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Elizabeth Struthers Malbon

Early Christian carved stone Sarcophagus (Rome, Vatican, Mus. Stor. A. Tesoro S Pietro) of Roman city prefect Junius Bassus who, according to an inscription on the sarcophagus, was ‘neofitus’ (newly baptized) at his death in 359. It was originally placed near the tomb of St Peter and discovered in ...

Article

Sivas  

Rahmi Hüseyin Ünal

City in central Anatolia (Turkey). Following the defeat of the Byzantines by the Saljuqs of Rum at Manzikert in 1071, the Byzantine city of Sebastea became the capital of a Danishmend Turkoman principality in northern Cappadocia and Pontus. Now known as Sivas, it was absorbed by the Saljuqs in the 12th century and by the Ilkhanids of Iran in the 13th. Sivas was the capital of the Uighur chief Eretna from ...

Article

Skripou  

Village in Boiotia, central Greece, near Lake Kopais, now incorporated in the modern town of Orchomenos. It is the site of the Byzantine church of the Dormition (Koimisis Theotokou; ad 873/4). An inscription attributes construction to the protospatharios Leo, a senior official in the theme of Hellas. It is part of a monastery built on the ruins of a shrine dedicated to the Charites, or Graces, and is similar in style to Hagia Sophia at ...

Article

Greek archaeologist and art historian. Although he originally studied theology, Soteriou devoted his life to Early Christian and Byzantine archaeology, which he studied at the universities of Leipzig, Berlin and Vienna from 1909. He was appointed Inspector General of Byzantine Antiquities at Athens in 1915...

Article

Susan Young

Byzantine monastery c. 8 km north-east of Paphos in Cyprus. In 1159 the founding hermit Neophytos (b 1134), originally from the island, transformed a natural cave into his retreat, and by c. 1200 a community had grown up around the site. Much of the original coenobitic complex, the Enkleistra, including Neophytos’ cell, a tomb chamber, a chapel and a sanctuary dedicated to the Holy Cross, has survived, together with the decoration. Neophytos’ revised ...

Article

Bench reserved for the clergy in an Early Christian or Byzantine church.

Article

Patsy Vanags

Site of a Roman temple incorporated into an Early Christian or early medieval church, c. 15 km north of Spoleto, Italy. The River Clitumnus, with its numerous springs, was sacred in Roman times, and there were many shrines along its course. Spolia from these may have been used in the existing structure. It has some traits in common with Roman temples, most notably its four-columned façade with a pediment above. The framing of the columns with two apparently contemporary square section columns is uncommon, but other aspects of its design mark it out as an Early Christian building (4th or 5th century ...

Article

Margaret Graves

Capital city and principal seaport on the North African coast of Libya. Founded in the 7th century bce by the Phoenicians, the site was occupied successively by the Carthaginians, Romans, Vandals and Byzantines before being conquered by the Arabs in the 7th century. After many centuries of complex governance passing between various dynasties, Tripoli became almost independent for much of the 15th century. Taken briefly by the Spanish in the 16th century, the city was then occupied by the Ottomans in ...

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Monique Riccardi-Cubitt

French term used to describe artefacts made in Turkey, or in France by Turkish craftsmen, and by derivation the influence on French design of elements from the Byzantine Empire, the Saljuq Islamic period and the Ottoman Empire. Specific motifs, borrowed from the original Turkish carpets, included arabesques or stylized flowers and vegetal scrolls and decorative animal forms—also included within the generic term ‘grotesques’—from the Renaissance onwards. From the Middle Ages inventories and accounts record objects ...

Article

Lucy Der Manuelian and Armen Zarian

Ruins of an Early Christian basilica dating from the 5th century ad to the early 6th, near the village of Ani-Pemza, Armenia, south-east of the border with Turkey and c. 10 km south of Ani. An Armenian inscription (probably 7th century) on the north wall of the apse identifies the church as the martyrium of the Forerunner (Karapet). A Greek inscription (6th–7th centuries) and several others in Armenian (...