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Anne-Mette Gravgaard, Nano Chatzidakis and Olga Etinhof

Term used to describe the art of Orthodox Christianity that developed after the fall of Constantinople (now Istanbul) in 1453 and the dissolution of the Byzantine empire.

Anne-Mette Gravgaard

The Orthodox world post-1453 can be divided into three main spheres: the Athonite sphere, consisting of Orthodox territories under Turkish rule; the Venetian sphere, consisting of Venice’s possessions in the eastern Mediterranean; and the peripheral sphere, consisting primarily of Russia, Bulgaria, Serbia, Moldavia (partly Moldova, partly Romania), Wallachia (now in Romania) and Georgia....

Article

Room, chapel or apse north of the sanctuary in a Byzantine or Greek Orthodox church, used for the storage and preparation of the Eucharist before Mass (for illustration see Parekklesion).

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Psalter  

Lucy Freeman Sandler

Book containing the 150 psalms of the Old Testament. This article is concerned with manuscript Psalters used in the Western Church; for those used in the Orthodox Church see Early Christian and Byzantine art, §V, 2. The Psalter is usually divided into sections to be recited daily at Matins and Sunday Vespers and hence is a liturgical book used by the clergy in the Divine Office (forming the basis for the ...

Article

Robert G. Calkins

Manuscript written on purple-dyed parchment. Almost always combined with the use of gold or silver script (see Chrysography), such books were particularly prevalent in the Byzantine East in the 5th and 6th centuries ad and in the West from the 8th to the 11th centuries in Carolingian, Ottonian and (rarely) Insular works. The use of ...

Article

J.-P. Sodini

Early Christian pilgrimage centre built in the 5th century ad, 30 km north-west of Aleppo, northern Syria. This architectural complex, situated on a hilltop in the Jabal Sim‛an, and dedicated to St Simeon the Stylite, ranked with St John at Ephesos and Abu Mina in Egypt among the major centres of pilgrimage in the eastern Mediterranean outside the Holy Land. It was built around the column (originally 16–18 m high) on which St Simeon (...

Article

Simon P. Ellis

Byzantine building complex (ad 561–4) in the Syrian desert c. 70 km east of Apameia (now Qal’at el-Mudiq). It consists of a ‘palace’ (c. 50 sq. m), an adjacent church (17×13 m) and, 100 m to the south, another square building (...

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Atrium or forecourt of an Early Christian and Byzantine church, fronted on each of its four sides by a colonnaded portico.

Article

Jaynie Anderson

German art historian, collector and dealer. The son of a Lutheran clergyman, he first studied theology at Leipzig but while travelling in Italy in 1869 became interested in early Christian archaeology, in which field he determined to continue. His first publications were on the sources of Byzantine art history and the mosaics of Ravenna. In ...

Article

Sarah Morgan

Type of structure, usually associated with the Early Christian and Eastern Churches, that is found where volcanic rock is soft enough to carve or where natural caves occur. This includes parts of southern Italy (e.g. Basilicata and Apulia), Greece (e.g. Meteora), Turkey (e.g. Cappadocia; ...

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Style of architecture used chiefly in western Europe and North America from the 1820s until the end of the 19th century. In Europe it was related to the Rundbogenstil and the Byzantine Revival, and in England it was an extension of the Norman Revival. It derived ultimately from Romanesque church architecture of the 11th and 12th centuries. Its principal characteristics were the semicircular arch and the barrel or groin vault. In Bavaria, for example, ...

Article

John Lowden

Byzantine illuminated manuscript, attributed to the 6th century ad. It is considered to be the earliest surviving illustrated New Testament, probably antedating the Syriac Rabbula Gospels of ad 586 by a generation or two. The manuscript (Rossano, Mus. Dioc.), which is now incomplete, consists of a prefatory cycle of illustrations and the texts of Matthew and almost all of Mark. It is probably the surviving first volume of a large, two-volume Gospel Book (...

Article

Rusafa  

Thilo Ulbert

Site of an ancient city in northern Syria c. 200 km east of Aleppo and 30 km south of the River Euphrates, with both Byzantine and Islamic remains. Although it was known from earlier travellers’ reports, full descriptions of the monuments were not published until the early ...

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Leslie Ross

Writings, often of a legendary nature, intended to honour the saints. These have inspired copious literary and artistic productions since the Early Christian period, when churches, shrines and martyria dedicated to saints became popular sites of pilgrimage. Although little evidence survives for the decoration of these monuments, it is clear that early picture cycles existed, depicting the honoured saints and/or episodes from their lives: ...

Article

Felipe Fernández-Armesto and S. Moralejo

Spanish city, the former seat of government of the autonomous community of Galicia, with a population of c. 82,000. It owes its artistic importance to an early Christian tomb discovered in the early 9th century and traditionally identified as that of St James the Greater, the presumed apostle of Spain. By the early 10th century it was the goal of international ...

Article

Elizabeth Struthers Malbon

Early Christian carved stone Sarcophagus (Rome, Vatican, Mus. Stor. A. Tesoro S Pietro) of Roman city prefect Junius Bassus who, according to an inscription on the sarcophagus, was ‘neofitus’ (newly baptized) at his death in 359. It was originally placed near the tomb of St Peter and discovered in ...

Article

Sivas  

Rahmi Hüseyin Ünal

City in central Anatolia (Turkey). Following the defeat of the Byzantines by the Saljuqs of Rum at Manzikert in 1071, the Byzantine city of Sebastea became the capital of a Danishmend Turkoman principality in northern Cappadocia and Pontus. Now known as Sivas, it was absorbed by the Saljuqs in the 12th century and by the Ilkhanids of Iran in the 13th. Sivas was the capital of the Uighur chief Eretna from ...

Article

Skripou  

Village in Boiotia, central Greece, near Lake Kopais, now incorporated in the modern town of Orchomenos. It is the site of the Byzantine church of the Dormition (Koimisis Theotokou; ad 873/4). An inscription attributes construction to the protospatharios Leo, a senior official in the theme of Hellas. It is part of a monastery built on the ruins of a shrine dedicated to the Charites, or Graces, and is similar in style to Hagia Sophia at ...

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Greek archaeologist and art historian. Although he originally studied theology, Soteriou devoted his life to Early Christian and Byzantine archaeology, which he studied at the universities of Leipzig, Berlin and Vienna from 1909. He was appointed Inspector General of Byzantine Antiquities at Athens in 1915...

Article

Susan Young

Byzantine monastery c. 8 km north-east of Paphos in Cyprus. In 1159 the founding hermit Neophytos (b 1134), originally from the island, transformed a natural cave into his retreat, and by c. 1200 a community had grown up around the site. Much of the original coenobitic complex, the Enkleistra, including Neophytos’ cell, a tomb chamber, a chapel and a sanctuary dedicated to the Holy Cross, has survived, together with the decoration. Neophytos’ revised ...

Article

William M. Voelkle

Portable altar–reliquary (New York, Morgan Lib.), made c. 1156 for the Stavelot Abbey in the Ardennes, Belgium and decorated with both Mosan and Byzantine enamels (see fig.). The reliquary is named after the Benedictine abbey headed by Wibald of Stavelot, its enlightened abbot from ...