of 13, he joined the large workshop of the painters Domenico and Davide Ghirlandaio. His apprenticeship agreement bound him to them for three years....


Italian, 16th century, male.

Born 15 January 1481, in Ancaiano, near Siena; died 6 January 1536, in Rome.

Painter (including fresco), decorative artist, engraver, draughtsman, architect. Religious subjects.

Nothing is known of Baldassare Peruzzi’s early training, but his prolific career as an architect, painter and draughtsman began in Siena. He is first recorded as painter of the frescoes in the chapel of S Giovanni in Siena Cathedral (...


Italian, 16th century, male.

Born c. 1496, in Florence; died 1564, in Florence.

Painter, architect, decorative designer, miniaturist. Religious subjects, mythological subjects.

Tommaso di Stefano was the son of Tommaso di Giovanni Lunetti, a painter and architect working in Florence who collaborated with Michelangelo on the sacristy of S Lorenzo, was a friend of Lorenzo di Credi and sometimes associated with Piero di Cosimo. He was taught painting and architecture by his father but also studied under Lorenzo di Credi, whose style he imitated. He is known for a ...


Dutch, 16th century, male.

Born 1526, in Leeuwarden; died between 1606 and 1609, in Antwerp.

Painter, architect, draughtsman, engraver, designer of ornamental architectural features, decorative artist, art restorer. Religious subjects, landscapes, architectural views, interiors, church interiors, gardens, decorative motifs (grotesques), models (buildings).

Prague School.

Hans Vredeman de Vries was a pupil of Cornelis Floris (Cornelis Cornelis de Vriendt) and studied painting in Amsterdam. He was a great traveller and went to Mechelen, to Antwerp in 1549 and again in 1562 and from 1575 to 1585 and then to Leipzig. In 1586, he went to Frankfurt and then Brunswick, where he was based until 1596. In 1591 he was in Hamburg. Between 1592 and 1595 he worked in Danzig (now Gdansk) where he designed the fortifications and some ornamental motifs and also decorated the town hall and a number of churches. Next he went to Prague (1596-1598), to the court of Rudolph II, and to Amsterdam and The Hague. He had two sons, Salomon and Paul, who worked with him....