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Article

Suzanne Tise

Descriptive term applied to a style of decorative arts that was widely disseminated in Europe and the USA during the 1920s and 1930s. Derived from the style made popular by the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes held in Paris in 1925, the term has been used only since the late 1960s, when there was a revival of interest in the decorative arts of the early 20th century. Since then the term ‘Art Deco’ has been applied to a wide variety of works produced during the inter-war years, and even to those of the German Bauhaus. But Art Deco was essentially of French origin, and the term should, therefore, be applied only to French works and those from countries directly influenced by France....

Article

Michèle Lavallée

Decorative style of the late 19th century and the early 20th that flourished principally in Europe and the USA. Although it influenced painting and sculpture, its chief manifestations were in architecture and the decorative and graphic arts, the aspects on which this survey concentrates. It is characterized by sinuous, asymmetrical lines based on organic forms; in a broader sense it encompasses the geometrical and more abstract patterns and rhythms that were evolved as part of the general reaction to 19th-century historicism. There are wide variations in the style according to where it appeared and the materials that were employed....

Article

Alan Crawford

Informal movement in architecture and the decorative arts that championed the unity of the arts, the experience of the individual craftsman, and the qualities of materials and construction in the work itself.

The Arts and Crafts Movement developed in the second half of the 19th century and lasted well into the 20th, drawing its support from progressive artists, architects and designers, philanthropists, amateurs, and middle-class women seeking work in the home. They set up small workshops apart from the world of industry, revived old techniques, and revered the humble household objects of pre-industrial times. The movement was strongest in the industrializing countries of northern Europe and in the USA, and it can best be understood as an unfocused reaction against industrialization. Although quixotic in its anti-industrialism, it was not unique; indeed it was only one among several late 19th-century reform movements, such as the Garden City movement, vegetarianism, and folksong revivals, that set the Romantic values of nature and folk culture against the artificiality of modern life....

Article

Gordon Campbell

English pottery established in 1883 by Henry Tooth and William Ault; its formal name was H. Tooth & Co. Ltd. Tooth had recently left Linthorpe Art Pottery, where he had worked with Christopher Dresser, who continued to contribute designs to the Bretby pottery. The pottery was initially housed in Church Gresley, Derbys, but with a year it had moved to Woodville, Derbys, where it was to remain until it closed in ...

Article

J. V. G. Mallet

English ceramic factory. The date of the foundation of the factory, situated in the London village of that name, is uncertain. It is likely that a French jeweller, Charles Gouyn (d 1785), founded the factory jointly with Nicholas Sprimont and that they obtained technical help from a German chemist, whose name is given, perhaps unreliably, as ‘d’Ostermann’. Around ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Modern pottery term for a type of 18th-century German porcelain group consisting of a woman in a hooped skirt accompanied by a well-dressed man and one or two servants; the genre was designed by Johann Joachim Kändler at Meissen in 1737 and was soon imitated by other German manufacturers....

Article

Georg Germann, Melissa Ragain and Pippa Shirley

Term applied to a style of architecture and the decorative arts inspired by the Gothic architecture of medieval Europe. It has been particularly widely applied to churches but has also been used to describe castellated mansions, collegiate buildings, and houses. The Gothic Revival has also been described by many scholars as a movement, rather than style, for in the mid-19th century it was associated with and propagated by religious and political faith. From a hesitant start in the mid-18th century in England and Scotland, in the 19th century it became one of the principal styles of building throughout the world and continued in some huge projects until well into the 20th century (e.g. ...

Article

Phylis Floyd

French term used to describe a range of European borrowings from Japanese art. It was coined in 1872 by the French critic, collector and printmaker Philippe Burty ‘to designate a new field of study—artistic, historic and ethnographic’, encompassing decorative objects with Japanese designs (similar to 18th-century ...

Article

Gordon Campbell and Rosamond Allwood

English pottery near Middlesbrough, Cleveland, established in 1879 with Christopher Dresser as the first artistic director and Henry Tooth as the first manager. The pottery mass-produced vases and tableware to Dresser's designs (see fig.), which were influenced by Asian and Pre-Columbian pottery. Dresser and Tooth left in ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Dark-blue colour associated with textiles (e.g. academic dress) and ceramics. In porcelain, it denotes an enamel ground colour used at Chelsea Porcelain Factory and Derby in imitation of the gros bleu of Sèvres Porcelain Factory and Vincennes Porcelain Factory. The word ‘Mazarin’ seems to refer vaguely to France rather than specifically to the cardinal....