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Article

Gordon Campbell

Technical term, borrowed from Greek, for the ram’s head or goat’s head used to decorate altars in classical antiquity and revived in the Renaissance as an ornamental device, and used up to the 19th century on furniture and pottery.

Article

Sophie Page

Astrology is the art of predicting events on earth as well as human character and disposition from the movements of the planets and fixed stars. Medieval astrology encompassed both general concepts of celestial influence, and the technical art of making predictions with horoscopes, symbolic maps of the heavens at particular moments and places constructed from astronomical information. The scientific foundations of the art were developed in ancient Greece, largely lost in early medieval Europe and recovered by the Latin West from Arabic sources in the 12th and 13th centuries. Late medieval astrological images were successfully Christianized and were adapted to particular contexts, acquired local meanings and changed over time....

Article

Gordon Campbell

Italian intarsia designer, civil engineer, architect and engraver, was a native of Siena. From 1483 to 1502 he worked in Siena Cathedral, providing carving and intarsia for the choir-stalls in the chapel of San Giovanni (1483–1502; seven panels survive in La Collegiata in San Quirico d’Orcia and one in the Kunstgewerbemuseum in Vienna) and building the benches for the Piccolomini library (...

Article

Italian stuccoist, sculptor, painter and costume designer, active in France and England. He worked in France as a painter (1515–22), probably under Jean Perréal and Jean Bourdichon, then in Mantua, possibly under Giulio Romano, possibly calling himself ‘da Milano’. By 1532 he was at ...

Article

Darius Sikorski

Italian stuccoist and sculptor. He enjoyed extensive patronage from the court of Guidobaldo II della Rovere, Duke of Urbino, for whom he modelled fireplaces and entire ceilings representing allegories of princely prerogative and aristocratic supremacy. This practice, unusual in Italy (where stucco was generally a decorative adjunct to fresco), may be partly explained by the fact that Guidobaldo did not retain a permanent court painter....

Article

Gordon Campbell

Swiss clockmaker, instrument maker and mathematician, who served in Kassel from 1579 to 1592 as maker of clocks, mechanical globes and astronomical instruments to William IV, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel. On the Landgrave’s death in 1592, Bürgi moved to Prague to take up a similar post in the service of Rudolf II, where he was regarded as the leading clockmaker of his day. Bürgi’s technical innovations included a device which directed a constant driving force to the escapement; he was one of the first horologists to fit his clocks with sweep hands to measure seconds....

Article

Gordon Campbell

In ancient Greek art, a sculpture of a young woman carrying a basket on her head. The motif was subsequently adopted in architectural decoration (sometimes with a young man instead of a woman) and in furniture from the Renaissance and later periods.

Article

Gordon Campbell

Italian painter, active in England. He is named as ‘Alex of myllen’ and thereafter described as a ‘myllyner’, so it seems likely that he came from Milan; the persistent notion that he was a woman has been discredited by a record of tiles ‘by him delivered’. From ...

Article

Cassone  

Ellen Callmann and J. W. Taylor

Term used for large, lavishly decorated chests made in Italy from the 14th century to the end of the 16th. The word is an anachronism, taken from Vasari (2/1568, ed. G. Milanesi, 1878–85, ii, p. 148), the 15th-century term being forziero. Wealthy households needed many chests, but the ornate ...

Article

Kathryn A. Charles

Italian sculptor and stuccoist. Noted for his decorative work, trophies, masks and stucco ornaments, he was trained in the style of Michelangelo by Andrea Ferrucci in Florence. His first independent commission, the tomb of Raffaelle Maffei (il Volterrano) in S Lino at Volterra (...