Debicki, Stanislaw or Stanislas
Polish, 19th – 20th century, male.
Born 1866, in Lubaczów; died 1924, in Cracow.
Painter, draughtsman, illustrator, decorative artist, ceramicist, sculptor, designer. Portraits, genre scenes, landscapes. Furniture.
Symbolism, Art Nouveau.
Debicki studied at the Akademie der bildenden Künste in Vienna from 1881 to 1884, then in Munich, Paris, Lemberg (now Lviv, Ukraine) and Cracow. He first settled in Lemberg and began teaching in 1900. In 1911, he became a professor at the fine arts academy in Cracow. He joined the Vienna Secession in 1902. He collaborated on the magazines Chimera, Liberum Veto and Szczutek. He worked as an illustrator with the Altenberg publishers in Lemberg, where he also decorated the lobby of the theatre. He was also interested in sculpture, theatre design, and produced designs for furniture and ceramics. From 1890, he exhibited his paintings in Lemberg and Cracow.
Debicki was very much in harmony with the Viennese Secessionists. His style might be called ornamental or curvilinear but he participated in the emergence of Expressionism. His 1901 chimera cover for the Warsaw review Chimera is clearly more menacing than floral. He painted portraits, landscapes, as well as compositions depicting Hutsul peasants (in the south-west of Poland), and Jewish boroughs, in a realist vein, before turning towards a more Impressionist, Symbolist style. In 1902 and 1905, he illustrated Polish literary works, and in 1905, Oscar Wilde's Salome.
Slaski Museum in Wroclaw mounted a posthumous retrospective of Debicki's work (1966) and he featured in the exhibition Early Spring. Poland 1880-1920 ( L'Avant-printemps. Pologne 1880-1920), Palais des Beaux-Arts in Brussels (2001).
Museum and Gallery Holdings
Wroclaw (Muz. Narodowe): The Prayer (1887, oil on panel); Interior (c. 1900, oil on canvas)
- Lukaszewicz, P.: Stanislaw Debicki, 1886-1924, exhibition catalogue, Muzeum Slaskie, Wroclaw, 1966.
- Osterwalder, Marcus (ed.): Dictionnaire des illustrateurs (1800-1914), Éd. Hubschmid & Bouret, Paris, 1983.
- Morawinska, Agnieszka/Clegg, Elisabeth/Poprzecka, Maria/Crugten, Alain van: L'Avant-printemps. Pologne 1880-1920, exhibition catalogue, Palais des Beaux-Arts, Tempera, Brussels, 2001.