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Mustafa Raqim [Muṣṭafā Rāqim; Mustafa Rakım]locked

(b Ünye, 1757; d Istanbul, 1826).
  • Walter B. Denny

Extract

Ottoman calligrapher. Together with his elder brother, the calligrapher Isma‛il Zühdü Efendi (d 1806), he went to Istanbul, where he studied with several masters and obtained his diploma at the age of 12. He rose through the Ottoman civil service and eventually held a number of high government offices. He and his brother are generally recognized as freeing Islamic calligraphy from the style canonized by ...

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