Show Summary Details

Page of

Printed from Benezit Dictionary of Artists. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a single article for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy).

Subscriber: null; date: 22 October 2019

Rouault, Georgeslocked

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 27 May 1871, in Paris, France; died 13 February 1958, in Paris.

Painter (gouache), watercolourist, engraver, potter. Religious subjects, figures, landscapes. Stage sets, designs for stained glass, designs for tapestries.

Georges ROUAULT: signature or monogram

Georges ROUAULT: signature or monogram

Georges ROUAULT: signature or monogram

Georges Rouault completed his primary education in 1885 and was apprenticed to stained-glass artists – first the Tamonis, then Hirsch. He received a direct offer from Albert Besnard for stained-glass windows for the School of Pharmacy to be made from his design sketches, but he refused out of loyalty to his employer. He was encouraged to consider painting as a career, having been introduced to the appreciation of art by his grandfather, Alexandre Champdavoine, who, modest white-collar worker though he was, knew and admired Honoré Daumier, Gustave Courbet, and Édouard Manet. Rouault achieved entry to the École Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts in Paris in 1891, first in Elie Delaunay’s studio, then in Gustave Moreau’s (where he met Henri Matisse, Albert Marquet, Rudolf Lehmann, Henri Evenepoel, and others). Though he failed twice at the Prix de Rome, he won the Prix Chenavard in 1894 and, by 1900, he had obtained a mention and a bronze medal. In 1903, as Gustave Moreau’s executor, he became the curator of the Musée Gustave Moreau in Paris.

Rouault was a worker’s son and counts with Daumier among the rare French artists to have sprung from the urban lower classes. This may explain some aspects of his production – an earthy wit in some of his paintings and engravings, the awareness of social injustice and of material and moral deprivation, of human pity, which characterizes many of his pieces, and the virulence of his expression. Gustave Moreau’s favourite pupil, he learned from his master that art is not a literal imitation of reality and that an artist’s merits are to be found in his transposition and execution. Rouault took on Moreau’s principles and his independent, proud, and fastidious attitude. In the footsteps of Moreau and thereby of Rembrandt and Leonardo, he achieved at the turn of the century compositions on sacred or mythological themes. At the same time, he worked from nature, producing watercolours of the suburbs or of rundown districts, signing them with ‘G. Rouault-Champdavoine’.

After Moreau’s death in 1895, his contacts with Joris-Karl Huysmans and Léon Bloy and the lonely visits his health forced him to make to Savoy, contributed to the development of an individuality that found its expression in his 'first style' works from 1903 to 1911. Mostly watercolours, those pieces – echoing Jean-Louis Forain, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Paul Cézanne, and Daumier – show predominantly street girls and clowns, brutally effective in their sweeping outline and blue dominated harmony. At that time, he also produced ceramics by decorating vases and Metthey plaqes. Around 1911, his art embraced new themes: judges, workers, the rootless, now treated in gouache or oil but still in that broad manner and with the same urgency of feeling. Ambroise Vollard, the foremost dealer of the period – and a publisher of fine books – encouraged him to turn his hand to engraving. Engraving by him, hitherto rare, such as Horse Drovers (1910), became, in parallel with painting, an essential object of his activity and yielded some masterpieces in book illustrations: Père Ubu’s Reincarnations ( Les Réincarnations du père Ubu), 1918–1919; Legendary Landscapes ( Paysages légendaires), 1929; Suburbs ( La Petite Banlieue), 1930; Passion, 1934–1935; Shooting Star Circus ( Le Cirque de l’Étoile filante), 1938, with a text by the artist; Passion, 1939, by André Suarès; and especially Miserere begun in 1917 and finished ten years later, to be published only in 1948.

In 1929, he produced the sets for George Balanchine’s ballet Prodigal Son with a score by Sergei Prokoviev for Sergei Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes. In his painting, he abandoned watercolour and gouache for oil. From a more fused and glossy paste, in brighter and more varied colours, he summoned figures, many of them religious, trimmed with an outline that gives the shape precedence and decorative power. It brings to mind perpendicular stained-glass windows and Byzantine mosaics. This tendency towards more colour and matter asserted itself in the 1930s when he painted large heads of clowns, judges, and Christs, and other religious subjects.

In his next period (the 'second style'), he turned away from the monumental formalism and pent-up violence contained in these and the tapestry design sketches he gave Madame Cuttoli in 1933 ( Wounded Clown; Little Family; Satan; Les Fleurs du Mal) to produce smaller formats and abandoned his more militant themes in favour of flowers, landscapes, and the 'Joyous and Glorious Mysteries of the Christian Rosary'. This newly found serenity is expressed in a palette of blues and a rich paste that grew in bulk. In 1945, he also worked at designs for the stained-glass windows of the church at Plateau d’Assy (Haute-Savoie), finally able to attend to a form for which he had deep affection. In 1949, he created fine enamel designs for the workshop at Ligugé Abbey ( Profile of Christ, Sacred Heart).

As a painter, Rouault continued to evolve while still treating favoured themes: clowns and religious subjects. He turned his attention to landscape and executed a set of huge lyrical landscapes with a cosmic dimension, enlivened by the presence of sacred figures. His palette now played on a symphony of reds, yellows, and greens, spread in a paste thick enough for the painting to be akin to a high relief. From the anger of his début to the quiet jubilation of his last years, Rouault always observed the demands of form. His formal and subjective research shows that art needs not be trapped in the incompatible models of Cubism or Expressionism but, beyond them, tends towards a greater humanity.

He took part in collective exhibitions including, in Paris, the Salon des Artistes Français, Salon de la Rose-Croix, Salon des Indépendants, Salon d’Automne, of which he was a founding member, Masters of Independent Art ( Les Maîtres de l’art indépendant) in 1937 at the Musée du Petit Palais and Salon de Mai. Exhibitions abroad included Moscow (Golden Fleece Salon), Odessa (Izdebsky Salon), Kiev, New York (Armory Show), Chicago, Boston, and the Venice Biennale.

He had many solo exhibitions in Paris galleries and at the Musée National d’Art Moderne; in New York, first at the Matisse gallery and then at the Museum of Modern Art; and at the Zurich Kunsthaus. In 1951, the exhibition  Homage to Rouault ( Hommage à Rouault) was organized by French Catholic intellectuals at the Palais de Chaillot in Paris. In the 1950s, retrospectives took place in Brussels and Amsterdam, and an exhibition of the Misere etchings was held at the Galerie Louis Carré in Paris and other venues in Albi, Dijon, and Rennes.

Posthumous retrospectives were organized at the Musée du Louvre and Musée d’Art Moderne in Paris and in Marseilles, Metz, Bordeaux, St-Paul-de-Vence, Avallon, and Lugano. His work was featured in Women Bathing and Dancing in the Work of Derain, Rouault, and Vlaminck, 1905–1910 ( Danseuses et baigneuses chez Derain, Rouault et Vlaminck, 1905–1910) in 2003 at Lille’s Musée d’Art Moderne and in 2004 at the Hermitage in St Petersburg.

Museum and Gallery Holdings

Amsterdam (Stedelijk Mus.): White Clown (c. 1920)

Avallon: Morning Star (Stella Matutina) (1895);Evening Star (Stella Vespertina) (1895)

Basel (Kunstmus.): Parade (1907);White Clown (1911, ceramic plaque)

Boston (MFA): Head of a Clown (1948)

Brussels (Mus. Royaux des Beaux-Arts de Belgique): Diplomat (1938)

Buffalo (Albright-Knox AG): Portrait of Monsieur X (1911)

Chicago (AI): The Academician (1913–1915);Italian Girl (1930);Dwarf (1936)

Cleveland (MA): Head of Christ (1938)

Colmar (Mus. d’Unterlinden): The Child Jesus among the Teachers (1894)

Copenhagen (Statens Mus. for Kunst): The Judges (1908)

Grenoble: Dead Christ Mourned by the Holy Women (1895);The Barge (1909)

The Hague (Gemeentemus.): Christ on the Sea of Galilee (1928)

London (Tate Collection): The Bride (Aunt Sallys) (1907, oil/paper/canvas);The Italian Woman (1938, oil on canvas)

Los Angeles (Los Angeles County MA): Samson Turning the Millstone (1893)

Lyons (MBA): Carmencita (1948)

Montreal (MBA): Crucified Christ (c. 1939);Circus (Le Cirque) (1936)

New York (Metropolitan MA): Portrait of Henri Lebasque (1917)

New York (MoMA): Three Judges (1913);Christ Mocked by Soldiers (1932)

Paris (BNF): Crucified Christ (1936, etching)

Paris (MAM Ville de Paris): Duet (1904);Tabarin (1905);Nude (1906);The Lecture (1908);Hortense (c. 1910, sketch);Christ Mocked by Soldiers (1912);Acrobats (1913);Landscape (1913);Vice Squad Officer (1918);Biblical Landscape (1935–1936);Christ and Fishermen (1937);White Clown (1938);Yellow Clown (1938)

Paris (MNAM-Centre de Création Industrielle): Duet (1904);Girl with Mirror (1906);The Accused (1907);The Lecture (1908);Versailles Staircase (1910);Christ Mocked by Soldiers (c. 1912);Woman Leaning on her Elbow (1912, gouache);Long-haired Nude Seen from Behind (1917, Indian ink);Apprentice on the Shop Floor (1925);The Holy Face (1933);Christ at the Column (1939, stained-glass window);Man is a Wolf to Man (Homo homini lupus) (1944);De Profundis (1946);The Flight to Egypt (1946);Dreamer (1946);Landscape with Tall Trees (1946);Flowers for the Occasion (1946);Conjuror Girl (1949);Christian Nocturne (1952)

Paris (Mus. du Petit Palais): The Drunk Woman (1905);Tabarin (1905);Girl (1906);The Accused (1907);That is my Case, My Lord (1911, ceramic plate);The Baptism of Christ (1911);Trio (1934, tapestry);Head of an Old Woman;The Child Jesus Among the Teachers;Landscape (pastel)

Pittsburgh (Carnegie MA): The Old King (1916–1936, oil on canvas)

St-Tropez (Mus. de l’Annonciade): Poor Family (1911)

Villeneuve d’Ascq (MAM Lille Métropole): Nude with Raised Arms (1907, watercolour)

Washington, DC (Phillips Collection): Sunset, Galilee (c. 1930)

Zurich (Kunsthaus): Exodus (1911);Drifting Downriver (1948)

Auction Records

Paris, 28 March 1919: Blue Nude (watercolour) FRF 850

Paris, 28 June 1923: Bust of a Woman with a Flower in Her Hair, FRF 620

Paris, 12 June 1926: Woman with the Sunshade, FRF 3,200

Paris, 3 March 1927: Wrestler Rollin (watercolour and pastel) FRF 20,500

Paris, 13 Feb 1932: Wounded Man, FRF 2,620

New York, 14 Nov 1934: Head of a Clown, USD 400

Paris, 8 Nov 1940: The Two Brothers, FRF 10,500

Paris, 6 May 1943: Mask, FRF 25,000

New York, 26–27 Jan 1944: Night Scene, USD 1,900

Paris, 25 May 1945: Dancer (1906, watercolour and gouache) USD 420,000

Paris, 29 Oct 1948: Portrait of a Girl (First Manner), FRF 70,000

Paris, 11 Dec 1950: The Move (1929, watercolour and gouache) FRF 195,000

Paris, 21 May 1951: Nude Women, Covered Vase (Metthey ceramic) FRF 130,000

London, 4 July 1956: Head of Christ, GBP 2,400

Paris, 20 March 1959: White Clown (watercolour heightened with pastels) FRF 16,500,000

New York, 25 Oct 1961: Nude, USD 60,000

Paris, 12 March 1964: Vase of Flowers, FRF 230,000

Paris, 29 Nov 1966: Wrestling Rollin (watercolour and gouache) FRF 122,000

New York, 3 April 1968: The Chinaman, USD 92,500

Geneva, 2 July 1971: Biblical Landscape, CHF 290,000

London, 5 Dec 1973: The Three Judges, GBP 73,000

Versailles, 6 April 1974: Nightscape, the Building Site (watercolour and pastel) FRF 450,000

London, 2 July 1974: Pierrette, GBP 650

New York, 7 May 1976: Autumn (c. 1936, aquatint, 20¼ × 25¾ ins/51.2 × 65.7 cm) USD 8,250

Zurich, 28 May 1976: The Three Judges (1925, oil on canvas, 25¼ × 38½ ins/64 × 98 cm) CHF 600,000

New York, 12 May 1977: The Procession (1930, pastel, gouache, and Indian ink/mounted paper/canvas, 16¼ × 21 ins/41.3 × 53.5 cm) USD 12,000

Hamburg, 4 June 1977: Self-portrait (c. 1928, coloured lithograph) DEM 12,500

London, 7 Dec 1977: Clowns (oil on card remounted/panel, 32 × 23¼ ins/81 × 59 cm) GBP 45,000

London, 3 April 1979: The Holy Face (gouache and black ink/mounted paper/canvas, 26 × 20½ ins/66 × 52 cm) GBP 10,500

Paris, 26 June 1979: Autumn Nocturne (1952, oil on canvas, 29½ × 39¼ ins/75 × 100 cm) FRF 700,000

London, 3 July 1979: Man Sitting (1929, brown wash, 18 × 12½ ins/46 × 32 cm) GBP 1,700

Los Angeles, 25 Sept 1979: Who Never Applies Make-up (1923, aquatint, 22¼ × 16¾ ins/56.2 × 42.8 cm) USD 1,300

Enghien-les-Bains, 7 Dec 1980: Bust (1906, enamelled terracotta, h. 2¼ ins/6 cm, w. 1¾ ins/4.5 cm) FRF 18,000

Zurich, 14 May 1982: The Queen (Indian ink and pastel, 15 × 11 ins/38 × 27 cm) CHF 30,000

Paris, 31 May 1983: Clown with Rose (1908, gouache and watercolour/mounted paper/canvas, 39¼ × 25½ ins/100 × 65 cm) FRF 1,300,000

Paris, 22 Feb 1984: Portrait of Jean Metthey as a Child (1907, pencil, red chalk, and charcoal, 7¾ × 6 ins/20 × 15.5 cm) FRF 84,000

New York, 7 Nov 1984: The Horseride (1910, coloured lithograph/Van Gelder paper, 13½ × 17¾ ins/34 × 45.1 cm) USD 13,000

London, 4 Dec 1984: The Three Judges (1925, oil on canvas, 25¼ × 38½ ins/64 × 98 cm) GBP 230,000

New York, 15 May 1985: Circus Girl (c. 1905, gouache, watercolour, and pastel/mounted paper/canvas, 12½ × 8¼ ins/31.7 × 20.9 cm) USD 33,000

New York, 13 Nov 1985: Les Fleurs du Mal (c. 1931–1939, oil on canvas, 28¾ × 23 ins/73 × 57.5 cm) USD 230,000

Paris, 27 June 1986: Biblical Scene (oil on canvas, 26 × 22 ins/66 × 55 cm) FRF 805,000

London, 1 Dec 1986: Jesus with Fishermen (1942, oil on paper remounted/canvas, 22¾ × 29¼ ins/58 × 74.4 cm) GBP 180,000

New York, 11 May 1987: Clown (oil on canvas, 42¼ × 30 ins/107 × 76 cm) USD 950,000

London, 1988: Crucified Christ (print) GBP 33,000

Paris, 2 June 1988: Clown with the Inkwell (overleaf same subject in reverse) (1905, pastel, gouache, Indian ink, and watercolour, 5 × 5¼ ins/12.5 × 13.5 cm) FRF 296,000

Paris, 19 June 1988: Decorative Flowers (c. 1953, oil on paper remounted/canvas, 37 × 25¼ ins/94 × 64 cm) FRF 3,600,000

Paris, 22 June 1988: Nude Sitting (1907, watercolour and wash, 10¼ × 7¾ ins/26 × 20 cm) FRF 150,000;Two Figures (1939, oil on paper/canvas, 21¾ × 17 ins/55.5 × 43 cm) FRF 2,095, 000

London, 28 June 1988: Pierrette (oil on card, 7 × 9 ins/18 × 23 cm) GBP 35,200

Grandville, 30 Oct 1988: Figure Seen from Behind (watercolour, Indian ink, pastel, 11 × 8¼ ins/27 × 21 cm) FRF 95,000

New York, 12 Nov 1988: Circus Girl (1903, gouache and pastel/paper, recto and verso, 8¼ × 6 ins/21.2 × 15.1 cm) USD 143,000

Paris, 20 Nov 1988: Grotesques (c. 1916, watercolour and Indian ink/paper, 15 × 10 ins/38 × 24.5 cm) FRF 240,000;Dusk (Christ and Disciple) (oil on paper remounted/canvas, 16¼ × 22 ins/41 × 55 cm) FRF 1,850,000

Paris, 24 Nov 1988: Villa amid Trees, Landscape (c. 1913, distemper, 7½ × 12¼ ins/19 × 31 cm) FRF 512,000

London, 29 Nov 1988: Christ with a Disciple (1937, mixed media/paper, 16¼ × 11¾ ins/41.5 × 30 cm) GBP 132,000

Paris, 1 Feb 1989: Nude with Raised Arms (1914, oil on paper/canvas, 8½ × 5¼ ins/21.5 × 13.5 cm) FRF 400,000;The Guest of Honour (monotype with diluted oil applied with a brush, 12¼ × 9 ins/31 × 22 cm) FRF 160,000

Paris, 10 March 1989: Passion (1938, oil on paper, 16½ × 15¼ ins/42 × 39 cm) FRF 1,570,000

Paris, 16 March 1989: A Good Sort (oil on canvas, 13¼ × 8¾ ins/33.5 × 22.5 cm) FRF 3,101,000

London, 3 April 1989: Christ, the Holy Face (1931, oil on canvas, 17¼ × 13 ins/44 × 33 cm) GBP 231,000

Paris, 11 April 1989: The Passion, Christ at the Praetorium (oil on card, 12 × 8¾ ins/30.5 × 22.5 cm) FRF 1,700,000

Paris, 16 April 1989: Holy River (Indian ink and watercolour, 15½ × 23½ ins/39.5 × 60 cm) FRF 200,000

New York, 10 May 1989: Antoinette (gouache and oil on paper/canvas, 23 × 18 ins/58.5 × 46 cm) USD 1,155,000

Paris, 17 June 1989: Gypsy (1938, 15½ × 11½ ins/39.5 × 29.5 cm) FRF 2,230,000

London, 26 June 1989: Auguste study for the Cirque de l’Etoile filante (Shooting Star Circus) (1935, oil and mixed media/paper/canvas, 16½ × 13¼ ins/42 × 33.7 cm) GBP 352,000

Calais, 2 July 1989: Acrobat I, also known as Wrestler (c. 1913, distemper, 12¼ × 7¾ ins/31 × 20 cm) FRF 710,000

New York, 16 Nov 1989: Aristocrat (oil on paper/canvas, 16 × 12¾ ins/40.5 × 32.5 cm) USD 1,045,000

Paris, 25 March 1990: Head of Christ (oil on paper, 26½ × 19 ins/67 × 48 cm) FRF 6,800,000

Paris, 1 April 1990: Towards the Bled (1949, oil on panel, 13½ × 17½ ins/34 × 44.5 cm) FRF 2,700,000

London, 2 April 1990: Angèle (oil on panel, 15¾ × 10¼ ins/40 × 26 cm) GBP 418,000

New York, 16 May 1990: Woman with Tiara (1928, gouache, pastel, and ink/paper, 13¼ × 9¼ ins/33.6 × 23.2 cm) USD 82,500;Countryfolk (oil on paper/canvas/card, 23 × 15¼ ins/58.4 × 38.7 cm) USD 308,000

London, 26 June 1990: The Passion of Christ (oil on paper/canvas, 12¼ × 9 ins/31 × 23 cm) GBP 242,000

Paris, 1 Oct 1990: The Modest Joys of the Run-down Old Suburb (engraving heightened with gouache, 22 × 16¼ ins/56 × 41 cm) FRF 420,000

New York, 2 Oct 1990: Woman in Profile (oil on card, 10 × 8¾ ins/25.7 × 22.2 cm) USD 198,000

New York, 14 Nov 1990: Circus Girl (1938, oil on paper/canvas, 40¾ × 28¾ ins/103.5 × 73 cm) USD 1,760,000

London, 20 March 1991: Peopled Landscape (1914, gouache/two sheets of paper, 7¾ × 24½ ins/19.6 × 62.4 cm) GBP 80,300

Paris, 17 April 1991: The Tiger (study for the Bestiary) (1910, watercolour, 7¾ × 10¾ ins/19.5 × 27.4 cm) FRF 100,000

New York, 8 May 1991: Pierrot (1937, oil on card, 24½ × 22 ins/62.2 × 55.9 cm) USD 880,000

London, 2 Dec 1991: Woman with a Rose (oil on canvas, 28 × 24 ins/71 × 61 cm) GBP 308,000

New York, 12 May 1992: Acrobat XIII (1913, gouache/paper/canvas, 41 × 28¾ ins/104.3 × 73 cm) USD 385,000

New York, 13 May 1992: Clown with Bass Drum (oil on paper/canvas, 27 × 19½ ins/68.3 × 49.5 cm) USD 440,000

Munich, 26 May 1992: Parade (lithograph, 12½ × 10¼ ins/31.5 × 26 cm) DEM 5,635

Paris, 3 June 1992: Sad Bones – Clown (oil on paper, 12½ × 7¾ ins/32 × 20 cm) FRF 271,000

Paris, 24 June 1992: Head in Profile (1912, ceramic plate, diam. 6¾ ins/17 cm) FRF 35,000

New York, 11 Nov 1992: With Abbé Pierre in Mind (oil, gouache and watercolour/paper, 17½ × 12¼ ins/44.5 × 31.1 cm) USD 38,500

Paris, 24 Nov 1992: Christ and the Tramps (oil on paper/canvas, 11 × 8 ins/28 × 20.5 cm) FRF 350,000

London, 30 Nov 1992: Woman in a White Hat (oil on reinforced canvas, 28½ × 23½ ins/72.5 × 60 cm) GBP 132,000

Paris, 15 Feb 1993: Baie des Trépassés (etching and aquatint) FRF 30,000

Paris, 5 May 1993: Rue des Solitaires (1939, oil/engraving/canvas, 20 × 26 ins/51 × 66 cm) FRF 1,100,000

New York, 12 May 1993: Téresina (Agnès) (oil on canvas, 17½ × 12¾ ins/44.5 × 32.5 cm) USD 354,500

Paris, 21 June 1993: The Flight to Egypt (1946, oil on thick paper/panel, 18½ × 14¼ ins/47 × 36 cm) FRF 655,000

New York, 11 May 1994: Pierrot (oil on canvas, 31 × 23 ins/78.7 × 57.5 cm) USD 607,500

Paris, 21 Sept 1994: Lowered-eye Prostitute for Les Fleurs du Mal (1937, colour aquatint) FRF 16,500

Paris, 19 Dec 1994: Peopled Landscape (1911, oil on paper/canvas, 14¼ × 19¾ ins/36.5 × 50 cm) FRF 300,000

New York, 8 May 1995: The Law Court (1909, oil on card/panel, 29 × 41 ins/73.7 × 104.1 cm) USD 904,500

Taipei, 15 Oct 1995: Versailles, the Staircase (oil on paper/canvas, 10 × 7¾ ins/25.4 × 19.7 cm) TWD 592,500

New York, 7 Nov 1995: Red-Haired Girl (1908, watercolour, gouache, and pastel/paper/card, 27½ × 19¾ ins/70 × 50 cm) USD 354,500

Paris, 19 March 1996: Pierrot (1938, oil on paper mounted/canvas, 35 × 20 ins/89 × 51 cm) FRF 4,050,000

Paris, 13 June 1996: Suburbs (1929, lithograph, 11¾ × 13 ins/30 × 33 cm) FRF 15,000

Bern, 21 June 1996: Shooting Star Circus (1938, etching, set of 17 plates, each 17¾ × 13½ ins/45 × 34.5 cm) CHF 78,000

New York, 12 Nov 1996: Pierrot (1938, oil on paper/canvas, 39¾ × 26½ ins/101 × 67 cm) USD 684,500

London, 4 Dec 1996: Martial (diluted oil paint/canvas, 16 × 10 ins/40.5 × 25.5 cm) GBP 40,000

Paris, 11 April 1997: Oriental Woman (oil on panel, 7 × 5¾ ins/18 × 14.5 cm) FRF 280,000

New York, 13–14 May 1997: Still Flogged (gouache and watercolour/aquatint, 25 × 19½ ins/63.5 × 49.5 cm) USD 63,000

Paris, 17 June 1997: Olympia (1905, watercolour and gouache/paper, 10¾ × 16¾ ins/27.4 × 42.5 cm) FRF 650,000

London, 25 June 1997: Confrontation (1916, gouache/paper, 7½ × 12 ins/19.3 × 30.5 cm) GBP 24,150

London, 22 Oct 1997: Landscape (1932, gouache/paper, 4¾ × 12¼ ins/12 × 31 cm) GBP 9,430

Paris, 16 March 1998: Fathma (c. 1929–1939, oil/card, 28½ × 20½ ins/72.5 × 52 cm) FRF 2,500,000

Paris, 8 April 1998: Trio, illustration for Baudelaire’s Les Fleurs du Mal (aquatint) FRF 8,000

New York, 13 May 1999: Biblical Landscape (oil on paper laid on canvas, 12 × 17 ins/30 × 42 cm) USD 140,000;Girl – Woman with Red Hair (1908, watercolour, gouache, and pastel on board, 28 × 20 ins/70 × 50 cm) USD 350,000

New York, 9 May 2000: Tiberias (oil on board, 16 × 22 ins/41 × 56 cm) USD 140,000

Paris, 15 Dec 2000: Parade (oil and gouache on paper, 25 × 20 ins/64 × 50 cm) FRF 1,560,000

New York, 7 May 2001: Horsewoman III (c. 1939, oil on paper laid on canvas, 22 × 19 ins/56 × 47 cm) USD 350,000

New York, 10 May 2001: Decorative Flowers (1937, oil on paper laid on canvas, 44 × 31 ins/113 × 78 cm) USD 580,000

New York, 8 May 2002: The Ballets Russes (c. 1929, oil on paper laid on canvas, 29 × 20 ins/74 × 51 cm) USD 140,000

New York, 7 Nov 2002: Girls (1906, watercolour and gouache on board on panel, 27 × 20 ins/69 × 52 cm) USD 210,000

New York, 5 Nov 2003: Pierrot (1937, oil on paper laid on canvas, 17 × 11 ins/44 × 29 cm) USD 155,000

London, 3 Feb 2004: Carmencita II (1947, oil on card laid on panel, 19 × 12 ins/48 × 30 cm) GBP 90,000

Paris, 7 June 2004: Pierrot (c. 1937–1938, oil on canvas, 35 × 26 ins/90 × 65 cm) EUR 370,000

New York, 3 May 2005: Soleil couchant (c.1937–1939, oil on paper and canvas, 27⅙ × 41½ ins/69 × 105.5 cm) USD 420,000

New York, 3 Nov 2005: Clown Anglais (1937, oil on canvas, 25¾ × 16⅞ ins/65.4 × 43 cm) USD 340,000

London, 8 Feb 2006: Christ et pêcheurs – Christ au bord du lac (1935–1937, oil on paper and canvas, 23⅝ × 33¾ ins/60 × 85.8 cm) GBP

New York, 4 May 2006: Vieux Faubourg (1939, oil on canvas, 27½ × 21 ins/69.8 × 53.3 cm) USD 240,000

London, 7 Feb 2007: Bouquet (1939, oil on paper and canvas, 25⅓ × 19⅜ ins/64.3 × 49.2 cm) GBP 150,000

London, 20 June 2007: Pierrot (1937, oil on paper and canvas, 17⅜ × 11⅜ ins/62.2 × 55.9 cm) GBP 120,000

New York, 5 Nov 2008: Le Pierrot Sage (1943, oil on canvas, 29½ × 22¼ ins/75 × 56.5 cm) USD 720,000

New York, 4 Nov 2009: Pierrot (1937–1938, oil on canvas, 41⅓ × 29⅓ ins/105 × 74.5 cm) USD 1,150,000

New York, 4 May 2010: Le Cirque (1942, oil on paper mounted on board, 35⅛ × 29 ins/89.2 × 73.7 cm) USD 260,000

New York, 3 Nov 2011: Pierrette (1939, oil on paper and canvas, 19⅜ × 13⅛ ins/49.2 × 33.29 cm) USD 370,000

Seoul, 21 March 2012: Christ aux Outrages (oil on board, 17⅓ × 12⅙ ins/44 × 31 cm) USD 845,500

New York, 2 May 2012: Arlequin (c. 1939, oil on paper and canvas, 26⅜ × 20½ ins/67 × 52.1 cm) USD 480,000

New York, 7 May 2013: Arlequin (c. 1956, oil on paper and canvas, 24¾ × 17¾ ins/63 × 45 cm) USD 650,000

New York, 8 May 2013: Le Pierrot Sage (1943, oil on paper and canvas, 29½ × 22 ins/74.9 × 55.9 cm) USD 450,000;Vieux Faubourg (c. 1938, oil on paper and canvas, 29¼ × 41⅛ ins/74.3 × 104.5 cm) USD 360,000

New York, 6 Nov 2014: Teresina (1947, oil on panel, 20½ × 14⅙ ins/52 × 36 cm) USD 280,000

New York, 5 May 2015: Pierrette (c. 1930–1939, oil on paper and canvas, 24¾ × 18⅞ ins/63 × 48 cm) USD 420,000

New York, 15 May 2015: Pierrot (1937–1938, oil on paper and canvas, 22 × 16 ins/56.2 × 40.3 cm) USD 250,000

Bibliography

  • Puy, Michel: Georges Rouault, La Nouvelle Revue Française, Paris, 1921.
  • Charensol, Georges: Georges Rouault. L’Homme et l’Œuvre, Quatre Chemins, Paris, 1926.
  • Cogniat, Raymond: Georges Rouault, G. Crès, Paris, 1930.
  • Grohmann, Will: Rouault, J. B. Neumann, New York; G. Franke, Munich, 1930.
  • Ito, R.: Georges Rouault, Atelier-Sha, Tokyo, 1936.
  • ‘Georges Rouault’, in Le Point, special edition, periodical, 1943.
  • Jewell, Edward A.: Georges Rouault, Hyperion Press, New York, 1945.
  • Thrall Soby, James: Georges Rouault, Paintings and Prints, exhibition catalogue, Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1945.
  • Venturi, Lionello: Georges Rouault, Skira, Paris, 1948.
  • Brion, Marcel: Georges Rouault, Braun, Paris, 1950.
  • Lassaigne, Jacques: Dictionnaire de la peinture contemporaine, Hazan, Paris, 1954.
  • Raynal, Maurice: Peinture moderne, Skira, Geneva, 1954.
  • Dorival, Bernard: ‘Georges Rouault’ in Témoins du XXe siècle, Éditions Universitaires, Paris, 1956.
  • Grenier, Jean: Essai sur la peinture contemporaine, Gallimard, Paris, 1959.
  • Venturi, Lionello: Rouault, a Biographical and Critical Study, Skira, New York, 1959.
  • Roulet, Claude: Georges Rouault. Souvenirs, H. Messeiller, Neuchâtel, 1961.
  • Courthion, Pierre: Georges Rouault, H. N. Abrams, New York, 1962.
  • Courthion, Pierre: Georges Rouault. Leben und Werk, DuMont Schaubert, Cologne, 1962.
  • Courthion, Pierre: Rouault, catalogue raisonné, Flammarion, Paris, 1962.
  • Georges Rouault, exhibition catalogue, Galerie Charpentier, Paris, 1965.
  • Marchiori, Giuseppe: Georges Rouault, La Bibliothèque des Arts, Paris, 1965.
  • Georges Rouault, exhibition catalogue, Musée National d’Art Moderne, Paris, 1971.
  • Di San Lazzaro, G.: A Homage to Georges Rouault, Tudor Publishing, New York, 1971 (special issue of the 20th-century review).
  • Dyrness, William A.: Rouault: A Vision of Suffering and Salvation, Eerdmans, Grand Rapids (MI), 1971.
  • Rouault, Georges: Sur l’art et la vie, Mediations, Denoël, Gonthier, Paris, 1971.
  • Chapon, François/Rouault, Isabelle: Georges Rouault. Œuvre gravé, André Sauret, Monte Carlo, 1978.
  • Rouault, exhibition catalogue, Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, Paris, 1983.
  • Lucie-Smith, Edward: ‘Oskar Kokoschka “École de Paris. Georges Rouault”’, in Lives of the Great 20th-Century Artists, Rizzoli, New York, 1986.
  • Dorival, Bernard/Rouault, Isabelle: Georges Rouault. L’œuvre peint, 2 vols, catalogue raisonné, André Sauret, Monte Carlo, 1988.
  • Hergott, Fabrice: ‘François Chapon’, in Les Grands Maîtres de l’Art Contemporain, Albin Michel, Paris, 1991.
  • Rouault, Georges: Misere, Le Léopard d’Or, Paris, 1991.
  • Rouault, exhibition catalogue, Éditions du Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, 1992.
  • Chapon, François: Rouault: le livre des livres – Catalogue raisonné des livres illustrés, Éditions Michèle Trinckvel, Paris, 1992.
  • Dorival, Bernard: Rouault, Flammarion, Paris, 1992.
  • Harambourg, Lydia: L’École de Paris 1945–1965 – Dictionnaire des peintres, Ides et Calendes, Neuchâtel, 1993.
  • Rouault, Georges: Cirque de l'étoile filante: Eaux-fortes originales et dessins gravés sur bois de Georges Rouault, Cerf, Paris, 2005.
  • Rouault, Georges/Nash, David: Georges Rouault: Judges, Clowns and Whores, Mitchell-Innes & Nash, New York, 2007.
  • Schloesser, Stephen, and others: Mystic Masque: Semblance and Reality in Georges Rouault, 1871–1958, McMullen Museum of Art, Boston College, Chestnut Hill (MA), 2008.
  • Rouault, Georges, and others: Georges Rouault: der Künstler als Trauriger Clown: aus der Sammlung Arthur und Hedy Hahnloser-Bühler und aus Schweizer Privat- und Museumsbesitz, Benteli Verlag, Sulgen, 2012.