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Stone slab set at the top of a grave, often inscribed with the name and dates of the deceased and carved with funerary imagery.

Article

Icon  

Richard Temple

Wooden panel with a painting, usually in tempera, of a holy person or one of the traditional images of Orthodox Christianity (see fig.), the religion of the Byzantine empire practised today mainly in Greece and Russia (see Early Christian and Byzantine art, §VI...

Article

Oxana Cleminson

Decorative metalwork cover for a Christian icon. The icon cover developed from the ornamental metal plates and silver embossed icons known to have decorated Early Christian altar screens (see Screen, §2). Its appearance and form resulted from a new understanding of the icon and its place in the Orthodox liturgy (...

Article

Icon-covered screen wall of a Byzantine or Eastern Orthodox church, separating the nave from the chancel; for the equivalent in the Western Church see Rood and Screen.

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Jubé  

French term for a rood screen (see Screen, §3). It derives from the Latin phrase Jube domine benedicere (‘Let us bless the Lord’), which is often spoken by Catholic priests before the lesson while standing in front of the screen.

J. Mallion: ‘Le Jubé de la cathédrale de Chartres’, ...

Article

Shalom Sabar

Type of document, sometimes decorated or illustrated, recording financial and other details of the Jewish marriage contract. It was instituted by the authors of the Talmud (the Jewish legal code) in order to protect the status and property of the wife in case of divorce, which the husband could initiate at will, or the husband’s death. The document is traditionally written in Aramaic, the common Jewish language in Palestine and Babylonia during the Talmudic era (1st–6th centuries ...

Article

Small shrine in an ancient Roman house, dedicated to the household gods.

Article

Lavra  

Group of monks’ cells arranged around a central space that contains a church and sometimes a refectory.

Article

Katrin Kogman-Appel

Illuminated Hebrew Machzor (Leipzig, Ubib., MS. Voller 1002/I–II)—prayer book for holy days—made c. 1310–20. Its two volumes contain the optional liturgical poems commonly recited according to the Ashkenazi rites. The text reflects the specific prayer rite of Worms and, even though this assumption cannot be confirmed by a colophon, it must have served this particular community up to the early 17th century when it was transferred to Poland....

Article

Zachary D. Stewart

Architectural form rarely followed liturgical function in a prescriptive manner during the Middle Ages. Indeed, since the physical demands of liturgical performance were slight, churches of widely divergent size and arrangement often accommodated similar rites. But architecture and liturgy were by no means unrelated phenomena. On the contrary, they shared a single essential purpose, namely the sanctification of space and time. As a result, these two means of ritual signification frequently animated and activated one another, transforming religious buildings into powerful vehicles for sensual and spiritual experience....