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American photographer. Self-taught, Abbe started to produce photographs at the age of 12. From 1898 to 1910 he worked in his father’s bookshop and then worked as a reporter for the Washington Post, travelling to Europe in 1910. Having earlier produced photographs of ships and sailors for tourist cards, from ...

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Margaret Barlow

American photographer. She spent a term at the Ohio State University in Columbus (1917–18) and then studied sculpture independently in New York (1918–21) where she met (Henri-Robert-)Marcel Duchamp and Man Ray. She left the USA for Paris in 1921 where she studied at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière before attending the Kunstschule in Berlin for less than a year in ...

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Sarah Urist Green

Afghan video and performance artist and photographer, active also in the USA. After fleeing Soviet-occupied Kabul with her family in the late 1980s, Abdul lived as a refugee in Germany and India before moving to Southern California. She received a BA in Political Science and Philosophy at California State University, Fullerton, and an MFA at the University of California, Irvine, in ...

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Kyla Mackenzie

New Zealand photographer. Aberhart became a leading photographer in New Zealand from the 1970s with his distinctive 8×10 inch black-and-white photographs, taken with a 19th-century large format Field Camera. He is particularly well known for his images of disappearing cultural history, often melancholic in tone, in New Zealand....

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Patricia Strathern

French photographer and sculptor. He originally worked as a sculptor, and he turned to portrait photography under the influence of the Munich photographer Franz Hanfstaengel. Adam-Salomon’s antique poses, making much use of light and shade to give painterly effects, were inspired by Classical sculpture and painting and incorporated expensive fabrics and settings. He also favoured heavy retouching of the negatives, for which he was criticized by some contemporaries. He was, however, much admired for the imposing character of many of his portraits (e.g. ...

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Richard Lorenz

American photographer. Adams trained as a musician and supported himself by teaching the piano until 1930. He became involved with photography in 1916 when his parents presented him with a Kodak Box Brownie camera during a summer vacation in Yosemite National Park. In 1917–18 he worked part-time in a photo-finishing business. From ...

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Mary Christian

American photographer. After teaching English literature for several years, Adams turned to photography in the late 1960s, studying with Minor White. In his black-and-white photographs of the American West, such as his series From the Missouri West (1980), he emphasized man’s presence in nature and the tension between the beauty of the landscape and man’s effect upon it. His landscapes include such features as telephone poles and wires, mountains edged by highway guard-rails, parking lots and housing complexes. In ...

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Julie Lawson

Scottish photographer. He studied medicine in Edinburgh (1829) and Paris, but returned to St Andrews in the 1830s. A member of the St Andrews Literary and Philosophical Society, he associated with the circle interested in photographic experimentation and theory. Adamson experimented with Talbot’s calotype process, introduced to Scotland by Sir David Brewster (...

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Rebecca Swift

Advertising uses visuals (predominantly photographic) and copy (text) to convey an idea or make an affective appeal. Typically, specialists in commercial images are commissioned by companies to produce imagery to a specific brief, including such considerations as image size, media placement, and length of campaign. Until the growth in the 1980s of stock libraries, which offer a wide range of images that are licensed for use, commissioning photography was standard in the advertising industry. The proliferation of digital photography in the early 21st century has also prompted the use of consumer-generated or amateur photography in advertising. Finally, whereas most of the history of advertising has been print-based, digital advertising now appears across an array of platforms....

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A. N. Lavrentiev

Russian photographer. He was the son of an artisan. In 1914 Al’pert moved to Odessa and entered a photographic studio as an apprentice. After serving in the Red Army, he worked from 1924 as a photojournalist, taking news photographs for Rabochaya gazeta. He was already distinguished by his energy and his ability to capture events in a highly professional manner. Many of his photographs (e.g. ...

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Aurélie Verdier

French painter, sculptor, photographer, film maker, writer and installation artist of Algerian birth. Born to Spanish parents, he was much affected by North African as well as Southern European culture. He trained at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Le Havre. Despite a pervasive and diverse use of media, Alberola often stressed the coexistence of his different artistic practices as leading to painting alone. His paintings relied heavily on evocative narratives, at once personal and ‘historical’. Alberola conceived of his role as a storyteller, on the model of African oral cultures. Convinced that narratives could not be renewed, he argued that a painter’s main task was to reactivate his work through contact with his pictorial heritage. The main points of reference for his paintings of the early 1980s were Velázquez, Manet or Matisse, whose works he quoted in a personal way. In the early 1980s he undertook a series of paintings inspired by mythological subjects, which he combined with his own history as the principal subject-matter of his work. The biblical story of Susannah and the Elders as well as the Greek myth of Actaeon provided his most enduring subjects, both referring to the act of looking as taboo, as in ...

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Alfonso  

Jerald R. Green

Spanish photographic firm. It was founded by Alfonso Sánchez García (b Ciudad Real, 21 Feb 1880; d Madrid, 13 Feb 1953) and later run with his son Alfonso [Alfonsito] Sánchez Portela (b Madrid, 16 Nov 1902). After apprenticeship to a number of important Madrid-based studio photographers, Alfonso Sánchez García alternated studio photography and photojournalism. In ...

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Lee Fontanella

Spanish photographer. He moved to Toledo c. 1862, and he and Fernando González Pedroso were the first two professional photographers to set up a permanent establishment there. His suite of 12 vistas de Toledo (Toledo, 1871) consisted of 14 photographs mounted on decorated passe-partouts. Alguacil is known for this format, which he enlarged for certain views contained in the 1870s series of publications of ...

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Erika Billeter

Italian family of photographers. From 1845 to 1850 Leopoldo Alinari worked in Florence for a wealthy lithographer, Giuseppe Bardi. With him he organized Fratelli Alinari, Presso Bardi, a small photographic laboratory in the Via Cornina, Florence. In a city that took a keen interest in the thriving photographic industry, their venture was soon successful. By ...

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Isobel Whitelegg

Mexican photographer. After the death of Álvarez Bravo’s mother in 1910, her family moved from the northern state of Jalisco to Mexico City. Following the death of her father in 1916, she lived with her half-brother while completing a traditional education, as commonly available to women of her generation, at the Colegio del Sagrado Corazón. At 18 she married the photographer ...

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Elizabeth Ferrer

Mexican photographer. Álvarez Bravo’s interest in photography began in his adolescence while living in Mexico City in the 1910s, the years of the Mexican Revolution. He left school at the age of 13 to help support his family but pursued his creative interests by studying foreign photography magazines and receiving instruction from the German photographer based in Mexico, Hugo Brehme. Álvarez Bravo’s earliest images, made with a large-format Graflex camera, reflected the romantic pictorialist mode identified with Brehme’s generation. By ...

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Mary Christian

English photographer, active in Italy. Born Isaac Atkinson, he went to Paris as a young man to study painting, and in 1838 he went to Rome, where he adopted the names William Nugent Dunbar and later James Anderson, and where he participated in the annual exhibition of the Società degli Amatori e Cultori delle Belle Arti. By ...

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Ismeth Raheem

Ceylonese photographer. His family had practised photography for three generations. His grandfather, Adolphus Wilhelmus Andree (b 1799), was one of the early pioneers of daguerreotypy in Ceylon, and his father, Adolphus William Andree, had a flourishing photographic business between the 1860s and 1880s with studios in the capital Colombo and the provincial towns of Jaffna, Galle and Matara. At 18, he was already working as an apprentice in the studio of an American photographer at Chatham Street, Colombo, using the ferrotype process (...

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A. N. Lavrentiev

Russian photographer. He was the son of a hairdresser. In 1901 Andreyev studied painting and, at the same time, ‘art’ photography. In his later works he successfully combined the qualities of easel painting and photography, and he experimented widely with printing techniques involving oil pigment, bromoil and gum arabic. He was a master of delicate, lyrical landscapes, striving for the broadest tonal generalization of forms in his depictions of the countryside of middle Russia. Among his most famous landscape photographs are the coarse-grained ...

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Julie Lawson

Scottish family of photographers. Richard Annan was co-founder and business manager with his brother, (1) Thomas Annan, of the T. & R. Annan photographic studio in Glasgow in 1857. The firm was joined by Thomas’s sons, John Annan and (2) James Craig Annan, and became ...