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Stuart Evans

English group of painters, designers and craftsmen, active between c. 1883 and 1892. It was one of the earliest Arts and Crafts groups and initiated the practice of attributing designs to individual craftsmen, which became a firm principle of the Arts and Crafts Movement. Its platform was the ‘unity of the arts’, and its aim was ‘to render all branches of art the sphere, no longer of the businessman, but of the artist’. Although output was limited and sporadic, the group had considerable influence by exhibiting its products and publishing a quarterly magazine, the ...

Article

Lesley Stevenson

French painter, designer and teacher. He studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Lyon and adopted the name ‘Dussurgey’ at his first Salon there in 1839. When he exhibited at the Paris Salon in 1842–4 he called himself ‘Adrien Dussurgey’, but it was only in ...

Article

Sarah Scaturro

British fashion designer born in Turkish Cyprus. Chalayan won the British Fashion Award for Designer of the Year in 1999 and 2000. He is best known for his cerebral designs that reference architecture, geopolitics and technology, as well as exploring the theme of transformation.

Chalayan was educated in Cyprus before moving to London to attend Central St Martins College of Art and Design, where he graduated with honours in ...

Article

Chancay  

Jane Feltham

Pre-Columbian culture of South America. It centred on the Chancay Valley of the central Peruvian coast, ranging north and south to the Fortaleza and Lurín valleys, and is known for its distinctive pottery and textile styles. Chancay culture flourished between c. ad 1100 and 1470...

Article

Lourdes Font

French fashion designer (see fig.). Chanel was one of the most influential fashion designers of the 20th century. Of the modernists who dominated the inter-war period, only Chanel was still active through the 1960s. She began her career as a milliner c. 1909...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Velvety cord, having short threads or fibres of silk and wool standing out at right angles from a central core of cotton thread or wire. Chenille is used in trimming and bordering dresses and furniture. The term also denotes a type of embroidery needle.

C. Anderson-Shea...

Article

Gordon Campbell

German designer. After an early career as an interior designer he turned to the design of tapestries (subsequently woven at the Scherbeker Kunstgewerbeschule), porcelain (table wares), drinking glasses (for the Theresienthaler Kristallglasfabrik) and silver cutlery. After 1914 he worked primarily as a painter and writer....

Article

Denise Carvalho

Brazilian painter, sculptor, interactive artist and art therapist. She was a cofounder in 1959 of the Neo-Concrete movement, whose members laid the foundation for much of Brazilian contemporary art. The Neo-Concretists broke with the rigidity of the rationalism of Concrete art and advocated a more sensorial, interactive art. Lygia Clark and her creative soul-mate, ...

Article

M. B. Whitaker

English fashion designer. Clark revolutionized London fashion for young women during the pivotal transition from the mid-1960s to the mid-1970s, embracing the youth movement of the ‘Swinging Sixties’ and the raucous and reckless spirit of the drug-riddled 1970s. He and his wife, textile designer Celia Birtwell (...

Article

Ann Poulson

The costume of ancient Greece and Rome, as represented in sculpture, frescoes and vase paintings, and often associated with the divinities of mythology, democratic ideals and powerful empires, is fundamental in the history of Western dress. Despite the fact that the Greek system of pure drapery was the polar opposite of the tailored costume that ultimately prevailed after the fall of the Roman Empire, the Greek system has been one of the greatest influences on Western fashion. Twentieth-century fashion designers, for example, have been particularly attracted to its principles and its elegant simplicity. Although not always dominant, classicism has never been completely absent from fashion....

Article

David Blayney Brown

German painter, designer, illustrator and printmaker. He probably studied first in the Low Countries. He was perhaps in Denmark c.1611, but then spent four years in Italy, mainly in Rome and Venice, where he met the English ambassador Sir Henry Wotton. By 1617 he was living in Copenhagen; an inscribed drawing of ...

Article

South Netherlandish painter, sculptor, architect and designer of woodcuts, stained glass and tapestries. Son of the Deputy Mayor of the village of Aelst, he was married twice, first to Anna van Dornicke (d 1529), the daughter of the Antwerp painter Jan Mertens, who may have been his teacher; they had two children, Michel van Coecke and ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Type of English tambour lace made in the Essex village of Cotteswall in the late 19th century; it consisted of bobbin or machine net on which designs were worked in chain stitch.

J. Dudding: Coggeshall Tambour Lace: A Short History (2003)

Article

Dutch decorative artist. He trained as an architect at the firm of L. H. Eberson in Arnhem. From c. 1867 to 1870 he lived in Paris, where he was involved in the preparations for the Exposition Universelle of 1867. After returning to the Netherlands he concentrated increasingly on the applied arts. From ...

Article

Merchant and collector. Cook became a partner in his father’s huge and successful textile manufacturing and wholesaling firm in 1843; on the death of his father in 1869, he became its head. During his professional life he was also one of the principal collectors of antique Greek and Roman sculpture in the Victorian period, acquiring his antiques mostly at auction between ...

Article

Cotton  

Natalie Rothstein

Fibre made from the long, soft hairs (lint) surrounding the seeds of the cotton plant (Gossypium). In the right climate (temperate to hot), cotton is easy to grow; it is also cheap to harvest and easily packed into compact bales for transport and export. Indigenous to ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Embroidery with thread (often of gold) laid flat on the surface and secured by stitching.

Article

Molly Sorkin

French fashion designer. Courrèges is credited with introducing a youthful, unadorned and undeniably modern style to couture in the mid-1960s (see fig.). His radical views on the way women should dress, though considered shocking in some quarters, were enthusiastically adopted by socialites and pop stars alike, including Princess Lee Radziwill and the French singer Françoise Hardy. The Courrèges style helped define a generation of women who were youthful, active and receptive to designs influenced by such seemingly disparate elements as technology, sex, childhood and architecture. Courrèges’s sleek, futuristic designs earned him such nicknames as the Le Corbusier of fashion and the space-age ...

Article

Wouter Th. Kloek and Leonard J. Slatkes

Dutch family of artists. With a striking, personal style that sets him apart from his contemporaries, (1) Dirck Crabeth was the most important Dutch stained-glass artist of the 16th century. His younger brother (2) Wouter Crabeth (i) was a less individual designer, whose work has a pleasant spaciousness, but the rendering of detail is not always satisfactory. The impressive windows (...

Article

Crackle  

Gordon Campbell

Patterns of small cracks produced intentionally as a decorative effect in glazes, particuarly on ceramics; the term ‘crazing’ is sometimes used to denote unintended crackle, but is also used to denote crackle that is deliberate. Crackle first emerged as a decorative feature in the Guan and Ru wares of the Song dynasty. Crackled glazes in Chinese pottery first became fashionable in Europe in 18th-century France, but were not used in European and American pottery and porcelain until the late 19th century; one of the pioneers was ...