Welcome to Benezit Dictionary of Artists

  • A comprehensive and definitive resource for artists’ biographies, published since 1911
  • Includes 149,000 biographies as well as auction records, exhibition histories, and over 11,000 images of artists’ signatures and stamps of sale

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Imogen Cunningham

Suzanne Valadon

The varied work of American photographer Imogen Cunningham spans commercial portraiture, Symbolist works, documentary photography, and images of natural forms, including iconic photographs of calla lilies.



Symbolizing purity and chastity, white lilies appear frequently in medieval and Renaissance images of the Annunciation, as in this panel from Duccio’s altarpiece known as the Maestà (‘Majesty’), made for Siena Cathedral in 1311.

In this update, Grove Art publishes 6 new and 23 revised articles, as well as 6 emendations across both dictionaries. Benezit publishes 23 updated biographies.

Explore the full list of what has been recently published and revised on Oxford Art Online.

Valerie Cassel Oliver

Letter from the Editor

Read a letter from Benezit’s Editor in Chief, Dr. Valerie Cassel Oliver, discussing her editorial approach and the work underway to expand Benezit’s coverage of emerging artists, varied media, and artists of diverse social and cultural backgrounds.

Dulwich Pink Gallery

Collection Guides

Join Benezit on a tour of unique art collections around the world! Written by experts and curators, our Collection Guides present the history and highlights of museums and galleries. Follow links to related texts in Oxford Art Online and around the web to learn more about the artists in these outstanding collections.